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Implementation on IoT based Indoor Pollution Monitoring System

4268 words (17 pages) Essay in Information Systems

18/05/20 Information Systems Reference this

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Summary

In this project, the implementation has been made on the IoT based Indoor Pollution Monitoring system. The application has been made using Arduino microcontroller implementation has been made in this project. The implementation plan and the diagrams as well as plan of implementation has been described in this report. The parts and process used for the implementation has also been described. The paper has been able to describe about how the microcontroller is able to work on the measurement of the pollution levels in an indoor setting, where there are senses to work on the display of the same on the LCD. For this, the software has been used which works on the development mainly through the Arduino microcontroller, which is for handling the specific data from the sensors MQ-2 and MQ-7 respectively. The project has been able to handle the conversions of combustible and non-combustible gases (namely CO and CO2, methane, propane, liquid petroleum etc) as well. The release of this noxious gas can cause problems with the lower concentrations only. There is a need to specifically handle the extensive safety procedures that direct to encountering the ODP depending upon the carbonate-rich sediments. The Hydrogen Sulphide High-Gas (CO and CO2) drilling contingency plan works over the extreme safety procedures that work to improve and handle the suspect in the entire operating area.

Contents

Summary

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Details

Discussion

System Initial Design

Technical Requirements

Hardware components and their description

Brief details of microcontroller used

CONCLUSIONS

References

INTRODUCTION

The report is about how the pollution could be monitored and controlled in the industry environment. For this, the sensors are used for different measurements, mainly of the pollution. There is gas (CO and CO2) sensors which can convert the gas into the voltage output that has been set. For this, there is an IC MQ-2 and MQ-7 which is used as the sensor to describe how it is easy to evaluate the pollution measurements with the display of the system which is based on the MQ-2 and MQ-7 sensor and the microcontroller ARDUINO UNO.

Background of the Study

The purpose of this project is to monitor Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in an enclosed space. Since, in a workplace employee consume Oxygen (O2) and exhale Carbon dioxide (CO2) this could affect their health adversely. This affect is referred to as Sick Building Syndrome. Each year businesses have to bear some pretty heavy losses due to it.

The study is mainly about how the work environment can remain sustainable to the changes due to pollutants namely, CO and CO2 in the workplace. The monitoring of the system that includes the continuous monitoring of the gas (CO and CO2) with the second update interval. (Tanner, 2017). In this project, we made an IoT based air quality monitoring system which monitors harmful gasses like Carbon based gases that are harmful for human beings working in an enclosed work environment. Since, this project is IoT based, measurements can be taken anywhere by using your mobile device or a computer.

Block Diagram

The project aims to focus on the data visualization where the information could easily be abstracted in the form of the standard schematic information. The major focus has been on communication as well as handling the users to analyses the information as well as the data with proper evidence. (Bimbar, 2017) It includes the increased amount of data which has been created under the Internet activity with the expansion of the sensors in the environment.

The work is based on the availability of the data as well as the data sources which will be able to evaluate the system processes properly. The data visualization will be done in processing where the major goal is to communicate the information effectively mainly to the users. (Tsai et al., 2016). This will help in also conveying all the important ideas as well as bring a change in the analytical approach. The standards are based on the graphical display with the showing of the data, inducing the viewer to check about the graphical designing as well as the production. The larger data sets are coherent to work on different pieces of the data that will help in the broad overview of the structure. There will be a proper subscription based on the availability as well as the other criminal actions that are taking place. (Avtonomov et al., 2016).

The susceptible or the recovered model includes the interaction where the timeline could be set for the scrubbing with the auto play options as well. There is a possibility to work on the relationships between the members as well as working on the competition.

The data visualisation is based on the forms of the correlation, which is mainly set to determine the variables along with the difference set in the line length, shape or the orientation process. The identification is based on the effective graphics where the pre-attentive processing will relate to the relative development of the strength. The human perception, cognition and data visualization help in easy attainment of detecting changes.

The objective of the report is to focus on:

  1. the measurement of the pollution
  2. the digital display that has been set for the gas (CO and CO2)
  3. the use of the different measures of gas (CO and CO2) through microcontroller
  4. the microcontroller can handle the Digital Gas (CO and CO2) value on LCD.

