Threat Perception Of Singapore Toward Indonesia And Malaysia History Essay
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The ability of economies of Southeast Asia particularly Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia are reflected in the rate of economic growth increased rapidly until 1997 (when the economic crisis started to hit), has encouraged and enabled the acquisition and armaments dynamics. Then from the perspective of having a model of technology (technological imperative), the development of the local defense industry can contribute to the dynamics of weaponry in Southeast Asia. The end of the Cold War allowed the development of production, in addition to the skills themselves also because of licensing manufacturers are no longer confined to the West.
Dynamics armament that occurred in the post-Cold War will be investigated relation (interactive relationships and non-interactive) with the following variables: From the international environment, fundamental changes in the regional security configuration above, when the post-Cold War perceived by Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia as:
1. The shift in the defense structure that requires them to participate maintain and ensure their own interests by increasing the quality and quantity of weapons development;
2. The end of the cold war is perceived as a change in the security threat of global conflict threat to local security threat salience of intra and extra-regional conflicts;
3. Necessity countries in Southeast Asia to arm yourself with the increasing military projection of regional powers are viewed as the security dilemma, and
4. Improving the quality and quantity of armaments development of Southeast Asian countries is made possible and facilitated by the ease in the arms market. While the domestic environment post-cold war weapons impact the dynamics of Southeast Asian countries in terms of:
1. Improving the quality and quantity of armaments development of Southeast Asian countries is made possible and facilitated by the capabilities of the economy, and
2. Improving the quality and quantity of armaments development of Southeast Asian countries caused the development of the local defense industry as a manifestation of the importance of technology transfer to developing countries.
To determine the dynamics armament and military posture of Singapore to Indonesia and Malaysia, can be seen through exposure to three key indicators comprising:
1. Expenditure budget military / defense;
2. Development of strength (personnel) of the armed forces, and
3. The dynamics of ownership / acquisition and deployment of the weapon.
Spending budget military / defense of a country or group of countries, can be seen through several indicators:
1. Military spending in constant prices, expenses are calculated based on the fixed exchange rate (in this case the U.S. dollar) as a means of currency exchange "official" between countries;
2. Military spending in the price level walking, expenses are calculated based on the exchange rate of the local currency of each country;
3. Military spending as a proportion of GDP (Gross Domestic Product / GDP) of a country,
4. Military budget was calculated on the basis of proportion per capita (income per capita) of a country.
The military budget is the clearest expression of the efforts of the nation to pay for security. Military spending is a commitment or funding organization for the purposes of securing and improving security of the state of the military threat, whether physical (real) or psychological (at the level of perception), internal or external. The use of the military budget of a country usually have a variety of functions following the financial system of each country, but generally allocated to the following: regular budget (salary) active and retired soldiers, buying new weapons, research and development, maintenance and operations, construction and development of infrastructure. The percentage allocation of each budget item, in addition to different each year, is different for each country corresponding financial capacity of each country.
Threat Perception of Singapore toward Indonesia and Malaysia
Threat Perception Singapore
As the newly established Singapore continue to seek salvation (survival), regularity (order), and prosperity, it is becoming a very dominant theme of political Singapore. Since I was in the British colonies, these themes are a concern in government policy, and it continued when he decided to join Malaysia in 1963. Threats to the safety of Singapore is still continuing, that when faced with the impact of Indonesia's confrontation with Malaysia. To deal with a hostile regional environment (surrounded by a large country with a Muslim majority), Singapore, rapid economic development policies based on a domestic environment conducive designed, and far-reaching to guarantee its sovereignty. Since 1969, Singapore was able to consolidate the independence, stability, and survival until now. This success can not be separated from economic success and the investment community values â€‹â€‹and quality of educated Singapore (Singapore Meritocracy). With the limitations imposed by Singapore, both from natural resources, vast territory, and geopolitical position is not favorable due to the strategic location of the event as well as the world struggle for influence, the Singapore government to develop policies Foreign Politics in order to:
1. National Security:
The location of the pinched and narrow area which is the dominant factor unfavorable to defense and security. Therefore, Singapore has always wary of Indonesia and Malaysia, where relations between the two countries have not harmonized with Singapore and to anticipate, Singapore developed: the idea of â€‹â€‹the defense pact in Southeast Asia emphasizing terms Southeast Asian countries will not change borders by force and large countries guarantee the security of Southeast Asia, offers a military base for the U.S. military to improve the quality, support ZOPFAN, and still join the British Commonwealth.
2. National Building:
National integration is a problem faced by Singapore as a multiethnic population. Singapore to Malaysia and Indonesia stressed that although China is the ethnic majority but Singapore is not China the third country.
3. Economic Survival:
The limitation of natural resources, Singapore relied economic needs of other countries even though such vital water supply from Malaysia. Singapore take advantage of its strategic location as a shipping traffic and world trade by opening a free port and enterport world. In addition, Singapore harness manufacturing industry development as the second pillar economy, which is export-oriented, labor-intensive and capital-intensive. Singapore is highly dependent on the world market and foreign investment to meet the needs of its economy. To that end, Singapore needs to create an atmosphere that is conducive to the smooth flow of investments into the country, especially by establishing a balance of power in Southeast Asia and regional cooperation.
Spacious living room becomes very important country in terms of the strategic: for there shall apply strategies to exchange time with space, where the literal meaning is the availability / provision of certain parts of the space occupied by the enemy temporarily, while we prepare for a deadly counterattack, it is only be done if the state space is quite large. But what about Singapore, a country with a "narrow" then open only one option, namely: Pre-emptive Strike or attack before the enemy is ready. Why is that, in the absence of enough space to prepare for the logistical support (space or area behind), preparation for combat use (space or area of â€‹â€‹communication), and is used to maneuver and hit the enemy (or space combat area) and when viewed in terms of strategy, vast state space to determine the level of security of the citizens (security feeling); meaning as a nation how they react and respond to threats from the outside. It is not surprising that the living space can influence or even determine the character of a nation. Even according to Morgenthau nation's character is one of the factors that determine the strength and resilience of the nation.
