The international relation between China and Spain
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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016
Due to last agreements that Spain is signing with China, I have had the curiosity to investigate which was the first international relation that both countries supported. Any current situation, it is affected by his beginning and for the form in which these developed. Because of it, I think that we must bear in mind since there were established the first both political and commercial bows between both countries, and the result of this relation that it affected since then to the rest of Europe.
Until the year 1864, the relations between Spain and China were diminishing: at the missionaries´ arrival; and to the important paper of the Philippine islands like driving center of Spain inside the international trade. Between 1862 and 1945 nevertheless, the power of the foreign countries in China was coming from the Unequal Agreements that the Chinese Empire had signed with the foreign powers after the wars of the opium. Spain in particular, signed in 1864 beginning to take part in to the first stage of globalization of the Chinese territory.
The first facts that certify the beginning of the international relations between both countries date back of 1565, when Spain took possession of the Philippine islands. From this archipelago, the Spanish initiated small missionary incursions and sent different not official ambassadors to China, as that of Pedro Sarmiento in 1575 or Victorio Ricci in 1655. (Since it has been verified later, for the Spanish it was only a previous step than they it should lead to the conquest of China). But it is not until 1598 when it begins of official form the commercial relations with China, specifically with Liangguang’s province that it was including to the current provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. The use of these islands like strategic way was not a secret and it produced a deterioration of the trade and the relations with China during the 16th and 17th century, since Spain tried to monopolize the trade, to import materials proceeding from China in the American colonies.
In 1576 there were signed agreements that were allowing that the Chinese ships should take the materials to the region of Manila 1*, which was under the Spanish domain during this epoch. The commercial relations with China increased so much during this period, which turned into the country that was receiving more quantity of the Spanish coins of silver of the world. A few years afterwards, in 1850 Spain decides to start the negotiations for the establishment of diplomatic formal relations due to what it was difficult to support a good international relation, though it was not until 1864 when there was signed the Agreement of Friendship and Trade by China. His name was “Treated of Tianjin” and Chinese workforce was allowing continuing concerning the Spanish possessions overseas with what Spain assured his right itself to the recruitment of Chinese for the plantations in Cuba.
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Between 1864 and 1928 Spain kept consulates in the ports of Agreement of Shanghai, Amoy (current Xiamen), Ningbo, Tianjin, Canton, Wenzhou, Fuzhou, Hankou (current Wuhan) and Chefoo.
During this period, besides the relative agreement to the emigration of Chinese to Cuba, there were signed six commercial agreements, the last one of them in 1928:
– 1864 (10.10) Treaty about Friendship and Trade.
– 1877 (17.11) Agreement relative to the emigration of Chinese to Cuba.
– 1878 (28.02) Order recognizing China the treatment of the most favoured nation.
– 1892 (20.05 and 28.06) Royal Orders granting to the Chinese products the benefits of the second column of the duty.
– 1894 (18.08) Declaration of neutrality on the occasion of the War Chinese – Japanese.
– Royal 1905 (15.08) Order for the application of the rights of the rate B of the agreement with Switzerland of 1892.
– Royal 1906 (16.02) Order in order that the previous RO is applied until the first of July.
– 1928 (27.12) Treaty about Trade.
In the year 1939 certain tensions appear between China and Spain. This owes to that in 1936 they signed the side anti- communism between Germany and Japan, which used as excuse for the Japanese invasion of China in 1937.
Spain also signed it, as what the Spanish Government had problems with the Chinese Government, when some years later he try to improve the international relation with China.
It is not before the year 1941, when there was consumed the recognition of the Nationalistic Government of Nanjing de Wang Jinwei, for this Jose Gonzalez Nanking de Gregorio is recognized as consul general of Spain in Shanghai; the business Chinese manager on the part of the Nationalistic Government of Nanjing came to Madrid in 1942 and the only ambassador named as chief of the diplomatic representation of this Government came in 1944, going out in 1946.
Due to the snap of the Spanish Civil war, Spain loses the consular representation in China. It was because on the one hand, in 1936 the Spanish consul in Shanghai Eduardo Vázquez Ferrer, having had news of the military revolt in Spain presented his resignation and put of the side of the National Movement, happening to take charge of the representation of Franco’s regime in China. For other one, Joaquín Sanchez, returned in 1936 to take charge in name of the Republic, but it leaves his position when his decree is defeated opposite to the pro-Franco army.
