The pre-Socratic philosophy was born in the late 7th century BC the Greek cities of Ionia, a marginal point of establishing the Ionic school in Miletus. This is actually the first time I encountered the philosophical thought in the ancient Greek world. The Pre-Socratic natural philosophers dealing entirely with the root cause of the world and with those forces that support the plasma and the same man. The Pre-Socratic philosophers were active in Asia Minor, Thrace, Sicily and southern Italy, spreading the philosophy of the Greek cultural space. Born concepts and ideas of science as a place and development even in modern times, as the concept of matter, the concept of infinity, the concept of power, the number of drives, is, of becoming, of being, of the Individual of spacetime. Have great influence on Socrates, who was based and draw on the knowledge and wisdom, and became the foundation of his philosophy.
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The anthropocentric nature of the philosophy of Socrates was missing from the pre-Socratic philosophy, and he is the main reason named: pre-Socratic. Can the extent of pre-Socratic philosophy to be small, but significant influence over the subsequent Greek and Western culture. It is also characteristic of the transition made by the religious awe of the freedom and clarity of thought. Indeed, no other culture does not see something like that. Perhaps now the scientific thought is given at the time but that was innovative and difficult, and philosophy that gave rise stemmed for Presocratic philosophers from mythology and poetry with admirable way for today's scholars. Characteristics of the Russel says: "Throughout history, nothing is more surprising or so difficult to describe as the sudden rise of civilization in Greece. Much of what creates civilization existed for thousands of years in Egypt and Mesopotamia, and had spread from there to neighboring countries. But some items were missing until the Greeks supplied. What were the art and literature known to everyone, but what they have accomplished in this field are purely mental finest yet. " (Bertrand Russel, History of Western Philosophy).
Below are listed separately some of the most important Presocratic philosophers, with data for both life and for their work.Thales of Miletus
Born in 624 BC in Miletus and was the founder of Ionian school (school of Miletus). Thales was one of the seven sages of antiquity, considered the father of Greek philosophy as first raised the issue a general principle of all things. Thales was the first Greek philosopher who sought the first principle of beings, cosmic phenomena. The first reason its water. The vital force of water and the huge importance of nature was the cause that made the Thales to designate primary stoicheio.Ektos by philosopher, was a great astronomer and mathematician. Thales foretold the solar eclipse in 585 BC, and wrote lyrics for the epic celestial bodies.
They say he found the year round and divided into three hundred sixty-five days. As a mathematician Thales is known in elementary geometry theorem by the same name for the parts abscind parallel lines from the level on two other lines and the proportion of the geometry of space. The theorem of geometry that the angles of isosceles triangle are equal to each other is also due to him. Many pieces from the philosophy of the rescued students and subsequent philosophers like Aristotle.Pythagoras of Samos
Born in Samos in 585 BC. Pythagoras is one of the greatest ancient Greek philosophers and the founder of the Pythagorean school. Pythagoras was the first he called himself "philosopher" and the first discovered the musical intervals of a chord. It is believed that Pythagoras first elevated the geometry of free science, it found the principles of top-down and not based on physical objects. He offered carnage when he found that''the square of the hypotenuse right triangle equals the square of the other two.''
Pythagoras did not write any project, thus saving the expense of teaching fell to his students. For the Pythagorean the essence of things lies in numbers and mathematical relationships. Known is also the Pythagorean teaching of "imitation" in which there are significantly under imperfect imitation of the perfect invisible world. Therefore introduced to Greek philosophy the conception of both worlds, and invisible to an appreciable influence, then the theory about the world of Ideas of Plato. The true source of wisdom for the Pythagorean Tetractys, ie the first four natural numbers considered to be associated with various relationships. Actually, these four numbers, one can construct the harmonious proportions of the fourth, fifth and eighth. These ratios generate harmony (listening to the beautiful) that for the Pythagorean was not only general guidance but literally cosmic.Anaxagoras the Klazomenios
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Born around 500 BC in Klazomenai. It was one of the sponsors and successors of the Ionic philosophy, which he carried in Athina.Ypirxe teacher of Pericles, Socrates and Euripides.
Anaxagoras worked in many branches of science such as mathematics (considered the first issue of squaring the circle), astronomy (he thought the stars, the moon, the sun is the result of separation of large masses of land) and medicine (say that the fetus when the uterus, nourished by the hub, and that all illnesses come from bile). and also dealt with the big bang which introduced a new concept whereby the elements of matter are unable to put the in motion the possibility that only the mind is a substance that differs from the others, which pervades the universe and consistent, independent and free, is the source of all zois.Episis considered that the material consists of countless seeds which in different combinations is a time and a new antikeimeno.Oi main properties and still remain unchanged and quantity always remains the same.
