Threat Perception Of Singapore Toward Indonesia And Malaysia History Essay
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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016
The ability of economies of Southeast Asia particularly Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia are reflected in the rate of economic growth increased rapidly until 1997 (when the economic crisis started to hit), has encouraged and enabled the acquisition and armaments dynamics. Then from the perspective of having a model of technology (technological imperative), the development of the local defense industry can contribute to the dynamics of weaponry in Southeast Asia. The end of the Cold War allowed the development of production, in addition to the skills themselves also because of licensing manufacturers are no longer confined to the West.
Dynamics armament that occurred in the post-Cold War will be investigated relation (interactive relationships and non-interactive) with the following variables: From the international environment, fundamental changes in the regional security configuration above, when the post-Cold War perceived by Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia as:
1. The shift in the defense structure that requires them to participate maintain and ensure their own interests by increasing the quality and quantity of weapons development;
2. The end of the cold war is perceived as a change in the security threat of global conflict threat to local security threat salience of intra and extra-regional conflicts;
3. Necessity countries in Southeast Asia to arm yourself with the increasing military projection of regional powers are viewed as the security dilemma, and
4. Improving the quality and quantity of armaments development of Southeast Asian countries is made possible and facilitated by the ease in the arms market. While the domestic environment post-cold war weapons impact the dynamics of Southeast Asian countries in terms of:
1. Improving the quality and quantity of armaments development of Southeast Asian countries is made possible and facilitated by the capabilities of the economy, and
2. Improving the quality and quantity of armaments development of Southeast Asian countries caused the development of the local defense industry as a manifestation of the importance of technology transfer to developing countries.
To determine the dynamics armament and military posture of Singapore to Indonesia and Malaysia, can be seen through exposure to three key indicators comprising:
1. Expenditure budget military / defense;
2. Development of strength (personnel) of the armed forces, and
3. The dynamics of ownership / acquisition and deployment of the weapon.
Spending budget military / defense of a country or group of countries, can be seen through several indicators:
1. Military spending in constant prices, expenses are calculated based on the fixed exchange rate (in this case the U.S. dollar) as a means of currency exchange “official” between countries;
2. Military spending in the price level walking, expenses are calculated based on the exchange rate of the local currency of each country;
3. Military spending as a proportion of GDP (Gross Domestic Product / GDP) of a country,
4. Military budget was calculated on the basis of proportion per capita (income per capita) of a country.
The military budget is the clearest expression of the efforts of the nation to pay for security. Military spending is a commitment or funding organization for the purposes of securing and improving security of the state of the military threat, whether physical (real) or psychological (at the level of perception), internal or external. The use of the military budget of a country usually have a variety of functions following the financial system of each country, but generally allocated to the following: regular budget (salary) active and retired soldiers, buying new weapons, research and development, maintenance and operations, construction and development of infrastructure. The percentage allocation of each budget item, in addition to different each year, is different for each country corresponding financial capacity of each country.
Threat Perception of Singapore toward Indonesia and Malaysia
Threat Perception Singapore
As the newly established Singapore continue to seek salvation (survival), regularity (order), and prosperity, it is becoming a very dominant theme of political Singapore. Since I was in the British colonies, these themes are a concern in government policy, and it continued when he decided to join Malaysia in 1963. Threats to the safety of Singapore is still continuing, that when faced with the impact of Indonesia’s confrontation with Malaysia. To deal with a hostile regional environment (surrounded by a large country with a Muslim majority), Singapore, rapid economic development policies based on a domestic environment conducive designed, and far-reaching to guarantee its sovereignty. Since 1969, Singapore was able to consolidate the independence, stability, and survival until now. This success can not be separated from economic success and the investment community values â€‹â€‹and quality of educated Singapore (Singapore Meritocracy). With the limitations imposed by Singapore, both from natural resources, vast territory, and geopolitical position is not favorable due to the strategic location of the event as well as the world struggle for influence, the Singapore government to develop policies Foreign Politics in order to:
1. National Security:
The location of the pinched and narrow area which is the dominant factor unfavorable to defense and security. Therefore, Singapore has always wary of Indonesia and Malaysia, where relations between the two countries have not harmonized with Singapore and to anticipate, Singapore developed: the idea of â€‹â€‹the defense pact in Southeast Asia emphasizing terms Southeast Asian countries will not change borders by force and large countries guarantee the security of Southeast Asia, offers a military base for the U.S. military to improve the quality, support ZOPFAN, and still join the British Commonwealth.
