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In every country Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) has grown radically over the last decade. During the past twenty years cameras have become a common feature in the United Kingdom (UK) cities, towns and villages. While compared to other countries; the UK installed more than one million CCTV cameras across the country. Installing CCTV surveillance cameras help to create and enforce socio-spatial divisions within and between the towns and streets of surveilled places. CCTV camera systems have been developed with common technical standards and operational procedures through self regulation. Microphones are attached on the top of the CCTV cameras, by the attached microphones we can listen to conversations up to 100 yards from where the CCTV is placed. The information commissioner, Richard Thomas has banned this technology for the reason that no organization is allowed to monitor or stores any private conversations. By the UK rules and regulations, CCTV voice recording camera system would be allowed only in some particular allocations. Members of the general public were questioned and the results from the research showed that 70 out of 100 percent of public contrasted in the opinion of CCTV cameras recording.
Function creep is for to collect the information for one purpose and to use for another purpose. This creep is to hide the information what exactly will going to happen. This was happen for CCTV microphones in the past years. Compare to other countries United Kingdom has more CCTV cameras to prevent the crime in public and private places.
"Function creep is one of several new compound words formed with creep" (Oxford University Press, 2009). Function creep is just like a mediator to collect all the information from public minds. It is mainly to collect the information for one particular purpose and to be used for another purpose. Function creep is important for all; it is very useful for future and easy to understand government and surveillance. Simply function creep is to know an idea for particular information.
This function creep is mainly useful for Government and Organizations. Function creep is to divert the ideas of the people or is to divert the ideas of terrorist. It is very useful in future and it is important concept for government and surveillance. Function creep is original context of use, in relation to the use of personal information or the use of identifiers.
Example: An organization wants to release one product A, where A requires old and failure product B. In case A is unpopular and failure then there will be huge loss for the organization. So that organization invents a new product C, these products also need a failure product B. When the organization are in a process to prepare B the organization published it's for C, but in the organization mind the product of output is A. It's all because of the no one knows what exactly the organization is going to do.
"Closed Circuit Television camera developed in 1942 by Walter Bruch in German engineer and it was installed for the use of rocket test during World War II" (JBCGSI security solutions, 2009). The first CCTV camera has used by United States Military in 1940's, its purpose was to test the V2 missile, by using camera it is easy to monitoring the testing at close range without any effect(Alpha Card Systems, 2006-2009). After the United States Military the United Kingdom started to use CCTV cameras in 1960's; they first tested in public places to monitor crowds during events and rallies. "In 1996, government spending on CCTV technology accounted for three quarters of the crime prevention budget in the United Kingdom". (Alpha Card Systems, 2006-2009)
As early as 1965, there were press reports in the United States suggesting police use of surveillance cameras in public places. In 1969, CCTV cameras were installed in the New York City Municipal Building near City Hall. England installed video surveillance systems in four major Underground Train Stations in 1975 and began monitoring traffic flow at same time. By using CCTV technology personally has become much easier to acquire. (Roberts, 2005)
The theory behind CCTV:-
There are some particular reasons behind why Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) is used in the United Kingdom. For example, by using cameras the government employees know what exactly is happening around surroundings; by installing CCTV both intended and unintended success and failure can be identified; - mainly the United Kingdom's aim is reduce the crime and crime prevention. Two reasons would reduce the crime based on the following:
- Detection (Armitage, 2002)
The prevention and detection are related to the crime prevention. In the main CCTV cameras scheme will combine more than one of these elements. There is interconnection between prevention and detection, if the detection is good and success then some area and prevent will might be improved. Reassurance may help to the public in prevention and detection. By using CCTV cameras there evidence of greater security.
Detection needs more than passive use of CCTV than prevention. By using CCTV cameras the video will record and that can be changes to images. In some cases by using videos or images may lead to punishment and the removal of offender's ability to offend. "In the past one high profile case about the murder of James Bulger and the arrest of David Copeland, which images of the offender on CCTV aided their detection" (Armitage, To CCTV or not to CCTV?, 2002)
In this generation and, day to day life CCTV cameras are becoming very important and common systems of public life. Before, government used CCTV cameras for public security, but now a day's every convenience store, petrol station, shopping malls etc., are using for their own security purpose. The theme of CCTV system is to prevent the crime and disorder through deterrence. These system have typically used for surveillance, CCTV cameras are low cost and these are enabling a broad range of applications that will involve cameras systems located in public places buildings. In this urban life video surveillance is becoming everywhere.