Anaxagoras considered the forerunner of comparative physiology, because it recognizes the principle of continuity, unity of purpose in that plant and animal world, on which he wrote his work "On Nature".Heraclitus the Ephesus
Born in 544 BC in Ephesus and was independent and strong philosophical spirit. To the subject of philosophy is not the physical principle of this world but the internal rhythm, why they move and adjust. Heraclitus is the philosopher of the eternal process. This movement of becoming is expressed in the continuous flow of the river ever renewed. Through the Word, Heraclitus, binds a single material element Fire. The existence of the Fire created with the Word an infinite world, anarchic, anolethro, self-regulating converted to various formats. The world is a harmony of contrasts. The contrasts create the unity of all things in their composition. Good and evil are opposite sides of the same thing.
Heraclitus was left in the history of philosophy as the "dark" the philosopher of the interpretative difficulty of the project. The only book we know that left Heraclitus is entitled "On nature" and is divided into three parts: the universe, policy and theology. This work was written in vague to be understood only by skilled and dedicated people in the temple of Artemis of Ephesus, a symbol of Greek and oriental culture.Archytas
Born in the 4th century BC Taranto in southern Italy. Greek scientist, philosopher and major Pythagorean mathematician. Sometimes characterized as a founder of mathematical mechanics, but also possibly the most important scholar of acoustics in ancient Greece. Flourished in the 4th BC century. The Archytus, which belonged to the second generation of students of Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher who stressed the importance of numbers in the interpretation of events, tried to combine empirical observation with the Pythagorean theory. It is worth noting that the tradition has to be the first aeromontelisti itself states that has constructed a wooden dove, which flew by means of compressed air. His reputation as Archyta scientist and mathematician is mainly due to his achievements in geometry, acoustics and music theory and not in very idealistic interpretation of human relationships and the nature of society in accordance with the Pythagorean theory of numbers.Empedocles the Sicilian
The Empedocles with the philosophy of seeking the true knowledge of nature and substance. Nature is characterized by an eternal rotation, which lies between the change of Heraclitus (mainstream) and the stability of the Parmenides (Is). The Empedocles standing between these two philosophical positions and sets out the root cause of birth of all beings the opening four primary elements called "rhizomes." These data 1. The fire (Zeus) 2. Water (Nistis) 3. Land (Aidonefs or Hades) and 4. The air (Hera). The movement of these elements is due to two opposing forces and the names Filotita Neikos. The Filotita is the positive force of love that connects things and negative Neikos who separates. The relevance of these competing forces is what keeps the balance in the universe ( "spheres"). The birth and death, and Filotita Neikos is the Empedoklis an eternal cycle, a switch that ensures the perpetuation of the world. His work Empedoklis meter consists of two poems, On the Nature (2,000 verses) and cleansing (3,000 verses) and some more projects, less familiar, such as the medical reason (600 verses), the Persian, the Political Reasons and tragedies. The epic lyrics Empedoklis have a huge potential created by the reader set of thoughts or analysis. This led to many subsequent philosophers as Aristotle and Plato, to hawker in the works in the posts of Empedoklis and so far saved many passages of the great philosopher.Leucippus of Miletus
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Born in Miletus around 485 BC. He was a pupil of Zenon and the bees in Elea. Later he founded the School of Abdera, which was the birthplace of the atomic theory which was the father. The Leucippus based on theories of Anaximander, the Empedoklis and Melissus adopted the concept of vacuum as a prerequisite for the interpretation of the natural world, which acquires a form of existence which is far inferior to that of individuals. People are separated between them through the loophole that allows numerous combinations and thus maintain the status of sympageias of ametavlitotitos and natural alpha-divisibility. The initiation is directly the concept of gravity, fundamental property of individuals. Because of various conflicts caused, bounces and vibrations in people whose "behavior" in vacuum is determined by mechanical causes monk.
Conflicting people, many gathered together and create the vortex, which is increasing due to acceleration and encountered other similar tend to form large complete sets of land, water, air and pyros.Ystera than the vortex disappears because the people concentrated balance occurs. The Leucippus also developed a theory on human consciousness and which parallels the sensory perception of the movement in the universe. The theory on consciousness adopted Democritus, Plato and Theophrastus.