Conflicts of Chinesse Overseas Minorities in the Malay Peninsula.
Colonial Southeast Asia has left the term "Overseas Chinese", which is still retained. But changes in the political atmosphere of the colonial era to independence has been
fundamentally affect the meaning of the term " Overseas Chinese " is. In the colonial era the term " Overseas Chinese " referred to all ethnic of China (ie the bloody Chinese) who live outside the country of China and the claimed by the Chinese government as citizens.
This claim is recognized byWestern nations who control and dominate Southeast Asia
world politics and international law. By definition, it means that in Southeast Asia free term "Chinese immigrants" should be limited to ethnic Chinese who live outside China and the countries still maintain his Chinese citizenship. But this time the meaning Chinesse Overseas also includes those who have embraced citizenship as citizenship Southeast Asia Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and so on.
Ethnic Chinese Malaysia
Ethnic Chinese Malaysian Chinese is outside the country to be a citizen or permanent resident of Malaysia. Most of them are descendants of Chinese immigrants who arrived in Malaysia around the 15th century until the mid-20th century. In Malaysia, these people are generally referred to as "Chinese" in all languages. The term Chinese Malaysian is rather rarely used in this country. Early Chinese immigrants (from the 15th century in Malacca; 18th-century Penang) form a tribe of the Chinese Peranakan or Straits Chinese who converted many indigenous Malays gradually and differently (part of Penang, Malacca comprehensive), Malay , but still embrace origin. In turn, the subsequent arrivals (in the early 19th century) are still practicing traditional Chinese known as sinkheh (new guest).
The Chinese in Malaysia practice community identity that is very different from the other, and rarely did intermarry with Malays for religious and cultural reasons. Under Malaysian law, ethnic intermarriage not require the Muslims to embrace her partner. Most Malaysian Chinese consider their "chinesse" as an ethnic identity, culture and politics. The Chinese dominated Malaysia since Malaysia's economy for so long, but since the New Economic Association, introduced by the royal Malaysia to provide equity in the economic life of the country, so that their dominance in the economic life shrinks. Nevertheless, they still form the majority of simple and high-income groups in Malaysia. In 2006, there were 7 to 7.5 million Chinese in Malaysia. Until 2004, they became the richest nation in Malaysia with 40.9 mastery peratus amount of property the state economy.
Riots May 13, 1969 in Malaysia
May 13 Incident is a term for race riots between Chinese and Malays happened in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on May 13, 1969 that left at least 184 people died. In 1963, Malaysia suffered from a wealth disparity between the Chinese groups were generally merchants, who controlled most of the Malaysian economy, the poor, the Malay population. In addition, the Chinese also control most of the country's wealth. Race riots in Singapore in 1964 is also one of the causes of the country's exit from Malaysia (formerly Singapore was part of Malaysia), and racial tensions continue. Most Malays are not satisfied with the newly independent states that are willing to appease the ethnic Chinese with their spending.
On May 10, 1969 elections, the ruling Alliance coalition led by the United Malays National Organization (UMNO) suffered a major defeat. China's largest party faction Democratic Action Party and the Movement got the vote, and the right to hold a victory parade through the path that has been set in Kuala Lumpur. However, the march was noisy and rough and deviate from the track and towards the Malay Kampong Bahru district. Although the Movement Party issued an apology the next day, UMNO announced a rival march from Selangor state chief Dato 'Harun bin Idris in Jalan Raja Muda. Reportedly, the gathering was told that the Malays are heading the procession was attacked by ethnic Chinese in Setapak, several miles north. The angry protesters quickly held a vengeance by killing two passing motorcyclists, and the riot exploded. When riots took place loudspeakers in mosques are used to encourage the rioters to continue their action. Rioters went into effect in the capital Kuala Lumpur and Selangor areas around the country, with the exception of minor disturbances in Malacca elsewhere in the country remains peaceful. National emergency and a curfew was announced on May 16 but reduced curfew in some parts of the country on May 18 and removed within a week in the center of Kuala Lumpur.
According to police data, 184 people died and 356 were injured, 753 recorded cases of arson and 211 vehicles were destroyed or severely damaged. Other sources put the number who died around 196 people or even more than 200 people. Some even predicted the death toll reached 700 people as a result of the unrest. Issues of class and race that touches the emotions and sentiments of the main theme throughout the election campaign of 1969 resulted in an increased spirit of the Malays and Chinese in Malaysia. During the 1969 election campaign, candidates and members of political parties, especially from the opposition, raising sensitive issues related to national language (Bahasa Melayu), special position of the Malays (Bumiputera) and the democratic rights of non-Malays. This raises racial sentiment and suspicion. May 13 incident has sparked outrage in neighboring Singapore. Singapore Chinese people who are not happy with what happened to the Chinese Malaysian in Malaysia, began to riot against the Singapore Malays in Kampong Glam and Chinatown. Street barricades installed by the military to prevent further violence. But casualties are not as high as in Malaysia.
Since May 13, 1969 racial riots that almost dragged the neighboring country to civil war raged on, the government took the initiative to create a policy package called the New Economic Association in 1971 aimed at addressing the economic gap between the Malays and Chinese. Policy that many believe has lifted the welfare of the ethnic Malays on one side, but the disadvantage of ethnic Chinese and Indians on the other side. With the government's New Economic Association Malaysia scoring rules requiring 30% stake owned by ethnic Malays, while 40% of non-Malay ethnic destined that included ethnic Chinese and Indians, and the remaining 30% for foreigners.
The policy was successfully raised Malays economic downturn. Though slowly, the accumulation of capital in the hands of the Malays rose sharply from just 4% in 1970 to around 20% in 1997. In the education sector is also presented policy priority to ethnic Malays quota to be able to receive education easily in public universities. Although the quota applies only to 2003, no fewer ethnic minority criticized the policy of favoritism. Portion of 40% shareholding for non-ethnic Malays can not be denied is dominated by ethnic Chinese who are already showing its existence in the economy impressively long before Malaysia became independent in 1957. Between 1970 and 1990, the ethnic Chinese shareholdings experienced a significant spike up to 46%.