After so many resignations besides a change of government that destabilized the international relations with China, on April 3 the Chinese Department of Justice in his resolution 177 indicated españa y china
“due to the change of government that it has taken place in Spain, and that all his civil servants have
left his positions, Spain has lost the consular jurisdiction, for what the Spanish that live in will be judged for the Chinese courts “.
Moreover, when the Spanish civil war exploded, both decrees received international support. In case of China, it chose the republican decree; the support was not important since the majority of volunteers who enlisted, concerned to regions of overseas that were feeling promoted by ideal anti-Japanese.
It is possible that this should to itself to which simultaneously that the Republic of China was requesting armament to the Soviet Union for his fight in the war anti Japanese, the republican Spanish Government was doing it for the same equipments to fight against the nationalistic forces; that supposed a strong competition between both Governments to obtain material of war of the Soviet Union.
In 1939, on not having recognized the Republic of China to the Government of the general Franco (Since this one previously, it had dishonoured the Chinese government on having supported to Japan during the invasion the Republic China) it stopped recognizing the rights of extraterritoriality of Spain.
As for the Spanish companies established in Shanghai they were in general, commercial familiar entities that they were buyers, paying the goods at the expense of the Spanish importer. (The majority did not overcome the shock of the Spanish Civil war due to the lack of orders).
Examples of companies not related to the exterior trade can be: the restaurant Seville o the proprietary company of the Auditorium; likewise there was inscribed like resident in the consulate an attorney who was a legal consultant for the possible Spanish companies that they wanted to install in China.
During this decade the Government of Franco had two principal aims in exterior politics with regard to China:
1. To recover the rights of extraterritoriality.
The first thing were necessary to do was the Chinese government recognized, which was a problem since who was at the head of the Spanish government was the pro-Franco decree who had been kept of the side of Japan during the dispute between this one and China.
2. To restart the official Spanish presence in China.
For it one organized, by request of the Japanese representative in Madrid, an economic Spanish mission of 20 civil servants who would work as intermediaries between both countries.
In spite of the previous efforts of the Franco’s Government for support a good diplomatic
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relationship between both countries once ended the civil war in China there did not even appear the recognition of the Popular Republic China in Spain. The first relations appeared with the cardinal, who will initiate them in 1949, he obtain the concession of 30 scholarships for Taiwanese students.
In February, 1953 the Agreement of Friendship was signed between the Republic of China and Spain. In March, 1953 the Secretary of State, Alberto Martin Artajo, travelled from official form to Taiwan with the aim to consolidate the relations between both countries.
After of to have seen all the previous information we will try to expose the consecuences that we can see nowadays.
Due to the fact that the first relations with China were not good, we have had to wait up to the epoch of the dictatorship in order that there was kept a stable and good relation.
Due to the growth of the commercial relation that has been given along the history, we can justify the important commercial relation that also exists nowadays. Of the commercial treatment that was in the beginning, many Chinese people chose Spain as them place to live; for this, the raid of the Chinese market in the Spanish was not so sudden.
China has been interested during the last years in expanding his market, and one of the principal aims has been from the first moment Spain due to the facility that this one was presenting for enters on his market. The Spanish market has received well the Chinese products for what the market has not stopped growing up to the point of which Spain is in one of the principal importers of China.
The Chinese market has a lot of importance in the Spanish, by it the political relations have met influenced and both countries this one interested in continuing improving them. On having observed this, we can understand that one has invested so many efforts in managing to sign the agreements to which it has come near during last weeks in Spain.
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1. Manila (Tagalog: Maynila; pronounced /maÉªËˆnilaÊ”/ in Tagalog; pronounced /mÉ™ËˆnÉªlÉ™/ (mÉ™-NIL-É™) in English) is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities comprising the Metropolis of Manila. It has been opined that Manila was the original Global City because it was the apex of the first complete world trade, the Manila Galleons.
Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, while Makati sits on the southeast, and Pasay to the south. It is listed as one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world with a population of 20 million people. With a (2006) population of 1,660,714 Manila is the second most populous city in the Philippines behind Quezon City. However, the populace inhabit an area of only 38.55 square kilometers, making Manila not only the most densely populated city in the Philippines but also the most densely populated city in the world.
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