Black Death in Central China – 1333
Black Death Arrives in Europe – 1347
Plague arrives in England – 1348
Daughter of King Edward III died of the plague – Sep. 2nd. 1348
Plague reaches London – Nov. 1st. 1348
3000 Jews killed in Germany – 1349
King Edward III orders the streets to be cleaned of the dead bodies – 1349
200 people buried everyday – Feb. 2nd. 1349
The plague reaches Moscow. The whole continent is now infected – 1351
Poll tax recorded 4 Gloucestershire villages as having no return – 1379
Peasant’s revolt – 1381
4th outbreak of plague, defected mainly adults – 1388
The black death or the black plague have killed millions of people but what is the black death and how did the people back in the 1300s solve this issue and how did they succeeded in not being whipped out of this disease in this what was the impact of it.
But first we need to talk about what is the black death and where and how did it originate from. So the black death was a devastating epidemic that hit Europe and Asia in the 1300s the plague arrived in Europe in October 1347 when 12 ships docked from the black sea at the Sicilian port of Messina when the people from the port arrived to the ship to collect the good they saw the shock that was aboard the ship that most of the sailors aboard the ship where killed and those still alive where really ill and covered in black boils that leaked blood and puss and some of the other symptoms of this black death are abdominal pain diarrhea nausea and vomiting fever and chills extreme weakness bleeding (blood may not be able to clot) shock skin turning black (gangrene). But how did the black death become what it is and how did it become so massive the plague was a bacterial infection mainly found in rodents and fleas this epidemic traveled through Europe and Asia killing an estimated 25 million people also the cause of plague wasn’t discovered until the most recent outbreak which started in China in 1855 and didn’t official end until 1959 the bacteria that caused the black death is called Yersinia pestis which stated above is carried by the fleas of rodents and the rodents experience the same affects as humans do and there are still cases to day the can occur in the western United States and significantly more cases occur In parts of Africa and Asia the plague in 2003 had more than 2100 human cases and 180 deaths were recorded nearly all of them in Africa. The last serious reported out break was in 2006 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo where at least 50 people died other cases of the recent plague was in The United States, China, India, Vietnam, and Mongolia are the other countries that have confirmed human plague cases in recent years.
But now most people survive the plague if they are given the correct antibiotics also good sanitation and pest control help control the cause of the plague and the spread of the plague there are also fears that the plague now can be used as a bioterror attack released in an aerosol form.
Now we can talk about where it all began in Central China 1333 many people believe that the bubonic plague started here in china and many people believe that the outbreak of the plague started in 1331 with the Yuan Empire and may have quickened the end of the Mongolian rule in China three years later the plague killed over 90 percent of the Hebei province and with that the death toll raised to over 5 million people and because China was on the silk road the black death traveled the trade routes west to Central Asia and to Middle Eastern trade centers and because of this spread more than 300 tribes died without a cause and that all of Asia was becoming depopulated as far as the Korean Peninsula. After all of this happened a few years later the plague ended up hitting Persia and that in 1335 the ruler of Persia and the Middle East Abu Said died of the plague during a war with the northern region called the Golden Horde and because of this it stared the end of the Mongol rule a estimated 30 percent of Persia’s population died to the plague in the 14th century also because of the plague the population of Persia was slow to recover. Also, the plague caused political disruptions because it ended the Mongol rule which was also apart of the reason that the population was slow to build itself back up. The Mongols spread of the plague started in 1334 when the Golden Horde decided to recapture the port city of Kaffa the Golden Horde was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanat. And in Kaffa the Mongols had accesses to Italian traders which then on would bring the disease over to Europe. This event is also discussed as being the first instance of biological warfare and because of the Mongol plague and many people dying in the area it caused many refugees of the area to escape back to Europe which also helped spread the plague over to Europe. Which brings me on to my next topic the spread of the black death in Europe.
