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Difference & Analysis Between IS And IT

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Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.

Published: Tue, 02 Jan 2018

Introduction:

Information technology (IT) and management information systems (MIS) are interchangeable terms (Kearns, 1997). They are a set of interrelated computerized components that work together to collect, retrieve, process, store, and distribute information for the purpose facilitating planning, control, coordination, analysis and decision-making in organizations (Laudon &Laudon, 1998). In the foodservice industry IT is commonly used for order processing, marketing, accounting, and site selection of new restaurant units. Whether a small independent or part of a large chain, many restaurants use established point of sale systems and accounting packages to process financial data. The Study is running with fully computerised and IS philosophy based so that the company is controlled in IT infrastructure and IS strategy will be described here for the future benefit of the company. By adopting frameworks necessary in characterising comprehensiveness, focus and formulation, firms may be able to increase rationality, while inducing increased participation and enhanced consistency. Improving the planning cycles of IS and SDLC (System Development Life Cycle) activities have also been proven instrumental in enhancing planning effectiveness. In some cases, such difference manifests itself through policies to save all enterprise information indefinitely, or to delete all data after brief periods of time. Traditional approaches to information management are often designed to mitigate risk; firms respond to regulatory and compliance requirements. Information compliance investments, for example, should be cost-managed, as providing compliance in excess generally adds little value and can be an inhibitor. The information to answer such questions often exists within an organization’s IT systems, and requires minimal effort to answer once the key questions are identified by the senior executive team and business leaders. Answering key questions often requires minimal information and investment. Using an experimental approach similar to statistical sampling can provide the answers to key business questions quickly and dynamically.

Aims And Purpose Of The Study:

Many firms are focusing on using integrated databases and end-user computing which some experts believe threatens the role of the ‘information provider’ in organisations. However, providers of data have contributions to make associated with decision making which are beyond just interpreting or supplying information. Some common decision-making-linked roles include facilitating a common database for group decisions; supplying effort and expertise in gathering information; and providing audit trails of data associated with certain decisions. Firms interested in maximising the contributions of ‘information providers’ are advised to clarify and incorporate providers’ roles into the development of significant information systems within firms

The explosion of data is most apparent in the realm of unstructured data. As businesses strive to automate processes and extend the IT environment to the point of service, an ever increasing amount of data is being retained electronically. Lowering the overall cost of ownership associated with storing and retrieving a growing volume of structured data assets is a challenge, and requires data and content servers that enable innovation while delivering rock-solid reliability. Flexible storage options and the know-how to put it all together round out a solution that helps you leverage information — lots of information.

  • Deploy powerful servers that scale to meet your growing needs.
  • Reduce the time spent searching for information.
  • Escalating information volumes put your infrastructure to the test. Delivering high performance while lowering costs requires.

IBM solutions-simple, flexible and optimized-will help you find the right content and get it to the right people and business processes at the right time, so you can improve efficiencies, increase responsiveness, and gain greater insights into your customers, the market and your business.

  • Leverage and analyze information on demand to optimize all transactions – in the call centre or in the field, when helping customers or when taking orders.
  • Overcome the complex architectural and usability issues associated with traditional data warehouse and business intelligence approaches.
  • Leverage information for competitive advantage and get more value out of your information

Understanding computer hardware

When you talk about computer hardware, you have to talk about the specifications. On a given desktop systems describe the speed and capability of that particular computer. If you are about to buy a computer, you should at least understand enough about each heading below to make an informed comparison between two different machines with different configurations.

CPU – central processing unit

At the core is the processor. Speed is measured in Mhz. One other parameter of the CPU to investigate is the L1 cache, commonly from 256 kilobytes and up.

RAM – random access memory

This determines how many files you can open at once; also ram is a form of computer data storage. So if ram is high computer performance should be better.