2. National Building:
National integration is a problem faced by Singapore as a multiethnic population. Singapore to Malaysia and Indonesia stressed that although China is the ethnic majority but Singapore is not China the third country.
3. Economic Survival:
The limitation of natural resources, Singapore relied economic needs of other countries even though such vital water supply from Malaysia. Singapore take advantage of its strategic location as a shipping traffic and world trade by opening a free port and enterport world. In addition, Singapore harness manufacturing industry development as the second pillar economy, which is export-oriented, labor-intensive and capital-intensive. Singapore is highly dependent on the world market and foreign investment to meet the needs of its economy. To that end, Singapore needs to create an atmosphere that is conducive to the smooth flow of investments into the country, especially by establishing a balance of power in Southeast Asia and regional cooperation.
Spacious living room becomes very important country in terms of the strategic: for there shall apply strategies to exchange time with space, where the literal meaning is the availability / provision of certain parts of the space occupied by the enemy temporarily, while we prepare for a deadly counterattack, it is only be done if the state space is quite large. But what about Singapore, a country with a “narrow” then open only one option, namely: Pre-emptive Strike or attack before the enemy is ready. Why is that, in the absence of enough space to prepare for the logistical support (space or area behind), preparation for combat use (space or area of â€‹â€‹communication), and is used to maneuver and hit the enemy (or space combat area) and when viewed in terms of strategy, vast state space to determine the level of security of the citizens (security feeling); meaning as a nation how they react and respond to threats from the outside. It is not surprising that the living space can influence or even determine the character of a nation. Even according to Morgenthau nation’s character is one of the factors that determine the strength and resilience of the nation.
Conflicts of Chinesse Overseas Minorities in the Malay Peninsula.
Colonial Southeast Asia has left the term “Overseas Chinese”, which is still retained. But changes in the political atmosphere of the colonial era to independence has been
fundamentally affect the meaning of the term ” Overseas Chinese ” is. In the colonial era the term ” Overseas Chinese ” referred to all ethnic of China (ie the bloody Chinese) who live outside the country of China and the claimed by the Chinese government as citizens.
This claim is recognized byWestern nations who control and dominate Southeast Asia
world politics and international law. By definition, it means that in Southeast Asia free term “Chinese immigrants” should be limited to ethnic Chinese who live outside China and the countries still maintain his Chinese citizenship. But this time the meaning Chinesse Overseas also includes those who have embraced citizenship as citizenship Southeast Asia Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and so on.
Ethnic Chinese Malaysia
Ethnic Chinese Malaysian Chinese is outside the country to be a citizen or permanent resident of Malaysia. Most of them are descendants of Chinese immigrants who arrived in Malaysia around the 15th century until the mid-20th century. In Malaysia, these people are generally referred to as “Chinese” in all languages. The term Chinese Malaysian is rather rarely used in this country. Early Chinese immigrants (from the 15th century in Malacca; 18th-century Penang) form a tribe of the Chinese Peranakan or Straits Chinese who converted many indigenous Malays gradually and differently (part of Penang, Malacca comprehensive), Malay , but still embrace origin. In turn, the subsequent arrivals (in the early 19th century) are still practicing traditional Chinese known as sinkheh (new guest).
The Chinese in Malaysia practice community identity that is very different from the other, and rarely did intermarry with Malays for religious and cultural reasons. Under Malaysian law, ethnic intermarriage not require the Muslims to embrace her partner. Most Malaysian Chinese consider their “chinesse” as an ethnic identity, culture and politics. The Chinese dominated Malaysia since Malaysia’s economy for so long, but since the New Economic Association, introduced by the royal Malaysia to provide equity in the economic life of the country, so that their dominance in the economic life shrinks. Nevertheless, they still form the majority of simple and high-income groups in Malaysia. In 2006, there were 7 to 7.5 million Chinese in Malaysia. Until 2004, they became the richest nation in Malaysia with 40.9 mastery peratus amount of property the state economy.