Details

The limitations are measured in how the gas (CO and CO2) is measured through the gas (CO and CO2) sensors. It is important to analyze the production of the analogue output voltage, which is set for the different techniques and to handle the interfacing to the system. There are microcontrollers that are for the industrial applications along with using the assembly language of the target microcontroller. (Bannatyne, 2017) The paper has been able to display that there are the majority of the sensors that need to work on the solid, liquid or the gas forms where the gas (CO and CO2) is important to be measured.

For this, it is also important to focus on how to handle the overriding of the data with the standards that are for using the processing mainly to visualize the data. The processing will help in the validation of the designs as well as the system data source in an effective manner. Through the easy exploration, there are examples which are set to avoid the dataset that is difficult to parse the details and avoid the choice of the datasets. One could also look for the processing, which includes the data and applications.

The MQ-2 AND MQ-7 is for the gas (CO and CO2) sensor that can convert the gas (CO and CO2) for the analogue voltage where there are three devices to handle the pin numbers where the 5-volt voltage supply and the other pin is for the analogue voltage output. This is set concerning the gas (CO and CO2) value where the relation is important for the measuring of the gas (CO and CO2) and the analogue output voltage. Here, there is Arduino microcontroller that has been mainly to measure the value of the analogue setup with the measurement of the analogue voltage. There is a possibility to build the ADC channels mainly when one can set the standards for the green house system process.  (Paul, 2017) There are ADC channels for the measurement of the gas (CO and CO2) and to read the output of the analogue voltage. Through this, there is a possibility that the voltage and the gas (CO and CO2) are then converted back with the conversion factor to the gas (CO and CO2). The setup is also through the programming, where the LCD is also connected to the Port for the display of the gas (CO and CO2) value.  The document could easily be justified with the display and the use of the texts in the system. It is for the different forms of the console or the debugging procedures. The text usages are in the window display where the major focus is to handle the font size along with the other tools option of the PDE. (Lee, 2016) The processing is based on the loading of the file with the use of the load Font function and then defining it for the use of the text Font as well. The draw function demonstrates a proper number of the functions where there are additional forms to relate the string as well as the conversion of the numbers into the string. The applications could be built using the simple form of the empty site with the tree growth under a certain probability. The rules are generally encoded in the update function with the iteration that is mainly for the 2D functions as well as how the transition states can determine the current iteration and the last as well. (Desai, 2016) The application uses the processing of the graphics where the few colours are defined for space along with the stroke to change the colour patterns. The points are important for drawing a pixel with processing model that could be used for updates and for applying the rules, with the return, drawing and emitting the updated space for the particular window of the display. (Hall et al., 2017). With the processing, there is an open-source drawing and the development of the environment where the methods are set for the preparation of the data, as well as the designing process mainly for the data visualization. The exploring of the options is to share the work where uploads are based on specific websites.

  1. Oil and as Escape of Gas.

The problem related to the scientific ocean drilling causes the pollution that charges the reservoir and allowing the oil and hydrocarbon have to escape it into the air. There are natural submarines that seep oil and gas with certain deleterious effects. (Gallagher et al., 2015).

  1.    The hydrocarbon origin and occurrence are based on reserving for crude oil and natural gas. There are mixtures of petroleum hydrocarbons that exist depending upon the gas (CO and CO2) and pressure. The gases of hydrocarbon like methane are mainly those products that set for a certain thermochemical generation with the appurtenance of the oil generation. The entire thermochemical conversion helps in accelerating the rates with the increased design and gas (CO and CO2). It is important to take care of the methane gas that is biogenic as its emission has a serious danger. The danger depending on the gas quantity in the reservoir strata.

The release of this noxious gas can cause problems with the lower concentrations only. There is a need to specifically handle the extensive safety procedures that direct to encountering the ODP depending upon the carbonate-rich sediments. The Hydrogen Sulphide High-Gas (CO and CO2) drilling contingency plan works over the extreme safety procedures that work to improve and handle the suspect in the entire operating area.

The successful coring operation is worked on handling the higher and lower latitude operations. The higher gas (CO and CO2) formations can cause danger with the steam that flashes the swabbing in corrosive fluids. There are risks and hazards that need to be taken care of. With the cumulative samples, there are slips, trip and falls associated with certain traversing in terrain. (Wu et al., 2015). It is important to manage the risks and assess the removal of all the hazards. There is a need to accept and work on re-planning the work process. This will help in documenting the safe system of the work.