Racial Conflict in Singapore
On 16 September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaya together with Sabah and Sarawak. Political competition in the relationship between the People Action Party (PAP) with the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) of the rules of each party from Singapore and Malaysia have an impact on the history of the two countries today. Racial tensions increased dramatically in recent years when it was triggered by the Barisan Socialist tactics of communal sentiment against the federal government of Singapore and Malaysia. From the facts on the ground, the ethnic Chinese in Singapore felt insulted by the discriminatory treatment by federal policy regarding the actions of the group who agreed to recognize the privileges of the Malays in Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia. The policy also provides financial and economic benefits given special treatment to ethnic Malays. Lee Kuan Yew and other political leaders began to struggle for justice and equal treatment of all ethnic groups in Malaysia, with the slogan "Malaysian Malaysia". Meanwhile, the Malays in Singapore were incited the federal government accusations that the PAP had committed abuses against ethnic Malays there.
The political situation at the external level at that time also began to heat up when President Sukarno of Indonesia declared that free Indonesia confrontation against Malaysia and initiated military attacks and other actions against the new nation, including the bombing of MacDonald House (formerly known as the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Building) in Singapore on March 10, 1965 by Indonesia, which killed three Marines Singaporeans and also conduct activities to provoke the Malays against ethnic Chinese. The number of race riots that occurred led to the enactment of a curfew to secure areas vulnerable to unrest. One of the worst riots ever happened Ethnic Riots in Singapore is the first occurred in 1964 when the great day of the Prophet's Birthday on July 21, 1964, which killed 23 people and injured 400. Three months later, 2 September 1964, the Indonesian army with volunteers from Malaysia raids, targeting Labis, also in the region of Johor, and for 72 hours back a new race riot burn Singapore. During the riots, food prices soared due to turmoil transport system resulting in difficulties in the community. State and federal government are also experiencing economic conflict, UMNO leaders are afraid that if the economic dominance of Singapore would inevitably political power Kuala Lumpur. Although the merger agreement at the beginning made to establish a common market, eliminating trade tariffs, and tackle unemployment, Singapore continued to face trade restrictions imposed Malaysia. In retaliation, Singapore refused to provide full credit for Sabah and Sarawak of the agreements that were made prior to the economic development in the two states. The intensity of the situation increased conversation that did not end as well as speeches and writings that became a widespread issue on both sides. And caused the leaders of UMNO extremists call the Lee Kuan Yew to be detained.
After going so much competition in the field of economics and politics in the Federation of Malaya, and rampant racial riots inescapable that has claimed many victims on both sides. Finally, on August 9, 1965, Lee Kuan Yew announced the separation of Singapore from the Federation of Malaya, the decision was taken after Malaysian Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman decided to remove Singapore from the federation because it is an alternative to avoid further bloodshed On the same day, the decision This has also been approved by the Malaysian parliament with the results of voting 126-0 for the separation of Singapore. After the official Singapore separated from the Federation of Malaya, Singapore became an independent republic and sovereign with all the security and social issues that must be faced as the country's newly established thus reaping a negative response from the international community over the issue.
The Orientation of Singaporean Defence
The Singapore Armed Forces (The Singapore Armed Forces) consists of three branches of the Army (the Singapore Army), Air Force (the Republic of Singapore Air Force / RSAF) and Navy (the Republic of Singapore Navy / RSN). Singapore Armed Forces to implement the obligation to its citizens to military service as an active army and reserve forces that can be driven more than 300,000 out of 72,500 active armed forces for the defense of the country. Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) as Singapore's air defense command, while the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) is responsible for the defense of Singapore against the threat of piracy and protection of territorial boundaries.
Military Rule of Singapore began its strategic geographic location in which the exploitation of resource assets by foreign colonial natives and residents. Archeological excavations have been recovered from the remains of the port and fortress forms of the pre-colonial era in Singapore. Sir Stamford Raffles, the founder of modern Singapore has chosen Singapore in 1819 to build a new colony with a concentration on security for British interests in the Far East against the Dutch influence. Singapore thus play an active role against the interests of the British military for decades, especially in the years of world war. In 1965 Singapore gained independence, but Singapore has only two infantry regiments at that time commanded by British officers, and was formed by almost all foreigners. A small country surrounded by great neighbors led to Singapore should immediately establish a military force comparable to the countries before, so in the end Singapore secretly contacted Israel to send military experts to help Singapore build a model of the defense as part of the Force Armament Israel (The Israel Defense Forces).
b. Defense Policy
Deterrence and diplomacy has been a fundamental principle in Singapore's military defense policy, military in recent years Singapore has developed an extensive network with the armed forces of other countries. Currently, Singapore is also increasing concerns about the security of international peace and relief operations, particularly in the security of peace operations in East Timor and the Gulf, and also in the handling of the tsunami catastrophe in the Indian Ocean in 2004, Nias Earthquake in 2005 and Earthquakes in Yogyakarta and Central Java in Indonesia in 2006.
Based on the opinion of a military and strategic analyst Tim Huxley in Defending the Lion City, Singapore is known to apply the doctrine of military defense line, military doctrine is the level of military planning between national strategy and unit level planning tactics, techniques and procedures. In a statement to the press, the Ministry of Defence Singapore illustrates that the Singapore Armed Forces is the antidote to attacks from outside forces which prevent the war and if it fails, then quickly secured to achieve victory.
c. Defense Total
In 1984, the concept of Total Defence was introduced to reinforce the need for all countries, not only in the military field, but also contribute and work together on issues of national defense. Total Defence concept consists of five aspects, namely Military Defence, Civil Defence, Economic Defence, Social Defence, Defence Psychology.
d. Army Personnel Strength
Population size does not allow Singapore citizens to form a standing army entirely, for which in 1967 introduced the National Service to build a power source in any individual citizen or better known as the draft that can be driven quickly and effectively worth. Today, the armed forces numbered about 32,000 personnel career and coupled with the number 39,800 active military service in the National Service. Number of Main Singapore Armed Forces currently numbers 350,000 or commonly referred to as Operationally-Ready National Servicemen (ORNSmen) while the National Service (NS) is a term military service for all male Singapore citizens and second generation permanent residents who have reached the age of 18.