Riots May 13, 1969 in Malaysia
May 13 Incident is a term for race riots between Chinese and Malays happened in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on May 13, 1969 that left at least 184 people died. In 1963, Malaysia suffered from a wealth disparity between the Chinese groups were generally merchants, who controlled most of the Malaysian economy, the poor, the Malay population. In addition, the Chinese also control most of the country’s wealth. Race riots in Singapore in 1964 is also one of the causes of the country’s exit from Malaysia (formerly Singapore was part of Malaysia), and racial tensions continue. Most Malays are not satisfied with the newly independent states that are willing to appease the ethnic Chinese with their spending.
On May 10, 1969 elections, the ruling Alliance coalition led by the United Malays National Organization (UMNO) suffered a major defeat. China’s largest party faction Democratic Action Party and the Movement got the vote, and the right to hold a victory parade through the path that has been set in Kuala Lumpur. However, the march was noisy and rough and deviate from the track and towards the Malay Kampong Bahru district. Although the Movement Party issued an apology the next day, UMNO announced a rival march from Selangor state chief Dato ‘Harun bin Idris in Jalan Raja Muda. Reportedly, the gathering was told that the Malays are heading the procession was attacked by ethnic Chinese in Setapak, several miles north. The angry protesters quickly held a vengeance by killing two passing motorcyclists, and the riot exploded. When riots took place loudspeakers in mosques are used to encourage the rioters to continue their action. Rioters went into effect in the capital Kuala Lumpur and Selangor areas around the country, with the exception of minor disturbances in Malacca elsewhere in the country remains peaceful. National emergency and a curfew was announced on May 16 but reduced curfew in some parts of the country on May 18 and removed within a week in the center of Kuala Lumpur.
According to police data, 184 people died and 356 were injured, 753 recorded cases of arson and 211 vehicles were destroyed or severely damaged. Other sources put the number who died around 196 people or even more than 200 people. Some even predicted the death toll reached 700 people as a result of the unrest. Issues of class and race that touches the emotions and sentiments of the main theme throughout the election campaign of 1969 resulted in an increased spirit of the Malays and Chinese in Malaysia. During the 1969 election campaign, candidates and members of political parties, especially from the opposition, raising sensitive issues related to national language (Bahasa Melayu), special position of the Malays (Bumiputera) and the democratic rights of non-Malays. This raises racial sentiment and suspicion. May 13 incident has sparked outrage in neighboring Singapore. Singapore Chinese people who are not happy with what happened to the Chinese Malaysian in Malaysia, began to riot against the Singapore Malays in Kampong Glam and Chinatown. Street barricades installed by the military to prevent further violence. But casualties are not as high as in Malaysia.
Since May 13, 1969 racial riots that almost dragged the neighboring country to civil war raged on, the government took the initiative to create a policy package called the New Economic Association in 1971 aimed at addressing the economic gap between the Malays and Chinese. Policy that many believe has lifted the welfare of the ethnic Malays on one side, but the disadvantage of ethnic Chinese and Indians on the other side. With the government’s New Economic Association Malaysia scoring rules requiring 30% stake owned by ethnic Malays, while 40% of non-Malay ethnic destined that included ethnic Chinese and Indians, and the remaining 30% for foreigners.
The policy was successfully raised Malays economic downturn. Though slowly, the accumulation of capital in the hands of the Malays rose sharply from just 4% in 1970 to around 20% in 1997. In the education sector is also presented policy priority to ethnic Malays quota to be able to receive education easily in public universities. Although the quota applies only to 2003, no fewer ethnic minority criticized the policy of favoritism. Portion of 40% shareholding for non-ethnic Malays can not be denied is dominated by ethnic Chinese who are already showing its existence in the economy impressively long before Malaysia became independent in 1957. Between 1970 and 1990, the ethnic Chinese shareholdings experienced a significant spike up to 46%.