Hard disk capacity

Hard disk is measured in MB (megabyte) or GB (gigabyte). With the advent of so many mass-storage devices (zip drive, CD-R, super drive, etc…) and networks where files and applications can be archived, huge disks (many GB) are very handy, but hardly necessary for most users. No matter what size your hard drive, you should keep it clean by weeding out outdated, redundant, and useless information (files and folders).

Cache memory

Check the upgradeability of your cache memory to fine tune your computer. The cache memory is a special type of RAM which the processor uses to store data in while it is working. The level 1 cache (or L1) is physically located on the CPU chip (and hence cannot be upgraded, unless you upgrade the CPU), whereas the level 2 cache (L2) is located on the motherboard, and can be upgraded separately.

Video card/VSA card

The amount of RAM and quality (and number) of microprocessors on the video card determine things like how big a monitor you can use, how large a window you can display video on, and the speed with which large complex graphic images display. Some of the newer video cards have 4 MB, 8 MB or more. Sometimes it is possible to upgrade a video card by adding a graphics accelerator card rather than replacing the video card with another newer version.

Sound card

The MIDI standard is used to convey music from computer to computer, (or keyboard to computer etc…) and most good soundcards will play at least 32 MIDI voices. The other aspect of a soundcard is how well it plays digital sound files (like from a CD). Most of them do this extremely well also. If you are interested in music or sound, you want to investigate the software that comes bundled with your soundcard (or whatever software you have purchased to work with your soundcard). Traditionally, the sound card also has a port on it to plug in your joystick(s) if you play games on the computer.

Removable storage

Choices range from 3.5″ 1.44MB floppy drives, 100MB zip drives, 120MB super drives, 650MB CD-R, and on up to 1.5GB removable hard drive cartridges and higher now. Of course there are thousands of other choices including tape, optical drives, and surely many more available. Remember to price the storage media per Megabyte when buying. I personally like the CD-R idea since more people have CD-ROMs to read the recorded data.

A programmable machine, two principal characteristics of a computer are:

  • It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner.
  • It can execute a pre-recorded list of instructions (a program).

Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery — wires, transistors, and circuits — is called hardware; the instructions and data are called software.

A computer network is a collection of computers and devices connected to each other. The network allows computers to communicate with each other and share resources and information. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) designed “Advanced Research Projects Agency Network” (ARPANET) for the United States Department of Defence. It was the first computer network in the world in late 1960s and early 1970s.

Computers can be generally classified by size and power; as follows, though there is considerable overlap:

Personal computer: A small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor. In addition to the microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for entering data, a monitor for displaying information, and a storage device for saving data.

Workstation: A powerful, single-user computer. A workstation is like a personal computer, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and a higher-quality monitor.

Minicomputer: A multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to hundreds of users simultaneously.

Mainframe: A powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously.

Supercomputer: An extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second.

Computer networking is the engineering discipline concerned with communication between computer systems or devices. A computer network is any set of computers or devices connected to each other with the ability to exchange data.

  • Local area network (LAN), which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area.
  • Wide area network (WAN) that is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area.
  • Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN.

Difference & Analysis Between IS And IT

In a general sense, the term Information System (IS) refers to a system of people, data records and activities that process the data and information in an organization, and it includes the organization’s manual and automated processes. In a narrow sense, the term information system (or computer-based information system) refers to the specific application software that is used to store data records in a computer system and automates some of the information-processing activities of the organization.

Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is “the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware.” IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect process, transmit, and securely retrieve information.

The new information technology (IT) infrastructure: The new IT infrastructure links desktop workstations, network computers, LANs, and server computers in an enterprise network so that information can flow freely between different parts of the organization. The enterprise network may also be linked to kiosks, point-of-sale (POS) terminals, PDAs and information appliances, digital cellular telephones and PCS, and mobile computing devices as well as to the Internet using public infrastructures. Customers, suppliers, and business partners may also be linked to the organization through this new IT infrastructure.

