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History Essays - World War Disarmament

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World War Disarmament

1.0 Introduction

Second World War 2 is a war between the Allies and the Axis from 1939 to 1945(Adams 2004, p. 24). The war in Europe began in earnest on September 1, 1939 with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, and concluded on September 2, 1945, with the official surrender of the last Axis nation, Japan (Milano 1977, p. 10-13).

This question is still an enigma to many, and no one has yet given a satisfactory answer. Therefore, this research paper is an attempt to answer this question in the most satisfactory by looking at which causes of Second World War, a series events led to Second World War, and the effects after Second World War and finally conclude as was it a mistake for man to start Second World War.

2.0 Events that Led to Second World War

There are some events that led to Second World War. The events are the short-term causes of the Second World War of the mid to late 1930s. It also decide the point which the Second World War became inevitable.

2.1 The Japanese Invasion of Manchuria in 1931

The League of Nations’ failure to stop Japan worried small countries around the globe and shook people’s faith in leadership security. It also worsened the already slim chances that the Disarmament Conference might succeed. At the same time, it also concerned the other countries –like Britain, France and the USA – that had colonial and trading interests in and around China.

Before the next ominous development occurred, the crisis had not really ended (Monger 1998, p. 110-111).Therefore, it had cause the Japan have a plan to dominate the all the small countries in Asia by using the reason of united the Asia countries to overcome the force given by the others strong countries. This cause the Second World War started in Asia.

2.2 The Failure of the Disarmament Conference

On 2 February 1932, The Disarmament Conference opened. Apart from the facts of less favorable for the circumstances and that military disarmament was far more complex than naval disarmament, what ruined the Conference’s chances appeared to be not Hitler’s extremism, but French intransigence. The French politicians must give guarantees of French in order to make the French politicians consider disarmament.

France offered equality of armaments for Germany within four years after the pressure given from Britain and America but Hitler did not appear in insisting (McDonough 1997, p. 55).Beside that, the fault still seemed too many lie partly with France when Hitler further withdrew his delegates from the conference and Germany from the League. This makes others countries involved angry and plan to start a war with Germany.

2.3 The German Non- Aggression Pact with Poland

It was the first move in German foreign affairs originated by Hitler and this was signed in January 1934.The ten year Pact wrecked France’s system of alliances in eastern Europe where Poland had been its chief ally make French worries that Hitler meant them no good in the long run .To other powers, however, Nazi Germany sign this agreement seemed to be settling down into following a normal diplomatic policy (Monger 1998, p. 112).

After that, Hitler has made such a pact with Poland. Beside that, Hitler also takes revenge on Poland for German losses to it at Versailles. From this, we could know that Hitler was no really meant to carry the policy in Eastern Europe.

2.4 The Failure of the Nazi putsch in Austria, 1934

The Austrian Chancellor Engel Bert Dollfuss was murdered in July 1934 but the putsch quickly collapsed. It was the following strong private encouragement from Hitler. Hitler was forced by Combined pressure from a suspicious Mussolini and France to act more cautiously towards Austria and to disown the putsch. (Monger 1998, p. 113).

After the failure of the Conference, many politicians in Eastern Europe feel unfair to Germany. By this, Germany people were angry and trying to form a new party to fight for their right. Nazi party was formed later and planning to start the war with the Eastern Europe. In short, the Second World War was beginning at the time.

3.0 Causes of Second World War

There are some causes that make the Second World War started after First World War. The causes are Treaty of Versailles, Hitler’s action, failure of appeasement and failure of the League of Nations.

3.1 Treaty of Versailles

In 1919, Lloyd George of England, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France and Woodrow Wilson from the US met to discuss how Germany was to be made to pay for the damage world war one had caused. Every country leader wanted to be sure that Germany could never start another war again. Finally, a Treaty of Versailles was made based on Wilson’s 14 points. Germany had no choice but to sign the document to agree all the terms in the treaty.