Racial Conflict in Singapore
On 16 September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaya together with Sabah and Sarawak. Political competition in the relationship between the People Action Party (PAP) with the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) of the rules of each party from Singapore and Malaysia have an impact on the history of the two countries today. Racial tensions increased dramatically in recent years when it was triggered by the Barisan Socialist tactics of communal sentiment against the federal government of Singapore and Malaysia. From the facts on the ground, the ethnic Chinese in Singapore felt insulted by the discriminatory treatment by federal policy regarding the actions of the group who agreed to recognize the privileges of the Malays in Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia. The policy also provides financial and economic benefits given special treatment to ethnic Malays. Lee Kuan Yew and other political leaders began to struggle for justice and equal treatment of all ethnic groups in Malaysia, with the slogan “Malaysian Malaysia”. Meanwhile, the Malays in Singapore were incited the federal government accusations that the PAP had committed abuses against ethnic Malays there.
The political situation at the external level at that time also began to heat up when President Sukarno of Indonesia declared that free Indonesia confrontation against Malaysia and initiated military attacks and other actions against the new nation, including the bombing of MacDonald House (formerly known as the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Building) in Singapore on March 10, 1965 by Indonesia, which killed three Marines Singaporeans and also conduct activities to provoke the Malays against ethnic Chinese. The number of race riots that occurred led to the enactment of a curfew to secure areas vulnerable to unrest. One of the worst riots ever happened Ethnic Riots in Singapore is the first occurred in 1964 when the great day of the Prophet’s Birthday on July 21, 1964, which killed 23 people and injured 400. Three months later, 2 September 1964, the Indonesian army with volunteers from Malaysia raids, targeting Labis, also in the region of Johor, and for 72 hours back a new race riot burn Singapore. During the riots, food prices soared due to turmoil transport system resulting in difficulties in the community. State and federal government are also experiencing economic conflict, UMNO leaders are afraid that if the economic dominance of Singapore would inevitably political power Kuala Lumpur. Although the merger agreement at the beginning made to establish a common market, eliminating trade tariffs, and tackle unemployment, Singapore continued to face trade restrictions imposed Malaysia. In retaliation, Singapore refused to provide full credit for Sabah and Sarawak of the agreements that were made prior to the economic development in the two states. The intensity of the situation increased conversation that did not end as well as speeches and writings that became a widespread issue on both sides. And caused the leaders of UMNO extremists call the Lee Kuan Yew to be detained.
After going so much competition in the field of economics and politics in the Federation of Malaya, and rampant racial riots inescapable that has claimed many victims on both sides. Finally, on August 9, 1965, Lee Kuan Yew announced the separation of Singapore from the Federation of Malaya, the decision was taken after Malaysian Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman decided to remove Singapore from the federation because it is an alternative to avoid further bloodshed On the same day, the decision This has also been approved by the Malaysian parliament with the results of voting 126-0 for the separation of Singapore. After the official Singapore separated from the Federation of Malaya, Singapore became an independent republic and sovereign with all the security and social issues that must be faced as the country’s newly established thus reaping a negative response from the international community over the issue.
The Orientation of Singaporean Defence
The Singapore Armed Forces (The Singapore Armed Forces) consists of three branches of the Army (the Singapore Army), Air Force (the Republic of Singapore Air Force / RSAF) and Navy (the Republic of Singapore Navy / RSN). Singapore Armed Forces to implement the obligation to its citizens to military service as an active army and reserve forces that can be driven more than 300,000 out of 72,500 active armed forces for the defense of the country. Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) as Singapore’s air defense command, while the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) is responsible for the defense of Singapore against the threat of piracy and protection of territorial boundaries.
Military Rule of Singapore began its strategic geographic location in which the exploitation of resource assets by foreign colonial natives and residents. Archeological excavations have been recovered from the remains of the port and fortress forms of the pre-colonial era in Singapore. Sir Stamford Raffles, the founder of modern Singapore has chosen Singapore in 1819 to build a new colony with a concentration on security for British interests in the Far East against the Dutch influence. Singapore thus play an active role against the interests of the British military for decades, especially in the years of world war. In 1965 Singapore gained independence, but Singapore has only two infantry regiments at that time commanded by British officers, and was formed by almost all foreigners. A small country surrounded by great neighbors led to Singapore should immediately establish a military force comparable to the countries before, so in the end Singapore secretly contacted Israel to send military experts to help Singapore build a model of the defense as part of the Force Armament Israel (The Israel Defense Forces).