Understand Computer-Aided tools

Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE), in the field of Software Engineering is the scientific application of a set of tools and methods to software which is meant to result in high-quality, defect-free, and maintainable software products. It also refers to methods for the development of information systems together with automated tools that can be used in the software development process.

The term “Computer-aided software engineering” (CASE) can refer to the software used for the automated development of systems software, i.e., computer code. The CASE functions include analysis, design, and programming. CASE tools automate methods for designing, documenting, and producing structured computer code in the desired programming language.

This is the model for an extra net.

IS (information system) design for a mobile phone company:

As I have to design one company’s IS design I choice the phone company. In this IS design everything is shown as far I know. This mobile company will be connected intranet system to every department. We know that intranet system will work with the internal system. With the intranet system every department will be very helpful as if they need any information they can easily get via the computer. Also they need the pc to every department. It is also connected to the internet to communicate. Using the internet they also benefitted to get the information. They need to build up a website where they can put all the information. So customer relationship will be build via the internet. Also customer can know the product and offer via internet.

1

a) What information would you require to make such decisions?

Strategic planning deals with the determination of the objectives, resources, and policies of the organization. In this case, management has their planning and control of their restaurant business. The system provides up-to-the-minute information on the food items ordered and breaks out percentages showing sales of each item versus total sales. This helps management plan menus according to customers’ tastes. The system also compares the weekly sales totals versus food costs, allowing planning for tighter cost controls.

Managerial Control is one of the managerial functions like planning, organizing, staffing and directing. It is an important function because it helps to check the errors and to take the corrective action so that deviation from standards are minimized and stated goals of the organization are achieved in desired manner.

Control in management means setting standards, measuring actual performance and taking corrective action. Thus, control comprises these three main activities.

In this case, this system helps management plan menus according to customers’ tastes. The system also compares the weekly sales totals versus food costs, allowing planning for tighter cost controls. In addition, whenever an order is voided, the reasons for the void are keyed in. This may help later in management decisions, especially if the voids consistently related to food or service.

Operational control serves to regulate the day-to-day output relative to schedules, specifications, and costs.

The most difficult task of management concerns monitoring the behaviour of individuals, comparing performance to some standard and providing rewards or punishment as indicated. Sometimes this control over people relates entirely to their output. For example, a manager might not be concerned with the behaviour of a salesman as long as sales were as high as expected. In other instances, close supervision of the salesman might be appropriate if achieving customer satisfaction were one of the sales organization’s main objectives.

In this case study, acceptance of the system by the users is exceptionally high since the waiters and waitresses were involved in the selection and design process. All potential users were asked to give their impressions and ideas about the various systems available before one was chosen. This is their Operational control part.

After studying this case I find that up-to-the-minute information on the food items ordered and breaks out percentages showing sales of each item versus total sales. Whenever an order is voided, the reasons for the void are keyed in. This may help later in management decisions, especially if the voids consistently related to food or service. And all potential users were asked to give their impressions and ideas about the various systems available before one was chosen.

b) What would make the system a more complete MIS rather than just doing transaction process?

This business can be more MIS if management provide and use more information related to the business. This system helps management to taka decision. Its ‘out of stoke’ process shows that which items is doing more business and which is doing less. Then they can decide which product they need to emphasize more. End of month they can analyse the data of four week.

Other features such as order void system check listing, item sales, total sales, customer opinions etc. can make this system more complete MIS rather than transaction process.

c) Explain the probable effects that making the system more formal would have on the customers and the management

A waiter takes an order at a table, and then enters it online via one of the six terminals located in the restaurant dining room. The order is routed to a printer in the appropriate preparation area: the cold item printer if it is a salad, the hot-item printer if it is a hot sandwich or the bar printer if it is a drink. A customer’s meal check-listing (bill) the items ordered and the respective prices are automatically generated.

When the kitchen runs out of a food item, the cooks send out an ‘out of stock’ message, whenever an order is voided, the reasons for the void are keyed in. This may help later in management decisions, especially if the voids consistently related to food or service.