The main term of the Treaty of Versailles was War Guilt Clause was mention that Germany should accept the blame for starting World War One. Second, Germany had to pay £6,600 million for the damage caused by the war under the terms of reparations. Lastly, Germany was only allowed to have a small army and six naval ships. This is mention under the term of Disarmament (Causes of World War II, p. 1).

About this treaty the German people were very unhappy because they thought that it was too unfair to them. At the time, the people in Germany were very poor and this cause Germany could not afford to pay the money .This cause a serious economic problem in Germany. People voted Adolf Hitler as a new leader of Germany who promised the people to rip up the Treaty of Versailles because the people were dissatisfied with the government at that time

3.2 Hitler's Actions

Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January 1933. He increased the size of the army and created a German air force secretly. After that, Hitler’s was trying taking back the land that had been taken away from Germany after Treaty of Versailles .In March 1938, vote asking the people whether they wanted to be part of Germany was hold in Austria because Hitler forces the Austrian leader to do so. At last, 99% of Austrian people wanted union with Germany.

Later, the Munich Agreement was sign by Hitler and Prime Minister of Britain to prevent war. Hitler was not a man of his word because he invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia (Overy 1993, p. 88-93).

From this, it prove that Hitler did not affair the force by Britain and France because both countries promised that they would take military action against Hitler if Hitler invaded Poland. At last, Hitler invaded Poland and this cause the both countries angry. They attacked Germany and the Second World War begins.

3.3 Failure of Appeasement

Appeasement was giving in to someone provided their demands are seen as reasonable. During the 1930s, many politicians were felt that Treaty of Versailles treated Germany unfair and they felt that Germany people have the right to protect their own country by re-arm. Therefore, Chamberlain's government had adopted this policy and it is known as the policy of Appeasement. It was to prevent Hitler to start another war.

A very good example of appeasement was the Munich Agreement of September 1938. This agreement was agreed that Germany could get back Sudetenland and no further territorial claims would be made by Germany. However, Hitler broke the terms of the Munich Agreement because he invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia in March 1939. (Monger 1998, p. 10) This show that the appeasement had failed and Hitler was trying to start the Second World War.

Therefore, government of Britain was deciding to take military action if Hitler invaded Poland. This agreement was not really help to avoid the war because there were still many forces to Germany after First World War. This make the Germany people fell unfair and they try to fight for their right by start another war.

3.4 Failure of the League of Nations

The League of Nations was an international organization set up in 1919 to help keep world peace. But ultimately it was a failure. This is because not all countries joined the League and this make the League had no power to do anything. Asking member countries to stop trading with an aggressive country is the main weapon of the League. But it failed because the countries still can trade with other non-members countries.

Beside that, League had no army. The member countries should supplied the soldiers but the countries were scared to take risk provoking an aggressive country into taking the direct action against them. Lastly, League unable to act quickly to stop an act of aggression because the Council of the League of Nations only met four times a year and decisions had to be agreed by all nations. This process had to take some time to make a final decision. (Overy 1993, p. 11-15).All of this show that League of Nations could not keep world peace and the countries were trying to attack others it causes the Second World War started

4.0 Effects after Second World War

There are a lot of positive and negative effects after the end of the Second World War. All of the effects always remind us how this war causes a lot of negative effects to human and warn us to keep peace of the world.

4.1 Economic Effects

There was a huge growth in munitions and a huge emphasis on food production because all of this was compulsory needs during Second World War time. Beside that, there were also shortages of workers because government to conscript people to certain work under Essential Works Order (1941) and this created further employment disruption after the war.

Other than that, destruction by bombing created a need for house building after the war and destruction of factories or machines such as Britain lo2% of it productive capacity after Second World War. To prevent another world economic depression, International Monetary Fund also set up by The Bretton Woods Conference (1994) .This could help the economy growth after the war (Economic Effects of the War 2002/2006).

Year

Germany

USA

1940

6.7 million

N/A

1941

7.3 million

N/A

1942

7.7 million

184 million

1943

8.9 million

200 million

1944

6.4 million

223 million

Source : (World War 2 Statistics 2003, p. 9)

Diagram 1

4.2 Political Effects

Previously, Western Europe had shaped much of the way the world ran. After World War 2, these nations were separate to two superpowers that were United States and the Soviet Union base on power of economically and militarily of their countries. After Second World War II, all the government of the nations was focus more on keeping peace of the world.