b. Defense Policy
Deterrence and diplomacy has been a fundamental principle in Singapore’s military defense policy, military in recent years Singapore has developed an extensive network with the armed forces of other countries. Currently, Singapore is also increasing concerns about the security of international peace and relief operations, particularly in the security of peace operations in East Timor and the Gulf, and also in the handling of the tsunami catastrophe in the Indian Ocean in 2004, Nias Earthquake in 2005 and Earthquakes in Yogyakarta and Central Java in Indonesia in 2006.
Based on the opinion of a military and strategic analyst Tim Huxley in Defending the Lion City, Singapore is known to apply the doctrine of military defense line, military doctrine is the level of military planning between national strategy and unit level planning tactics, techniques and procedures. In a statement to the press, the Ministry of Defence Singapore illustrates that the Singapore Armed Forces is the antidote to attacks from outside forces which prevent the war and if it fails, then quickly secured to achieve victory.
c. Defense Total
In 1984, the concept of Total Defence was introduced to reinforce the need for all countries, not only in the military field, but also contribute and work together on issues of national defense. Total Defence concept consists of five aspects, namely Military Defence, Civil Defence, Economic Defence, Social Defence, Defence Psychology.
d. Army Personnel Strength
Population size does not allow Singapore citizens to form a standing army entirely, for which in 1967 introduced the National Service to build a power source in any individual citizen or better known as the draft that can be driven quickly and effectively worth. Today, the armed forces numbered about 32,000 personnel career and coupled with the number 39,800 active military service in the National Service. Number of Main Singapore Armed Forces currently numbers 350,000 or commonly referred to as Operationally-Ready National Servicemen (ORNSmen) while the National Service (NS) is a term military service for all male Singapore citizens and second generation permanent residents who have reached the age of 18.
Singapore Armed Forces policy leads nation in which the Malays have the same religion and the nation with the largest neighboring countries namely Malaysia Singapore and Indonesia which have been the source of controversy over the years. Malay people actually excluded from the obligation of military service from the beginning of the draft legislation between 1967 and 1977 and after the policy was issued, and then set out only to serve in the police and civil defense (fire brigade) and not active in the battle. In 1987, Lee Hsien Loong (second Defence Minister) said that “if there is a conflict, in which the Singapore Armed Forces are called to defend the homeland, we do not want to put our soldiers in a difficult position where their emotional for the nation against the religion “and then in and The Roar of the Lion City (2007), military analyst Sean Walsh claimed that” official discrimination against the Malay population remains a nation that is open secret. “Singapore Ministry of Defence confirmed an instruction to negate Pilot of the Malay race, Command Military and air defense personnel and issuing statements that the proportion of eligible Malays nation selected as a specialist and expert training is comparable to the proportion of non-Malay nation that meets the requirements. in National Service, women in military service, but was discharged after a turn in the position Experts such as assault and combat pilot, while the non-combat instance largely in the logistics in recent years. levels lineup positions available for women who have developed constantly, but still limited, the Singapore Air Force in July 2007 has been inaugurated an exhibition layout light contributed to women in the armed forces.
e. National Service
National Service was compulsory military service for male citizens who have reached the age of 18 years and this obligation can not be suspended for educational reasons. Full-time national service (NSF) in the first three years of the commission and another two years in office, but was later changed to two years and six months for the army with the rank of Corporal or higher on it, and two years for the post of Lance Corporal or lower underneath. In June 2004 the NSF back shorten the period to two years of compulsory military service for all men who work full time, this is due to changes in population demographics and recruitment of soldiers in each year. During stints at the NSF, the soldiers will be considered to the extent of their preparedness deployed in the field (operationally-ready date) or known as operationally-ready national servicemen (NSmen). Most NSmen to undergo military training in a turnaround time of 10 years military service in the placement of the unit, and then be on call every year for training, training courses and other physical tests.