Singapore Armed Forces policy leads nation in which the Malays have the same religion and the nation with the largest neighboring countries namely Malaysia Singapore and Indonesia which have been the source of controversy over the years. Malay people actually excluded from the obligation of military service from the beginning of the draft legislation between 1967 and 1977 and after the policy was issued, and then set out only to serve in the police and civil defense (fire brigade) and not active in the battle. In 1987, Lee Hsien Loong (second Defence Minister) said that "if there is a conflict, in which the Singapore Armed Forces are called to defend the homeland, we do not want to put our soldiers in a difficult position where their emotional for the nation against the religion "and then in and The Roar of the Lion City (2007), military analyst Sean Walsh claimed that" official discrimination against the Malay population remains a nation that is open secret. "Singapore Ministry of Defence confirmed an instruction to negate Pilot of the Malay race, Command Military and air defense personnel and issuing statements that the proportion of eligible Malays nation selected as a specialist and expert training is comparable to the proportion of non-Malay nation that meets the requirements. in National Service, women in military service, but was discharged after a turn in the position Experts such as assault and combat pilot, while the non-combat instance largely in the logistics in recent years. levels lineup positions available for women who have developed constantly, but still limited, the Singapore Air Force in July 2007 has been inaugurated an exhibition layout light contributed to women in the armed forces.
e. National Service
National Service was compulsory military service for male citizens who have reached the age of 18 years and this obligation can not be suspended for educational reasons. Full-time national service (NSF) in the first three years of the commission and another two years in office, but was later changed to two years and six months for the army with the rank of Corporal or higher on it, and two years for the post of Lance Corporal or lower underneath. In June 2004 the NSF back shorten the period to two years of compulsory military service for all men who work full time, this is due to changes in population demographics and recruitment of soldiers in each year. During stints at the NSF, the soldiers will be considered to the extent of their preparedness deployed in the field (operationally-ready date) or known as operationally-ready national servicemen (NSmen). Most NSmen to undergo military training in a turnaround time of 10 years military service in the placement of the unit, and then be on call every year for training, training courses and other physical tests.
All the attacking force must follow a three-month basic training (Basic Military Trainning) at the Basic Military Training Centre, located off the coast of Pulau tekong, or at a specified military units directly. Recruitment is done by a process such as skills courses in the field of battle, in the forest for basic survival, camouflage, individual weapons training operation, and marksmanship. During the training, they are also required to take a skills program and potential positions after which they were placed in Officer Cadambilet School or the School of Infantry Specialists respectively. In the recruitment process have also put them in different units or schools, where they can continue in specialized vocational training.
g. Military Education
At first, officials commissioned officer rank officers from Singapore after they obtain advanced level A or level of the General Certificate of Education which began in the third training. At the time of the recruitment process has been reduced, the Singapore Armed Forces still criticized the use of the promotion system based more on education and scholarships than proving proficiency graduates. The officers receive initial training at three institutions namely leadership Officer Cadet School (OCS) at the SAFTI Military Institute (SAFTI MI) is a headquarters of the Corps Officer, then as they progress, they can proceed to the formal military education at the SAF Advanced Schools and in the Singapore Command and Staff College are also located in the SAFTI Military Institute (SAFTI MI). An officer is a member of the armed forces, naval or other armed services have a responsibility to the position. Officer Cadet School (OCS) is one of several training bases established in SAFTI Military Institute as a whole where the SAFTI Military Institute is a Singapore military training institution specialized training of officers of the Singapore Armed Forces, one of the Singapore Command and Staff College ( SCSC) which is one of five schools that are owned by officers SAFTI Military Institute.
At the same time, the program was first given skill is leadership training at the School of Infantry Specialists (SISPEC) at the headquarters of Sand Gain which is the headquarters of the Warrant Officer and Specialist Corps, then in the following year Platoon Sergeant and Sergeant Major Company receives further instructions of Advanced Specialist Training Wing (ASTW) in SISPEC. School of Infantry Specialists (SISPEC) is a military training center for skills program in the Singapore Armed Forces, based in Pasir Profit is an installation of the Singapore Armed Forces. In most armed forces are in charge of controlling platoon sergeant platoon members, guiding and supporting the command of his platoon in the lead units each.
Officer Cadet School (OCS) and the School of Infantry Specialists (SISPEC) has a basic curriculum infantry, especially for the training of the armed forces officers and WOSPECs headed by various training institutions such as the SAF Medical Training Institute (SMTI), Signals Institute (SI), Engineer Training Institute (ETI), Armour Training Institute (ATI), Supply & Transport Centre (STC), Ordnance Engineering Training Institute (OETI).
h. Defence Foreign Relations
Singapore is a member of the Five Power Defence Arrangement with the UK, Australia, New Zealand and Malaysia, FPDA defense is designed to replace the role of English in Singapore and Malaysia, FPDA requires its members to consult on any issues threat to the external defense of the Armed Forces of the Commonwealth which is headquartered in Singapore. FPDA is a series of defense cooperation relationship established under a bilateral agreement between the UK, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore signed in 1971. Singapore has consistently supported full U.S. military presence in the Asia Pacific region. In 1990, the United States and Singapore have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to allow the United States Air Force for access to military facilities in Singapore Paya Lebar Airbase and the Sembawang wharf. After signing a memorandum of understanding earlier, the U.S. Navy logistics unit established in Singapore in 1992, and then the attacker aircraft belonging to the United States started flying periodically to Singapore for exercises including U.S. warships. In 1999, a memorandum of understanding containing amended to permit U.S. warships docked at the pier for Changi.
The Singapore Armed Forces is also intended for international humanitarian assistance mission that includes the UN peacekeeping force in foreign countries such as Kosovo, Kuwait, and East Timor, including participating in the multinational forces in Iraq, sending four military CH-47 Chinook helicopters and 45 personnel to assist rescue and evacuation of victims of Hurricane Katrina in the United States as well as providing equipment and medicine for the dental health of the people of Afghanistan.