The UK has a hugely increased the number of CCTV cameras over the last decade. "Britain capitals busiest shopping area, Oxford Street is covered by a £500,000 CCTV system consisting of 35 cameras which are monitored from centralised control room located in Marylebone police station".(Norris, June 2002)
The CCTV camera system consist of TV cameras, video processing equipment, camcorders, pan/tilt units, video tape recorders, colour television monitors and accessories to connect all the equipments together. This system is mainly controlled by crew. The video control unit is the main processor for the CCTV system. This consists of two line units' remote control unit and video switching unit.
CCTV surveillance cameras are used in both public and private places. By using CCTV cameras the government may prevent crime because potential offenders are deterred by their increased subjective possibility of detection. In past years, UK has great growth in the use of CCTV to prevent crime in private and public places. The UK government made available £170 million for CCTV schemes in town and city centres, car parks, and other high crime areas from past three years period of 1999 to 2001. "More than three-quarters of spending on crime prevention by the UK government on CCTV, the number of cameras has increased from day to day life 100 CCTV cameras in 1990, 400 in 1994, 5,200 cameras in 1997 and 40,000 in 2002" (Farrington, 2003). To preventing crime Britain has using CCTV cameras has been based on high quality evidence demonstrating.
CCTV surveillance system:-
CCTV surveillance system mainly consists of cameras with voice recorders and monitors. The cameras can fixed in constant position or literally have a roaming eye. Day to day technology has improved a lot, now a day's cameras are so complicated and have features such as pan, tilt and zoom which can be used as per customers or user need. The video cam split to images that can be used at anytime in the future. While installing CCTV surveillance system these factors need to be taken under consideration. Everything is recorded when cameras is in process by that we can view particular position. At other times surveillance takes place all the images are viewed constantly. The allocation of cameras is fundamental, such that it permits for maximum coverage are that is under surveillance. CCTV camera technology has improved from dumb system to self monitoring system without any effects of dumb system applications being fully assessed.
"The Information Commissioner's Office is the UK's independent authority set up to uphold information rights in the public interest, promoting openness by public bodies and data privacy for individuals". (ICO) This office is mainly to know about public opinions, what the right way to operate is and what the public need it. ICO is to collect the information and holding personal information. ICO mission is to protect public right to use to official information and protect personal data. "To protect the information ICO were established three regional offices in 2003; it is located at Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales" (ICO). The use of established regional offices us to provide appropriate services where the legislation or managerial structure as a result. ICO is the best way to solve the problems or complaints of the public; they are the one to solve the problems. They are just like mediators to public and problems which they are facing.
Roles of ICO:-
- Information Commissioner Office secretly maintains the public register information controllers, under the Data Protection Act.
- They encourage organizations with good guidance and information to achieve the target or good practice and help to understand their rights till end.
- ICO helps the organizations in Freedom of Information Act, Environmental Information, Document Library and Register of data controllers.
- They don't provide the information of one organization pass on personal information to another.
- ICO handover the complaints or problems of the people, who think the Data Protection Act or Freedom of Information Act has been breached.(ico.gov, June 2006)
Ethical Model 1:- Relativism
Relativism is something is valid for some people and something is invalid for some people, it is depends on the people what they think, depending upon the circumstances and social situation. Relativism shows that there are no moral right or wrong situation. Simply some people believe, if we do this process then it will be right and some people believe if we do this process it will be right. The people what they believe will be not true for all the times it depends on the circumstances. For example, in some countries kissing on roads is legal and in other countries kissing on road is illegal. The moral of the relativism is a society's practices can be judged are its own.
- What's right for you may not be what's right for me.
- What's right for my culture won't necessarily be what's right for your culture.
- No moral principles are true for all people at all times and in all places. (Ethical Relativism, 2002-2009)
In the past years, the Britain had an argument about the CCTV voice recording whether it is useful for society or it is not useful for the society. Some people said that by using CCTV voice cameras it is good for the society and surroundings and some people said that it is not good to be placed in some private locations. Day to day life technology has improving, by using cameras in some places it is useful and at some places it is not necessary to be used. By all the opinions in Britain the government has taken a decision to band CCTV voice recording for all places.