All the attacking force must follow a three-month basic training (Basic Military Trainning) at the Basic Military Training Centre, located off the coast of Pulau tekong, or at a specified military units directly. Recruitment is done by a process such as skills courses in the field of battle, in the forest for basic survival, camouflage, individual weapons training operation, and marksmanship. During the training, they are also required to take a skills program and potential positions after which they were placed in Officer Cadambilet School or the School of Infantry Specialists respectively. In the recruitment process have also put them in different units or schools, where they can continue in specialized vocational training.
g. Military Education
At first, officials commissioned officer rank officers from Singapore after they obtain advanced level A or level of the General Certificate of Education which began in the third training. At the time of the recruitment process has been reduced, the Singapore Armed Forces still criticized the use of the promotion system based more on education and scholarships than proving proficiency graduates. The officers receive initial training at three institutions namely leadership Officer Cadet School (OCS) at the SAFTI Military Institute (SAFTI MI) is a headquarters of the Corps Officer, then as they progress, they can proceed to the formal military education at the SAF Advanced Schools and in the Singapore Command and Staff College are also located in the SAFTI Military Institute (SAFTI MI). An officer is a member of the armed forces, naval or other armed services have a responsibility to the position. Officer Cadet School (OCS) is one of several training bases established in SAFTI Military Institute as a whole where the SAFTI Military Institute is a Singapore military training institution specialized training of officers of the Singapore Armed Forces, one of the Singapore Command and Staff College ( SCSC) which is one of five schools that are owned by officers SAFTI Military Institute.
At the same time, the program was first given skill is leadership training at the School of Infantry Specialists (SISPEC) at the headquarters of Sand Gain which is the headquarters of the Warrant Officer and Specialist Corps, then in the following year Platoon Sergeant and Sergeant Major Company receives further instructions of Advanced Specialist Training Wing (ASTW) in SISPEC. School of Infantry Specialists (SISPEC) is a military training center for skills program in the Singapore Armed Forces, based in Pasir Profit is an installation of the Singapore Armed Forces. In most armed forces are in charge of controlling platoon sergeant platoon members, guiding and supporting the command of his platoon in the lead units each.
Officer Cadet School (OCS) and the School of Infantry Specialists (SISPEC) has a basic curriculum infantry, especially for the training of the armed forces officers and WOSPECs headed by various training institutions such as the SAF Medical Training Institute (SMTI), Signals Institute (SI), Engineer Training Institute (ETI), Armour Training Institute (ATI), Supply & Transport Centre (STC), Ordnance Engineering Training Institute (OETI).
h. Defence Foreign Relations
Singapore is a member of the Five Power Defence Arrangement with the UK, Australia, New Zealand and Malaysia, FPDA defense is designed to replace the role of English in Singapore and Malaysia, FPDA requires its members to consult on any issues threat to the external defense of the Armed Forces of the Commonwealth which is headquartered in Singapore. FPDA is a series of defense cooperation relationship established under a bilateral agreement between the UK, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore signed in 1971. Singapore has consistently supported full U.S. military presence in the Asia Pacific region. In 1990, the United States and Singapore have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to allow the United States Air Force for access to military facilities in Singapore Paya Lebar Airbase and the Sembawang wharf. After signing a memorandum of understanding earlier, the U.S. Navy logistics unit established in Singapore in 1992, and then the attacker aircraft belonging to the United States started flying periodically to Singapore for exercises including U.S. warships. In 1999, a memorandum of understanding containing amended to permit U.S. warships docked at the pier for Changi.
The Singapore Armed Forces is also intended for international humanitarian assistance mission that includes the UN peacekeeping force in foreign countries such as Kosovo, Kuwait, and East Timor, including participating in the multinational forces in Iraq, sending four military CH-47 Chinook helicopters and 45 personnel to assist rescue and evacuation of victims of Hurricane Katrina in the United States as well as providing equipment and medicine for the dental health of the people of Afghanistan.
Threats toward Singapore
Singapore is a small country if the terms of geographical size and its natural resources. Singapore’s majority ethnic Chinese population is in the neighboring countries whose population is ethnic Malay majority and a much larger geographic size, population, and natural resources so that Singapore has always always be in the region of uncertainty. These conditions will determine Singapore’s national security concept. Furthermore, Singapore’s national secu
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