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Next is the spread of the black death in Europe. When the black death hit Europe in 1347-1351 it took the life’s of more people than it did than any other epidemic of war at the time at this time it ended up killing an estimated 25 million people in Europe alone and because of this Europe suffered from issues with trade and that farmers and labors died and the art also suffered from the black death epidemic the art became more about the afterlife and mortality also Anti-Semitism grew most people thought that the Jews where the cause of the disease and the spread of it many Jewish people where hunted and killed by mobs beaten to death or burned at stake by the masses. However, the rate of mortality in Europe varied from place to place. Places such as Milan, Flanders, and Béarn had much lower death rates compared to other places such as Tuscany, Aragon, Catalonia, and Languedoc these places where hit very hard at this time and places such as towns and cities where hit the highest because the spread of disease is higher because everyone is in contact with one another even some of the royalties at this time where hit such as Eleanor, queen of Peter IV of Aragon, and King Alfonso XI of Castile died to the plague, Joan, daughter of the English king Edward III, died at Bordeaux on the way to her wedding with Alfonso’s son. Canterbury lost two archbishops, John de Stratford and Thomas Bradwardine; Petrarch lost not only Laura, who inspired so many of his poems, but also his patron, Giovanni Cardinal Colonna. The papal court at Avignon was reduced by one-fourth. Whole communities and families were sometimes wiped out.
Next is the spread of the plague in England. The arrival of the black death entered the southwestern part of England in 1348 there was rumors all through out Europe at this time that there was a horrible disease spreading through Britain and the first town hit was the major trading town of Bristol because it had close connections to the whole continent of Europe. Bristol at this time was the second largest in Britain and was the leading trade city and port for the whole western side of the country in this city lived 10,000 people tightly packed together with horrible sanitary conditions and because of this the plague once again spreads people in this town where so unsanitary just like any other medieval town people had the tendency to throw their chamber pots or toilets out their windows which left human waste on the ground and pigs that where supposed to be kept outside the town where brought in roaming free in search for food and because of these conditions the plague of course flourished many people In these towns believed that it was the apocalypse.
Now on to the spread of the black death in London. London at this time was also being hit by pneumonic so it was hit twice with diseases and in January 1349 parliament found out about the plague spread because Two ex-Chancellors and three Archbishops of Canterbury all died in quick succession. A large black slab in the southern cloister of Westminster Abbey probably covers the remains of the Abbot of Westminster and 27 of his monks who were also taken by the plague. The plague flourished in London until spring 1350 where it is believed to have killed between one third and one half of the population. Also, the plague spread over to Scotland Durham Wales Ireland.
Finally, what happened with the plague in Russia. Russia was the last place on the continent to be affected by the black death the plague in Russia didn’t hit until 1770-1772 this was the last massive outbreak of the plague in Moscow the plague ended up killing 52,000 to 100,000 lives this was 1/6th to 1.3rd of the population of Moscow at this time. The plague hit Russia because of the Moldovan theatre of the 1768–1774 Russian-Turkish war in January 1770 swept north through Ukraine and central Russia, hitting Moscow. In 1771 because of the plague hitting its peak it caused a riot in Moscow and the governor failed to control the riot and fled to his estate the police followed him there the sanitary inspector of Moscow called for a state of emergency and shut down everything in the city which was then put under quarantine at the end of the plague it ended up killing a total of 300,000 people in Moscow alone and the consequences of the plague in Russia boosted its research to help fight diseases such as the black death it also helped with city planning’s authorities banned any burials on the traditional parish cemeteries inside the city of Moscow. Instead, they set up a chain of new cemeteries outside the city limits.
That is the black death and all the countries that it hit and what happened to the countries and the affects that they took to try to control this disease.
- Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Black Death.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 17 Jan. 2019, www.britannica.com/event/Black-Death.
- “Bubonic Plague in Early Modern Russia.” Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=k6vmCwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=inauthor%3A%22John%2BT.%2BAlexander%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjc-_r7gPnhAhVImeAKHYcyBnwQ6wEIKzAA#v=onepage&q&f=false.
- Ibeji, Dr Mike. “History – British History in Depth: Black Death.” BBC, BBC, 10 Mar. 2011, www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/middle_ages/black_01.shtml.
- “Plague Information and Facts.” Information and Facts | National Geographic, 18 Jan. 2017, www.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-diseases/the-plague/.
- “Plague | Plague | CDC.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, www.cdc.gov/plague/.
- Szczepanski, Kallie. “How the Black Death Started in Asia.” ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo, 14 Jan. 2019, www.thoughtco.com/black-death-in-asia-bubonic-plague-195144.
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