Many Organizations were introduced to achieve the peace of the world. United Nations was officially established in October, 1945. Later the UN had the full support and leadership of the United States unlike the League of Nations. This proved that all the countries ware trying to keep peace for the world after Second World War. Furthermore, International Monetary Fund was create by representatives of the major economic powers .This was to agree upon a regime of international tariff regulation known as GATT (Effects of World War 2, p. 1).

Country

1939

1940

1941

1942

1943

1944

1945

End of War

France

86

105

0

0

5

7

14

14

Germany

78

189

235

261

327

347

319

375

Great Britain

9

34

35

38

39

37

31

31

Italy

6

73

64

89

86

2

9

10

Poland

43

2

2

2

2

5

5

5

Romania

11

28

33

31

33

32

24

24

USSR

194

200

220

250

350

400

488

491

USA

8

24

39

76

95

94

94

94

Number of Divisions Available for These Countries Over the Course of The War.

Source : (World War 2 Statistics 2003, p. 9)

4.3 Military Effects

For this aspect, militarily and new technologies was developed after Second World War such as improved tanks and airplanes to the deadly atomic bomb had been developed to make wars faster and more brutal. Second World War had marked the coming of age of airpower in the military sphere. Advanced aircraft and the battleship, once the queen of the world's oceans, and fixed fortifications.

Perhaps most important of all, World War II ushered in the nuclear era, with the dropping of the first atomic bombs on the Japanese of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945.That is Little Boy was the first nuclear weapon used in warfare. It exploded approximately 1,800 feet over Hiroshima. Another was Fat Man .It dropped on Nagasaki, Japan and devastated more than two square miles of the city and caused approximately 45,000 immediate deaths (Little Boy and Fat Man, 2003).

The Aircraft Sorties in Second World War.

Campaign

Allied

Axis

Allied Kills Per 1000

Axis Kills Per 1000

Allied Lost Per 1000

Axis Lost Per 1000

France 1940

4480

21,000

28.6

12.5

58.5

6.1

Britain 1940

31,000

42,000

21.8

29.5

29.5

9.6

Pre D-Day 1944

98,400

34,500

12.7

29.3

10.3

36.1

Post D-Day 1944

203,357

31,833

17.3

16.2

2.5

110.6

Source : (World War 2 Statistics 2003, p. 9)

4.4 Effects Upon The Non – European World

In Non-European World, result in sharply lower mortality rates and soaring population growth by the development of the new technology during the war to fight disease. Greatly enhanced and stimulated by the war was the most difficulty for national independence of non-European peoples was.

The two major European imperial powers, England and France was having the hard time and serious economic problem in their own countries after Second World War and this cause the collapse of European empires. Majority of non-European countries were the European empires (Effects of World War 2, p. 1).

4.5 Effects Upon Science And Technology

During Second World War, progress in electronics and computers been made. Beside that, this could provide a foundation for further development which fundamentally transformed the postwar world. In addition, enormous technological progress was also been made during the war.

Radar was developed by the English which would be the forerunner of television. During Second World War, European and American scientists also developed the atomic bomb. This marked the beginning of the nuclear power industry and also transformed the nature of potential future wars (Effects of World War 2, p. 1).

6.0 Conclusion

After looking at all the information in this research paper, It is obviously that Second World War is not justified as there are a lot of negative effects of Second World War. Imperialistic domination of USA, USSR in the world happened after Second World War.

In this point, Second World War was not fought for people, but greedy leaders and nuclear warheads built-up, your so-called 'democracy' vs. Communism. All of this was the result of horrible accident of people's stupidity. Therefore, if Second World War had been avoided, it could avoid the destruction of cities and families and the unprecedented large number of deaths amongst civilians and soldiers during Second World War. These strongly prove that it was a mistake for man to stat Second World War.


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