The Industrial Revolution And Karl Marx History Essay
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Select FIVE items from the list below. In a paragraph of 3-6 substantive sentences, explain Who or What (i.e., define the term), Where, When, and Why and How (i.e., indicate the historical significance). The more specific detail you can provide the better. Please note that there will be no extra credit for doing more than five identifications.
1. Karl Marx
Karl Marx was a 19th century, German philosopher who believed firmly that capitalism was a bad thing. He helped lead the socialist and communists movements with the writing of the Communist Manifesto. His teachings and writings led to the forming of numerous communist regimes.
2. The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was period of time in18th and 19th centuries where technological and agricultural progress exploded and changed the way the world functioned. During this time, the main source of power switched from man labor to machines. Transportation was also greatly improved with the invention of the steam engine. As can be imagined, these changes greatly changed the way societies and cultures functioned.
4. Tsar Alexander II
Alexander II was the Russian czar in the 18th century who ended Russia's system of serfdom and tried to reform the country. Unfortunately for him, his reforms were not drastic enough to please the radical groups. Ultimately, it led to his assassination by a Russian terrorist reform group known as the People Will.
5. Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States. His Presidency was a crucial turning point in the history of the United States. He was in office during the Civil War when he managed to keep the Union together by a series and brilliant tactics including the Emancipation Proclamation which made the focus of the war to free the slaves in the South. Lincoln's actions preserved the Union and changed the history of the United States.
11. The Taiping Rebellion
The Taiping Rebellion was a revolt against the Quing Empire in China. It was led by Hong Xiuquan who believed himself to be a new Messiah. The rebellion followed Christian principles for the most part, although, some parts of it followed the older Confucian ideology. This rebellion was the first of many to follow which would result in China being opened up more.
1. Examine the Meiji Restoration. What were its guiding principles? Why did it copy western Europe and the United States? Why was Japan successful in modernization while Russia, China, and the Ottomans struggled? (one page or more)
Since 1185, Japan had always been governed by a series of military governments which ruled up until the 19th century. In 1868, Mutsuhito became emperor of Japan when he was only a boy. He took the name Meiji, which means "enlightened rule". Japan roared into the scene of world powers under Meiji and a series of reforms known as the Meiji Reforms. These Meiji reforms were designed to bring Japan up to speed with the West. Seeing the success of Western civilizations, Japan sent students and officials to these countries to observe and study them, making it possible for Japan to copy the techniques of these countries. They learned technological, agricultural, and governmental tactics from West. They brought the knowledge they acquired back to Japan where they taught local people to use it. This style of being students of countries that had already been through their industrial revolution is where Japan differed from some of its counterparts, namely Russia and the Ottomans, and it was the cause of their industrial success. There were also numerous reforms on the home front for Japan. Many of the old classes were dissolved and the formation of new ones took place. The Meiji leaders wanted to bring political power to a central government. Therefore, it was necessary to dissolve the daimyo and samurai classes. This led to revolts, but because the Meiji government had the power of an industrialized army behind it, they were easily crushed. During Japan's rapid economic growth the majority of the economic power was sold off to close friends of the government and private investors. Japan continued to improve its industry until it caught up the rest of the West in the early 20th century.
2. Examine imperialism in Africa. What were the major goals of the Europeans? Why was Africa treated differently than other colonies? How did the carving up of Africa lead to tension among the European nations? Look at the map of Africa on page 923. How was the political face of Africa changed between 1875 and 1900? What European nations were most active in carving up Africa? (write one page or more)
At the end of the 19th century the relationship between Africa and Europe took a drastic turn. Europe began to colonize the continent at an alarming rate. The goal of the Europeans was to exploit Africa's resources to make their own industrialized societies more powerful. The colonization began with Belgium. King Leopold II used Henry Morton Stanley's help to take a region in Congo River basin and make it his own personal colony. Leopold did not want to arouse the rest of Europe by his actions; therefore, he made his new colony, the Congo Free State, a free trade zone. However, he used the Free Congo State to produce rubber in large quantities. While this was happening in the Congo, Egypt was becoming unsettled and the British quickly moved in to secure their interest in the Suez Canal. It soon became apparent that Africa was going to become a goldmine for European colonies, and to keep tensions to a minimum, Otto von Bismarck organized the Berlin Conference to determine the etiquette of how Europeans would divide up Africa. Interestingly, however, no African countries were invited to the conference. After the conference, it turned into a rush for the most resource rich areas of Africa. France and Britain were the most active countries in the colonization of Africa. The advanced technology of the Europeans made the colonization swift and bloody. In one day, the British killed 20,000 Sudanese while barely sustaining a casualty themselves. In 1878 only a fraction of Africa was colonized, but by the end 1914 all of the continent was in the hands of Europeans except Ethiopia and Liberia. The resource rich areas of Africa led to more war and colonization between the indigenous and between the Europeans, and even today, many countries in Africa are still heavily influenced by their former sovereigns.
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