All potential users were asked to give their impression and ideas about the various systems available before one was chosen

Above mentioned functions make this system more formal on customer and the management.

2

a) What security loopholes come to the fore in the situation described? How can these be plugged?

If we plunged in to this case we find that while assessing hardware and software requirements, it was found that out of the 364 desktops at the corporate office; more than half did not have their antivirus software updated with recent virus signature files. Three – fourths had not changed the default e-mail password (it was the user name) and no one had installed OS patches. And one of its local mail servers seemed to be an open relay! For a fleeting moment, system manager of SystemX wondered about the situation at the seven branch offices across the country.

SystemX used the Net extensively in dealing with its branches, customers and suppliers. Information like contract documents, marketing plans, Cheque and Draft numbers, bank account details and collection details were regularly transmitted by e-mail. These loopholes come into our mind.

These loopholes can be plugged, if they update their antivirus which is virus signature files free. Because they use e-mail, and Net extensively so they need strong security measure in order to secure their system.

b) What is the importance of a “security budget” in the context of the given situation?

Security budget is one of the important parts of every business. In this context “Security Budget” is very important. They need to provide security to their system. If manager recommends for appointing a new security consultant then it may not be granted because of budget. Any how they need to provider security.

3

a) What systems propose that would serve the company’s need?

The multibase company limited has so many manufacturing products. It is very difficult to control the whole company’s activities. On the other hand now it is the age of information technology so we should use this technology to everywhere. I propose that we can use the CBIS means computer base information system.

b) Complete overhaul of the systems or add functionalities of the existing systems? Justify the line of action.

This company has a CBIS which are prepared the performance of every unit though weekly and monthly reports. With this reports headquarters always analyze and make the decision such as capacity expansion, procurement of new technology involving substantial investment, etc. This helps the companies planning and control.

c) Justify the requirement of chief information officer (CIO) in the context given case let.

The cio of the company has thus propose to develop suitable computer base systems which might be helpful in understanding the current status of various manufacturing units in terms of their overall performance, the type of environment constraints that operate in the three business that exist for enhancing capacity in these business areas.

4

a) Is that digital systems are unreliable and carries enormous risks?

Yes. It is. No digital system can be guaranteed to be _PERFECT_ and hence may have any type of problems. This is actually because human beings are not perfect in their design and work.

b) Explain three situations to minimize damages due to failure of digital system.

For case 1: There should be transaction logging mechanism so that it can roll back upon administrator’s command. A manual book-keeping can be used too for all types of transactions so that in case of failure it can be used.

For case 2: There should be manual communications used when digital systems delay for some reason.

For case 3: Enough communications with service users should take place before upgrade policy. In all communication channels there should be advertisements and assumed timeline for the probable disaster.

Decision Support Systems welcomes contributions on the concepts and operational basis for DSSs, techniques for implementing and evaluating DSSs, DSS experiences, and related studies. In treating DSS topics, manuscripts may delve into, draw-on, or expand such diverse areas as artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer supported cooperative work, data base management, decision theory, economics, linguistics, management science, mathematical modelling, operations management psychology, user interface management systems, and others. The common thread of articles published in the journal will be their relevance to theoretical, technical DSS issues.

Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) are a class of electronic meeting systems, a collaboration technology designed to support meetings and group work. GDSS are distinct from computer supported cooperative work technologies as GDSS are more focused on task support, whereas CSCW tools provide general communication support.

Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) were referred to as a Group Support System (GSS) or an electronic meeting system since they shared similar foundations. However today’s GDSS is characterized by being adapted for a group of people who collaborate to support integrated systems thinking for complex decision making. Participants use a common computer or network to enable collaboration.

Who is the typical user of the system currently?