Threats toward Singapore
Singapore is a small country if the terms of geographical size and its natural resources. Singapore's majority ethnic Chinese population is in the neighboring countries whose population is ethnic Malay majority and a much larger geographic size, population, and natural resources so that Singapore has always always be in the region of uncertainty. These conditions will determine Singapore's national security concept. Furthermore, Singapore's national security can not be separated from consideration of the decision makers of the union territory, domestic political stability, and economic growth.
Territorial integrity is the most fundamental question of leaders in Singapore, which is dominated by the People's Movement Party (PAP), considering the origins and independence of Singapore. Until 1963, Singapore was part of the Federation of Malaysia. However, since 1965, Singapore broke away from Malaysia and in less than two months in the same year became an official member of the United Nations. Yet Malaysia does not fully accept the existence of Singapore as a sovereign state. The decision-making Singapore look there are some things that are a potential threat to state security basics. This threat is potentially hinder the survival of the city-state. As a small country poor in natural resources and Singapore is required to specify clearly the forms of threat that will give convenience to anticipate.
The potential is assumed to be the main threat comes from the geographical scope of which puts Singapore in it. Indonesia and Malaysia as the two countries are geographically much larger and dominated by ethnic Malays continue to cause concern to the leaders of Singapore. They were always aware that the country is a small country and the majority of the Chinese population. Differences of opinion with Malaysia and Indonesia, Singapore alternating color relations with these two neighbors. The presence of the President of Israel, Chaim Herzog, to Singapore, Malaysia could lead to protests of the people because they are not sensitive to the concerns of the Muslims towards the Palestinian issue.
In addition, the PAP elites are also very concerned about the aggressiveness of Vietnam in Indo China. The tendency to think this does not stop soon though ultimately be resolved because they conflict Cambodia's departure from the Soviet Union Cam Ranh Bay also raises another issue, namely whether America will again present in Southeast Asia in the middle of the growing strength of China as a country that looks the most ambitious regional. Concerns over China makes Singapore very late in opening relations with China compared to other neighboring countries.
As of the end of the decade of the 80s Another threat is always a concern PAP elites are communist movement based in Malaysia and supported by China. This threat began to fade from the Communist Party of Malaysia broke up in line with the collapse of the Soviet Union as one of the world's largest communist bastion. Communist irrelevant for decision makers in Malaysia and Singapore, of course. The end of the Cold War, unexpectedly ASEAN countries, opening the door for the emergence of issues of human rights and democratization launched America. American human rights policy poses a threat to Singapore's own is not likely shy away from these allegations because the PAP is a dominant party system. In addition, Singapore has also implemented the Internal Security Act (Internal Security Act), which allows the government abuse of power in the interests of the regime. However, since the anti-terrorist campaign launched by U.S. President George.W.Bush, internal security policies is no longer a concern because it is consistent with U.S. foreign policy. Another potential threat is the Singapore economy dependent on international trade, in addition to water dependence on Malaysia and Indonesia. As a resource-poor countries Singapore tries hard to be a core player in the international trading system.
Cooperation of Singapore and Israel in providing the Military Power
Christmas Eve, 1965, is the unofficial date of the start of the 'love story' between Israel and Singapore, an affair that was kept a deep, dark secret. The international press, like the Israeli media, tried to bring the tale to light. Occasionally, scraps of information leaked out; some were published, some were denied, many were disregarded. The fear that the ties would be terminated if they became public knowledge had its effect. Israel imposed a total blackout on the story and the secret was preserved.
But ultimately the mysterious history between Israel and Singapore came to light. In his book, "From Third World to First: The Singapore Story 1965-2000," published in 2000, Lee Kuan Yew, Singapore's founding father and its first prime minister, disclosed the secret that had been kept for almost 40 years: It was the Israel Defense Forces that established the Singaporean army. Lee wrote, "To disguise their presence, we called them `Mexicans.' They looked swarthy enough."
Israel and Singapore have enjoyed excellent political and economic relations ever since a team of IDF (Israeli Defense Forces) officers, known as the "Mexicans" helped Singapore establish its army. Singapore's army is today considered the strongest and most advanced of the military forces in Southeast Asia. The alliance between the Israeli and Singaporean defense establishments intensified and expanded, and it now encompasses cooperation between the two countries' military and defense industries
At the same time, in the wake of reports sent by Kidron and Carmel, the Israeli defense establishment deployed to supply military aid to Singapore. In discussions conducted by the chief of staff, Yitzhak Rabin, with the participation of the deputy chief of staff and head of the Operations Branch, Ezer Weizmann, it was decided to make Major General Rehavam Ze'evi, who was then deputy head of the Operations Branch, responsible for building the Singaporean army. Ze'evi (nicknamed "Gandhi" ) paid a secret visit to Singapore and the preparatory work began on his return. "Gandhi said he wanted to create an ideal army for Singapore, something we hadn't built here," Carmel says. "Instead of setting up a Defense Ministry and a General Staff, Gandhi suggested an integrated organization, a more economical structure. So there wouldn't be too many generals and too few soldiers.
Ze'evi appointed Elazari, who worked under him in the Operations Branch, as head of the team he established. Lieutenant Colonel Yehuda Golan, then-commander of an armored division (he retired from the IDF with the rank of brigadier general), was subsequently added to the team. Some members of the team "concentrated on writing the chapters that dealt with building army bases. I wrote the chapters dealing with the establishment of an infantry," Golan says. Initially they produced the "Brown Book," dealing with combat doctrine, followed by the "Blue Book," dealing with the creation of the Defense Ministry and intelligence bodies. The Brown Book was translated into English and sent to Singapore's government for its perusal. In October 1965, a military delegation from Singapore arrived in Israel.
On December 24, 1965, about five months after Singapore became an independent state, six IDF officers and their families set out on an unknown mission. "Elazari and two other officers dealt with the establishment of the Defense Ministry," Golan relates. "My task, along with three other officers, was to establish the army. Elazari operated according to a number of basic principles, from which the original Israeli team and those who followed did not deviate. The first was to build up a cadre of local commanders and instructors. The second was that the instructional material would be written by the cadets who would be trained as officers. And the third was that practical training would be conducted by Singaporean instructors.