By using CCTV voice recording we can hear the surroundings around 100 yards away. It is mainly useful in some locations by this we can prevent crime. By using this if any police had a secret conversation then the criminals may hack the cameras by that they may attack at anytime. There is no privacy in any places like organizations, colleges and stores, for every organizations need privacy and no organization follow the monitor or store private conversation, the employers may listen in to private conversation between meetings. CCTV cameras are mainly to provide security, by attachment microphones on cameras we may face problems at anytime.
Ethical Model 2:- Deontological
"The word Deontological or Deontology shows from the Greek words for duty (deon) and science (study) of (logos). In modern moral philosophy, deontology is one of those kinds of normative theories which are morally required, permitted and forbidden". (Moore, 2007) Deontological ethics shows that characterized by a focus on independent responsibilities. The way we are doing our duty properly then it is morally. When we are not doing our duty properly then it is immorally. The correct motivation is never justification for an action in a deontological system and may or may not be used for describing an action as morally correct. Some persons think that they are doing well for their role but the way they are doing the role is wrong. Deontological focuses on the rightness and wrongness of actions themselves, as opposite to the wrongness and rightness of those actions. If we are not happy to do some work even though we have to do the work for everyone to act in a similar way.
The government has decided to band CCTV voice recording technology because some people opinion is it is good for society and some is restricted voice recording. By installing CCTV voice cameras anything may happen in future, it is a wrong decision to install in public and private places. When the time of CCTV cameras installed it will good for some day but after some days it may goes wrong or may be right. Before going to install cameras we have to sort it out what are the uses and how can it going make useful for society. When general public research on CCTV voice recording technology most of the people contrasting and it has not much advantages. By the end Information Commissioner's Office concluded the cameras to record voices would be allowed only in some particular places.
Relativism is attractive to so many people because it seems to a best explanation of the variability of moral belief. The way we think the way we start it is depends on our mind. Different societies of different people have different customs and that each person thinks his own society's customs are good. Every person will tolerate within to distinguish acceptable from unacceptable behaviour. Moral principals will not come true for all the times and for all the places. Deontological is simply shows the theory of our duties and responsibilities. In some way it is rightness and wrongness, it depends on the action. Always deontological shows the priority over the right. The main theme of deontological is your duty is to ensure that you do not lie. A deontological may also states theta what is right to do and what is not to do can be defined in terms of statements about what things are best.
In my opinion technology has improving day to day life as many as new systems are came out, if we use technology in proper position then it is useful for all if not it is not useful as much we expecting for day life. CCTV voice recording is not good for the society and around surroundings. By using that not many advantages as compare to disadvantages, in some locations it is useful, if we use in private locations then in future we may face problems. CCTV may or may not useful for some situations it depends upon the location and privacy. Purely for staffing monitoring and surveillance CCTV systems should not be utilised. No CCTV cameras should be installed within toilets, changing room and children room facilities. If it is installed in some places then CCTV cameras focused on particular locations where difficulties apply to continual personal monitoring. These problems may relate to environmental constraints, access constraints or cost constraints. It is mainly disadvantage for organizations and police security area, by this all secret information may hack by other persons.
- AlphaCardSystems,2006-2009. Available at: :http://www.alphacardsecurity.com/cctv/history.shtml
- Armitage, R. (2002, May). To CCTV or not To CCTV? Retrieved Nov 16,2009,fromnacro: http://epic.org/privacy/surveillance/spotlight/0505/nacro02.pdf
- Ethical relativism. Available at: http://www.allaboutphilosophy.org/ethical-relativism-faq.htm [Accessed 14 Nov 2009]
- Farrington, B. C. (2003, Nov 4). Effects of Closed Circuit Television Surveillance on Crime. Protocol for a Systematic Review , p. 3.
- ICO. Available at: http://www.ico.gov.uk/about_us.aspx JBCGSI Security Solutions, 2009. Available at: http://jbcgsi.net/history.aspx
- Moore, L. A. (2007, Nov 21). Deontological Ethics. Retrieved Nov 16, 2009, from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
- Oxford University Press, 2009, Retrieved Nov 17, 2009, from http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/wotm/wotm_archive/function_creep?cc=global