For the organization manager mainly takes the decision. Suppose to open a new account there should be some criteria (credit score). It is also used in agriculture section. Dss is well-established tradition within agriculture. Holsapple takes a different view. “Decision-support systems are so pervasive in their use that people don’t even think of them as DSS,” he says. He points to the spreadsheet as one of the most common ones used in business today. And, he says, most executives use corporate planning tools with DSS capabilities in them.

Graphical User Interface Design Process For The Decision

Support System

In general, the GUI design process can be split into twelve steps (Galitz, 1997):

1. Know your user

2. Understand the ‘business function

3. Use good screen design

4. Select the proper types of windows

5. Develop the system menus

6. Select the proper device-based controls

7. Choose the proper screen-based controls

8. Organize and layout the windows

9. Choose the proper screen colours

10. Create meaningful icons

11. Provide meaningful messages

12. Test, test, and retest

Following the design process, a questionnaire was prepared to better understand the ‘typical’

environmental professional who would be using the GUI. Questions were divided into several

Categories: computer hardware and software literacy, user profile, and talk analysis. Some of the questions, although basic in nature, were required to ascertain the type of computer operating system to design for and the types of support system that would be incorporated in the design.

I am not using any dss system for my academic career yet. But it will be very helpful to use in my future career.

Questions no

Questions

Answers

1

Employee name:

Employer name:

Work place address:

Work telephone no:

Job title:

No of years on current job:

Years of computer experience:

Md. Ayub Ali

Saleh Z Rahman

12th floor, national scout bhobon, kakrail,Dhaka-1000.

0088029335395

Chief software architect and developer.

Five months

10 yrs

2

What kind of computer system do you use?

Apple MacBook Laptop, Mac OSX Leopard, programming software (compiler (gcc) and other Unix system administration tools), printer, Scanner, Mobile phone (for Internet through it), Apple Time Capsule (for backup), etc.

3

What kind of training have you received in order to use computer system effectively?

Do you find the IT technical staff in your firm to be helpful and easy to work with?

I have received B.Sc. in computer science and Engineering from a reputed university. I am self learner for using computer systems effectively. Our IT Technical Staff are helpful.

4

What business processes are supported by the IT systems in your workplace?

Structured model of software development.

5

How does management use the IT system to support their activities?

Management use intranet and internet to support their activities.

6

Is your system part of a network?

Who is the network administrator?

How often do you interact with the administrator?

What kinds of issues do you discuss with the administrator?

Yes, my system is part of a network. We have more than one network in our office. I am network administrator. There is different system administrator. I don’t interact with system administrator that much. Very rare case I need him solve problems. Mainly we discuss about Internet connectivity issues with system administrator.

7

Are your computer systems connected to your customers, suppliers or partners?

Describe how the system is used to connect to these entities.

Our workstations are not connected to customers. But our servers are connected to mobile operators for providing services to customers. The servers are connected to operators via the Metronet network who provides connectivity with all major mobile companies and content/service providers.

8

As your career has progressed, what changes in IT have you noticed and how have these changes in IT contributed to your performance?

Every time IT is changing as the new technology comes. So there need to be trained for the new technology.

9

Has using the computer system at work influenced your life outside of work?

What way?

Yes, my work has influenced my life outside of work. I have learnt how the telecommunication systems work and how services are provided to customers. Also I learnt how the communication between operator and service providers are established.

10

What advice would you give to a new employee about the IT supported workplace?

The new employee should have eagerness to learn the underlying system well to provide good service to customers. Also he should be hard working and should be habituated to self-learning.

11

Which service provider do you use for internet?

Grameen.

12

What is internet rate of communication speed?

10-20 kbps.

13

Which search engine do you use?

Google.

14

Do you like to use internet for online business transaction?

Yes. But security issue is main problem here.

15

Do you think internet is essential for daily life or not?

Yes. Everyday life internet is very essential. I can communicate via email trough the world.

The assignment is divided into four parts. All the four parts is done in here. I have done this assignment by using the books, lectures and from websites.


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