"We wanted to recruit a group of 40-50 people who had some sort of military experience and would be ready to serve in a career army," Golan explains. "We organized things so that they would appoint one of their number to serve as commander. As head of the group, the cadets chose someone of Indian origin named Kirpa Ram Vij, who would eventually become chief of staff of the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF). For three months we gave an intensified officers course."
The unquiet in Singapore, and above all the fear of an invasion by Malay forces, together with the rapid development of the Singaporean army, generated additional needs. With the creation of the infantry, the Israeli team made an in-depth study of the battles fought by the Japanese in Southeast Asia during World War II and of how they succeeded in invading Malaysia and Singapore. Shefi was given the task of delivering a talk on the subject to Singapore's government.
On the basis of the lessons the Israelis drew from the engagements fought by Japan and Britain, they created a naval force based on sampans. "The boats were made of wood and could carry 10 to 15 soldiers, and they were appropriate for the conditions of the sea and for the jungle rivers," Golan says. "On a stormy sea they can be operated with oars or a motor. We asked the Singaporeans to purchase 20 boats and we set up a small base where infantry companies trained in raids and navigation. Retired Colonel Asher Dar says, "The second team that arrived in Singapore applied what Yehuda Golan did in the form of combat doctrine. We trained in flanking maneuvers with small boats and in live fire using artillery. When the head of the training department, Yitzhak Hofi, visited Singapore, we carried out a model landing of an infantry brigade that set sail in boats at night at a distance of 12 kilometers with the aid of shore navigation only.
The waiting period in Israel on the eve of the 1967 Six-Day War was a rough time for the Israeli team in Singapore. "We were relieved the Israelis were not defeated or our SAF [Singapore Armed Forces] would have lost confidence" in the Israeli instructors, Lee writes. In January 1968, Singapore decided to create an armored corps. In great secrecy, an agreement was signed for the purchase of 72 AMX-13 light tanks from IDF surplus. It was a bold decision: Malaysia, the country's large neighbor, didn't have tanks.
On Independence Day, August 9, 1969, a major surprise awaited the invited guests, including the defense minister of Malaysia: 30 tanks rolled past the reviewing stand. "It had a dramatic effect," Lee writes. Malaysia had cause for concern. Its defense minister recommended to his guests that they take steps to persuade the Malaysian government that its intentions were not hostile. In the wake of the Israeli victory in 1967, the veil of secrecy over the ties between the two countries was lifted a bit. The Singapore delegate at the United Nations abstained in a vote on a resolution condemning Israel that was sponsored by the Arab states. Contacts began to establish full diplomatic relations. In October 1968, Lee permitted Israel to establish a trade mission and in May 1969 authorization was given for the establishment of an Israeli embassy in Singapore. The status of the Israeli military mission to Singapore was also strengthened, and the mission heads who followed held brigadier general rank. The first Israeli military delegation laid the foundations for an extensive network of relations between Israel and Singapore.
The small Israeli team in Singapore was augmented by professional military advisers for the various corps. The chief armored corps officer, Major General Avraham Adan, arrived to give advice on procuring armored vehicles. In 1968, Adam Tzivoni, a retired colonel who had been head of the planning and weapons branch in the air force, was appointed adviser to the Singapore Armed Forces in regard to the creation of an air force. As compensation for the hasty departure of the British army, the British government gave Singapore a grant of 50 million pounds to acquire British-made aerial systems: planes, helicopters and surface-to-air missiles," Tzivoni relates. "The British didn't like me at all. My first task was to approve the deals. It turned out that the English tried to sell Singapore junk. Apart from a deal for Hunters, I vetoed all the deals. Under Tzivoni's supervision, a flight school was established in Singapore, as well as a technical school, a squadron of Alouette 3 helicopters was purchased and 40 mm anti-aircraft guns were acquired.
After the creation of the Singaporean army's infantry regiments, the question arose of what weapons the nascent armed forces would use. The commanding officers wanted the Uzi, the Israeli submachine gun. The Israeli team took an objective view and rejected the idea. True, the Uzi was considered a superb weapon in the 1960s, but only for short ranges. A regular army needs an assault rifle, the Israeli team asserted. Representatives of Israel Military Industries exerted pressure on the Defense Ministry to sell the new Galil assault rifle. However, the team decided that the rifle wasn't yet full ready and recommended the American M-16.
Another major headache for the Israelis concerned the decision about which mortars to procure for the new army. Infantry regiments are equipped with 60 - 52 mm and 18 mm mortars. The weapons, which were developed and manufactured by the Soltam company, based in the town of Yokne'am, were sold to the Israel Defense Forces and exported worldwide. "Even though we thought these were the best mortars, we decided not to recommend them but to make use of an independent source in order to reach a decision," says Yehuda Golan, a member of the team sent to Singapore.
The Israeli team asked a British firm that dealt in organization and consultation on military subjects to examine a series of mortars and recommend the best one. The report stated that the best of the lot was an 18 mm mortar manufactured in Britain. However, considering the price, the recommendation was to buy the Soltam product. The Singapore Armed Forces acquired the Israeli mortar. The Israelis emphasized military skills and high motivation. Smartness on parade and military tattoo, the SAF [Singapore Armed Forces] never learned from the `Mexicans.' Whatever smartness the SAF had" derived from the British officers who commanded the army's first two regiments, Lee writes.
"Our motto was that we would not stick our nose into what the Singaporeans could do themselves," Golan notes. "They wanted us to organize the Independence Day parade for them. We argued that a state military parade reflects the country's mentality and its history." The Singaporeans didn't make an issue of it. However, they had a problem that demanded an immediate solution - which marches to play as the soldiers marched in unison. The head of the Israeli mission, Yaakov Elazari, brought notes from Israel and the Singapore army strode to Israeli marching songs.