 

Discussion

System Initial Design

There are different standards and the technical requirements which are needed for the system.  The MQ-2 AND MQ-7 gas (CO and CO2) has been for the project, which is found to be the cheapest in the market where one can easily find it in the market. For the MQ-2 AND MQ-7, it is seen to be more effective than the thermistor, with the integrated circuits that have no major chance of the damage done to the integral circuit. This could also draw the current mainly through the Ampere. For the supply of the 5V voltage, there is a need to handle the MQ-2 AND MQ-7 where there is no need for any form of the circuitry for the operations. (Eckel, 2016) Here, the microcontroller is also for the reading of the gas (CO and CO2) value and the display of the gas (CO and CO2) is on LCD where the code is written on the Arduino.

For the processing, there is a need of:

  1. The drawing of pixels which will be under the set function. It will be able to take the coordinates of x and y with the display of the window in an appropriate form. The process has been for the colour type, which includes the defined types under the particular type of operation. The creation of the colour instances with the proper use of the particular pixel will help in displaying easily. (Mohades et al., 2016).
  2. The drawing of the shapes in the processing is through the single function that will be able to use the stroke function. The function is for the single grey form where the parameters are set for the RGB value along with defining the filling of the shape with the fill command. (Glatard et al., 2016).
  3. A proper form of the drawing of lines, rectangles and the circles is important for the arguments to set and represent the points which are mainly in the lines that are drawn. For this, there are also different points which include the defining of the width and the height. There are forms where the tailor ellipses use the ellipse Mode function for representing the corner or the centre forms.
  4. The structure of the processing application is based on the forms where the code could easily be provided through the use of developing a graphical application. It also includes the setup and the draw form where the setup function is for the initialization standards in the processing run time. (Oishi et al., 2016). The setup works on containing the size as well as defining the bounds of the window. It is also important for the variable initialization process that could be used at the time of operation. The processing runtime has been for the execution of the draw function where the implementation of the frame could easily be set for the display.

Technical Requirements

The work is on the Proteus designing suite, which has been used for the simulation process with the designing and the schematic capture, simulation and the PCB layout designing. It is based on the configurations, which mainly depends on the size of the designs with the production and the requirements of the microcontroller. (Lee et al., 2016). The PCB products are for designed to handle the products, which include the AutoRoute and the mixed mode for the simulation process. There are capturing process which is for the PCB layout systems, which mainly apply to the debugging file to the microcontroller part. This also enables the analogue and digital electronics to measure the control of the amount of pollutants and the user interface designing. The setup of the software has been mainly for the better connectivity of the information that is set with the user-specific designing rules and the automation tools.

Hardware components and their description

There is a need to properly handle the gas (CO and CO2) of the system, which includes the MQ-2 AND MQ-7 gas (CO and CO2) sensor and the microcontroller with the HD44780 controller based 16*2 LCD.

The above shows the list of the hardware, where the output of the sensor is generally fed to the internal ADC of the microcontroller. There is a Pin 2 which is for handling the RA0 and AN0 for channel 1, which includes the internal ADC. There are other factors which includes the analogue voltage output of the sensor which is then converted into the digital value that is set by the particular ADC standard and then it is used for the degree Celsius value by the software.

The MQ-2 AND MQ-7 sensor is for the precisions of the integrated circuit which can calculate the centigrade gas (CO and CO2) where the complete output voltage is seen to be directly proportional to the Celsius gas (CO and CO2). (Lee et al., 2016). Here, there are standards to handle the linear gas (CO and CO2), which could be calibrated. The user does not need to subtract the larger constant voltage from the output for the convenient scaling of the centigrade. There are changes in the sensing output by 10mV.

Here, the sensor can easily measure the range of the gases (CO, CO2, Methane, Propane, LPG, Hydrogen), which is from 0 to 100 degree where the output is from 0 to 1000mV. The MQ-2 AND MQ-7 works over the range of the gas (CO and CO2) which is from -55 degree to +150-degree C and M35C for a -40°C to +110°C range 

Brief details of microcontroller used

The microcontroller of the ARDUINO UNO which is for the 8-bit controller with the 8k*14-bit flash program memory where there is a bytes of the RAM and the other peripherals like the ADC to handle the universal synchronous forms of the receiver and the transmitter, master synchronous serial ports and the timers. This is then compared to capture and then the pulse width is set with the modulation modules, with the analogous comparators. There are standards which are set to meet the reduced instructions set computer structure.