The Singaporeans took the Israelis by surprise when they insisted on getting a course on jungle combat. Singapore has a tiny natural jungle of no more than five or six square kilometers, but the neighboring states have larger jungles. Yehuda Golan: "I told them they were right but that I wasn't the right guy, because I knew nothing about jungles." Nevertheless, the Israeli team began to find out how to cope with the subject. It was decided to send two Singapore officers as guests of the Malaysian army for a course on jungle combat. Three months later, the two officers returned with the knowledge they acquired in Malaysia, and we decided to conduct a course in jungle combat," Golan continues. "Out of curiosity, I decided to join. It looked very bad - it was clear that they had taught them British methods from the Second World War period. I decided to take a group of 10 officers. We entered the jungle and started to engage in war games. We trained in navigation, deploying forces, search and assault. We went through the American training manuals on combat in Vietnam. We developed methods of night navigation. We learned how to function with a fighting company in the dense undergrowth. After a few weeks of training, I wrote the training manual of the Singapore Armed Forces for jungle combat.
Singapore and Israel also developed coorperation in satellite program:
Singapore and Israel relations in the field of defense suggests chart a very significant improvement. One of the prestigious projects of this cooperation is OFEQ Project, cooperation in military reconnaissance satellite advanced nuclear. Ofeq, also called Offek / Ofek, which in Hebrew means that Horizon is the first series of the Israeli spy satellite launched in 1988. Both the satellite and launcher are designed and manufactured by Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI). Military cooperation is one of the of the contents of defense policy and military security of Singapore. Singapore prepared to cooperate with all countries in ensuring peace, stability and prosperity. French news agency AFP (French Press Agency) on July 5, 2000 (the Ridyasmara Rizki, 2005: 71) reports, project intelligence cooperation satellite it's worth a billion dollars. This cooperation involves the manufacture an intelligence satellite launch all its funding from Singapore and Israel supports the technology. Israel Aircraft Industries appointed responsible for the success of the project. Shortly after its launch on 28 May 2002 in Wesward, at 18:25 local time, the official website of weapons Israel describes OFEQ-5 satellite is titled "IAI's New Imaging
Satellite Launched into Space By Means of the Shavit launcher "begins with
phrase, "Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI), in cooperation with other Israeli hitech industries, Launched its OFEQ-5 satellite ... ". IAI working with
Other high-tech industry when launching satellites OFEQ-5 (www.iai.co.il.
In addition, it called Shavit rocket launcher was also launched simultaneously
with the main satellite. Once launched and entered orbit, the satellite reconnaissance advanced automatically adjusts the position and the
a remote control device will continue to be monitored during the first week. Especially ability of digital observation camera systems work very high resolution can record the details of the Earth's land area and all buildings or
installation on it. Division of Israel Aircraft Industries developed the satellite
Ofeq-5 satellite Ofeq of prototype generations. Its design is based on technology that shape too big, but still stable and easy to operate without reducing reliability in collecting pictures of the earth's land. A very high resolution image to produce an image very detail. Every half hour, Ofeq-5 satellites circling the globe moves from east to west with the orbit inclination angle approaching 143 degrees.
These satellites operate between 370 to 600 kilometers above the surface
earth. Ofeq-5 is expected to be able to work well for four years. Satellite lightweight, but powerful weighs only 300 kilograms, 2.3 meters high and 1.2 meters in diameter. Ofeq-5 spy satellite is inheritor of the tradition of cutting-edge weaponry small in size but has myriad advantages of the latest digital technology production IAI, which is a the main contractor of the Israel Space Agency (ISA).
Satellites are controlled directly from the National Space Center for the State of Israel. (RizkivRidyasmara,2005: 74-76)
History OFEQ launch-1 to OFEQ-7:
1. Ofeq 1, launched 19 September 1988, weighing 155 kg and rounded
Earth to orbit the closest point along the 249 km and a point furthest along 1149 km, an inclination angle of 142.9 degrees. At this stage This radio transmission tests.
2. Ofeq 2 was launched 23 April 1990 and orbit the earth in orbit
the closest point along the 149 km and the farthest point along the 251
km, an inclination angle of 143.2 degrees. In this case, also only done
3. Another satellite Ofeq series, try launched on 15 September 1994,
but a failure at launch.
4. Ofeq 3, launched 5 April 1995, is the first Israeli satellite which serves as a satellite reconnaissance photography skills. It weighs 225 kg and has the closest point 369 km, launched with the latest version of the Shavit.
5. Ofeq 4, released January 22, 1998. This satellite did not reach orbit
earth because it failed when the launch and disappeared.
6. Ofeq 5, launched May 28, 2002. With a weight of 300 kg, Ofeq 5
orbiting the earth with the closest point of 262 km and the farthest point
along 774 km, an inclination angle of 143.5 degrees. During the run
mission, the satellite's closest point was raised to 369 km, and the point
longest handed down in 771 kilometers. This is done to extend the life of the satellite. Some observers believe that the weight 300 kg satellites combined with the additional power requirements of retrograde orbit, it was a demonstration of the ability of Shavit's ICBM.
7. Ofeq 6, launched 6 September 2004. launch failed. Satellite failed to reach Earth orbit and crashed into the sea.
8. Ofeq 7 was launched June 11, 2007. In 2009, the Department of Defense
will complete satellite OPsat. The new generation is illustrated has optical remote sensing with excellent resolution high
In addition to the main satellite, rocket launchers, Shavit, who serves as the charge Ofeq also launched Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI). Shavit, in the language Hebrew means "comet", is a production of advanced rocket launcher Israel. Once launched and entered orbit, such as advanced reconnaissance satellite will automatically adjust the position, and the distance controller
much will continue to be monitored during the first week. Especially the ability system of digital observation camera work is very high resolution that can record details of the Earth's land area, and all buildings or installations on it.
Shavit was first launched on 19 September 1988, charged satellite Ofeq. Shavit launch of this makes Israel the eighth country capable space rocket launch after the Soviet Union, the United States, France, Japan, China, UK and India. Israel Space Agency rocket launch from Palmachim Air Base, in the middle of the sea is to prevent rocket debris fall on the areas of population and avoid launch in the territory of nations hostile to Israel.