It is seen that the microcontroller can process the output with the computing of the gas (CO and CO2) for a particular gas (CO and CO2). (Desai et al., 2016). There is internal ADC of the system, which is for the conversion of the analogue output of the sensor for the digital value. The standards are set to meet the requirement where the internal ADC of the microcontroller has different channels and the labels of the analogue, which includes the input and work on the digital output. For this, one needs to check on the reference of the voltage to the AD, which is found to be the same when there is a supply voltage that has been set to the microcontroller with 5V. There is a resolution which could easily be calculated through the 10-bit ADC, where,

Resolution = Vref / (1024-1)

= 5/1023
= 4.887 mV

For the system configuration, there is analogous input where the ADC output tends to change by the binary value of 1 with the voltage that is at the value of 5V. Here, there are sensors for the pins which are connected to the port A with the RA0 for the conversions that need to be done in the digital equivalent.  There is LCD which is to handle the controller that is based on the display of the gas (CO and CO2) with the controlling lines for the EN, /W and the RS of the modules which are connected to the pins of the different areas. (Eckel et al., 2016). Here, the commands of the data are configured with the control that is sent from port D of the microcontroller. The development in the processing involves the IDE and the display window, which is for the coordinate system in the 2D area. Hence, the size for this is compacted with defined dimensions for the display window in the pixels. The focus has been on the size to accept the optional forms of the third argument for the mode, where the mode is also able to define the rendering of the engines which could easily be used with the support of the PDF. The higher quality of the 2D image will help in the processing along with handling the large variety of the geometric shapes and controls.  (Beers et al., 2016). The section also includes the different sets of the colour where the function can be to use the different parameters with the grey value or the Red Green Blue.

The processing programming language helps in working on the integrated development along with handling the computer programming standards to serve the foundation for the electronic forms. Programming allows the non-programmers to work on the computer programming skills with the visual framework that will help in building the Java language. The features include the processing with the integrated development of the subscales. (Haile Mariam et al., 2016). The defined forms of the inner classes are set with the different forms of the static variables and the methods. This includes the processing that will also allow the processors to create their class. It will also allow the complex forms of the data types to include the arguments as well as work on the limitations of the standard data types like the int, char, float etc. The processing is based on the hardware projects, where the setup is to allow the use in the modern web browsers without any need of the Java Plugin. The Processing.js will also be used for advocating the programming with the set of introductory standard that enforced the restrictions. (Guigas, 2017).

CONCLUSIONS

The document could easily be justified with the display and the use of the texts in the system. It is for the different forms of the console or for the debugging procedures. The text usages are in the window display where the major focus is to handle the font size along with the other tools option of the IDE. (Mallick et al., 2016). The processing is based on the loading of the file with the use of the load Font function and then defining it for the use of the text Font as well. The draw function demonstrates a proper number of the functions where there are additional forms to relate the string as well as the conversion of the numbers into the string. The applications could be built using the simple form of the empty site with the tree growth under a certain probability. The rules are generally encoded in the update function with the iteration that is mainly for the 2D functions as well as how the transition states are able to determine the current iteration and the last as well. (Colombo et al., 2016). The application uses the processing of the graphics where the few colors are defined for the space along with the stroke to change the colour patterns. The points are important for drawing a pixel with processing model that could be used for updates and for applying the rules, with the return, drawing and emitting the updated space for the particular window of the display. (Paul, 2017)

References

  • Bannatyne, R. G. (2017). Creation of an ARM© Cortex©-M Based Microcontroller for Downhole Electronic Systems. In Offshore Technology Conference.
  • Bimbar, A. K. (2017). Remotely Accessible Microcontroller Based Health Monitoring System. International Journal of Control Theory and Applications, 841-851.
  • Desai, Y. (2016). AC PHASE FIRING CIRCUIT USING MICROCONTROLLER. Development, 10.
  • Eckel, R. T. (2016). Basic atmospheric measurements via Arduino Uno microcontroller with commercially available sensors towards simple real-time weather forecasting for increased classroom engagement. In APS March Meeting Abstracts.
  • Lee, I. S. (2016). Continuous operation of an ultra-low-power microcontroller using glucose as the sole energy source. Biosensors and Bioelectronics.
  • Paul, S. H. (2017). A Sub-cm 3 Energy-Harvesting Stacked Wireless Sensor Node Featuring a Near-Threshold Voltage IA-32 Microcontroller in 14-nm Tri-Gate CMOS for Always-ON Always-Sensing Applications. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 961-971.
  • Tanner, M. H. (2017). Stand alone, low current measurements on possible sensing platforms via Arduino Uno microcontroller with modified commercially available sensors. Bulletin of the American Physical Society, 62.
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