Launch process consists of three stages are powered by solid fuel,
rocket motors and liquid fuel options. Shavit is a rocket launcher that was developed from the advanced missile Jericho I and II. Shavit developments started since 1982. The tool is designed to carry a payload up to 250 kg into earth orbit Shavit first launched in 1988. Because of geographic location and relationships not in harmony with the surrounding countries, then, Israel had launched this space rocket to the west, on the Mediterranean Sea, to avoid
rocket crossing the countries in the eastern hostile to the Jewish state (www.globalfirepower.com/countrymilitary-strength-detail.asp?. last updated on 05 sept 2009). Making Shavit consists of three stages. The first and second
Israel Aircraft Industries developed, while the third stage the end of this rocket-making under Rafael responsibility, authority development of weapons of Israel. Shavit has launched seven times. The launch of the fourth and sixth failure before reaching space. Seven launch rocket consists of two basic Shavit, four Shavit Shavit-1 and a-2. (www.israelmilitary.com. Last updated on 09 sept 2009)
Systems Division of Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) offers the use of
smaller satellites for remote sensing can be used as commercial interests, telecommunications, civil, military and science other using Shavit satellite launcher. Shavit launcher Division of IAI offers a variety of options for launching small satellites into low earth orbit. Launch system is based on the flight sophisticated, and unique integration in launching satellites. In this case,
can significantly reduce the time of launch preparations, so that overall launch costs will be lower. Three stages in the launch of the Shavit rocket motor propulsion powered three as well as solid fuel. The first two stages of the launcher lifted to a height about 110 km. From this point, the launcher will continue to rise up to a height about 250 km. The position of the launcher is to gain strength in deliver the rocket and the satellite payload it carries up to
specified orbit. After separation of the main instrumentation compartment
and while rotating launcher, the third stage motors ignited. With
Thus, accurate satellite to orbit, at an altitude of about 260 km (www.
israelmilitary.com. last updated on 09 sept 2009).
Shavit using a unique reference point in starting preparations
equipment. This, largely depends on the situation and launch conditions
and the launch pad. This configuration allows the satellite launch
launch a different direction. Once launched and entered orbit,
sophisticated reconnaissance satellites will automatically adjust its position witha remote control device, and will continue to be monitored during the first week, especially the observation system camera work is very high-resolution digital can record the details of the Earth's land area and all buildings
or installation on it. For commercial purposes, Israel Aircraft
Industries (IAI) and Rafael - Israeli armament development authority - continued develop and improve the quality of satellite or rocket launcher
(www.israelmilitary.com. Last updated on 09 sept 2009).
c. Barak Missile
Missile barracks included in the ranks of advanced missiles that can be launched of the warship was sailing on the high seas, or on land
without reducing the effectiveness and power hantamnya. Entry into the family anti-air or anti-missile missiles were speeding on the water surface. This Missile was first tested on August 16, 1991, with a vertical launcher
radar-guided Command-to-Line-Of-Sight (CLOS) to deal anti-ship missiles and attack from the air.
Barak missile defense system is part of a naval patrol boats are used.
The system uses radar technology to high-ability capture and identify targets in a rapid and accurate. Besides it also guides the missile to attack or ambush (Rizki Ridyasmara 2005: 80-81)
Related to this cooperation, Singapore is a party which is funding the project
Barak missile development which is based on the sea and developed Israel
Aircraft Industries (IAI) and Rafael, Israel's armament development authority.
With this kind of cooperation, Israel transferring technology the military
to Singapore, while Singapore helped Israel with the project and
large budget. Figures Singaporean investment in Israel in 2000 to
2001 amounted to 400 million U.S. dollars. Israel's trade attaché to Singapore
mentioned, most of the total investment was invested in various
hi-tech industrial projects. In this case, the technology industry pegembangan
Israel not only received high support from the U.S., but also Singapore
through Singaporean Venture Capital (SVC) - an organization that has always been Israel's main backer in the affairs of the capital. Apart from the SVC, Israel also benefited with the help of capital from Singapore who embed
hundreds of millions of dollars to Israeli industries. Government of Singapore
Investment Corporation (GIC) manages a fund of 75 billion U.S. dollars and
invested $ 40 million in four financing companies Israel. Company of Singapore, Temasek Capital and TIF Ventures - owned by the Singapore Economic Development Board - also invests in five Israel capitalization companies (Rizki Ridyasmara, 2005: 79-80)
Network industries in Singapore Singapore-Israel Industrial R & D
(SIIRD) also plays a major role. SIIRD established in 1997 aims
strengthen the company's business cooperation between the two countries. This organization will providing assistance to 50 percent of the cost of research and development each company Israel or Singapore. Funds are disbursed each SIIRD year to reach 500 thousand dollars to 750 thousand U.S. dollars (Rizki Ridyasmara,2005: 80-81)
Barak, in Hebrew means 'enlightenment', an air missiles designed for a missile defense system on warships, defense against enemy aircraft and anti-ship missiles and UAVs. No such as short-range missiles MBDA's Mistral or Saab's RBS-70, Barak Missile is designed to launch vertically and has a greater range, as well as highly accurate in achieving the target. This missile uses modules 8 and weighs just 1,700 kg. In January 2007, after several
months of intense negotiations, India and Israel, Chile, Venezuela and Singaporeas barracks missile operator signed U.S. $ 330 million for the deal
cooperation in the development of all new generation Barak SAM, known
as the Barak II or also known as Barak 8 (www.google.com / barracks / missile last updated on 07 sept 2009).
The development of a new missile Barak II or Barak 8 is based on
Barak missiles original, with the development of a more advanced search features, and extension range up to 70 km to be moving closer to the system
marine medium range as RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow or even the SM-2
Standard. Israel successfully tested a missile Barak II on July 30, 2009. System this missile provides 360 degree coverage and can drop a missile
coming into the area as close as 500 meters from the ship. Each system development Barak - including missile container, radar, computers and installation - requires cost about $ 24 million and funded parties cooperate in
Barak missile development, namely Singapore, Israel, Venezuela, Chile
and India (www.google.com / barracks / missile. last updated on 07 sept 2009)
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