By 1914, there were finalized two blocks: block Entente (Russian empire, United Kingdom, France and block Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Italy, however, went to war in 1915 on the Allied side – but in Germany and Austria-Hungary during the war, Turkey and Bulgaria have joined to form the Quadruple Alliance (or block of the Central Powers).
President Woodrow Wilson announced the entrance into World War I in April 1917 after a long policy of neutrality, the U.S. showed an early interest in the whole world, participating in the Hague Conference. American involvement in the war confirmed the importance of the victory of the Allies (the U.S. did not enter the Entente, they were only ally). Isolationists not allowed joining the League of Nations, an important part of the Treaty of Versailles.
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U.S. in World War I (1914-1918). According to World War I (2008), at the beginning of the war, U.S. in general sympathetic to Western European countries, however, was dominated by the desire to preserve neutrality. Wilson was shocked by the destructive nature of the conflict and preoccupied its possible adverse implications for the U.S. in case of delays military action, tried to mediate. His ultimate goal was to achieve “peace without victory”. But peacekeeping efforts have failed; mainly due to the fact that both parties did not lose hope to win the decisive battle. Meanwhile, the U.S. more deeply mired in a dispute about the rights of neutral nations on the sea. Britain controlled the situation in the oceans, allowing the neutral countries to trade and simultaneously blocking the German ports. Germany tried to break the blockade, using new weapons – submarines.
(2) The socio-cultural impact of World War I on the U.S. In addition to the large cost of developing its own military machine, the U.S. provided large loans to the Allies so that in the period between December 1916 and June 1919, the total debt of the latter (together with interest) increased to 24,262 million U.S. Major expenditures were made possible only through a bond freedom. Seriously flawed domestic policies of Wilson were his inability to reliably protect civil liberties: war hysteria in the country resulted in the persecution of Americans of German descent, members of antiwar groups and other dissidents.
According to Woodrow Wilson and the Press Prelude to the Presidency (2004), in January 1918, Wilson submitted to Congress his “14 points” – a common declaration of U.S. objectives in the war. The declaration was presented recovery program to international stability and called for the establishment of the League of Nations. This program is largely at variance with military objectives, previously approved by the Entente and included a series of secret agreements. In October 1918 the Central European countries have sought to offer the world directly to Wilson, over the heads of European opponents. On November 11, 1918, Germany signed an armistice agreement. Despite a preliminary agreement on its terms, the differences in the positions of Europe and America have pointed out that during the post-war negotiations had serious contradictions. Another problem was the actual disintegration of the old Europe that did not promise quick and easy recovery of economic life.
During the peace negotiations, Wilson subordinates all other objectives of the League of Nations. To achieve this, he went on a series of compromises, in particular the contributions and territorial issues, hoping to later adjust them in the future of the League. At the negotiating table with the other members ‘big four’ – Lloyd George, representing Great Britain, Clemenceau representing France, and Orlando, representing Italy – Wilson proved himself a very skilled diplomat. Treaty of June 28, 1919 was the culmination of his political career.
(3) Woodrow Wilson’s rationale for engaging in World War I. In 1915 a German submarine sank the British passenger ship Lusitania, killing more than 100 American citizens. Wilson immediately told Germany that unprovoked attack of submarines to vessels of neutral countries was in violation of generally accepted norms of international law and must be stopped. Germany finally agreed to cease unrestricted submarine warfare, but only after the threat of Wilson to apply the most decisive measures. At this step, Germany went in early 1917, believing he could win the war while the U.S., denied the opportunity to influence its outcome. However, the sinking in February and March 1917, several American ships and the Zimmerman telegram from the Mexican government proposed an alliance against the United States forced Wilson to seek the consent of Congress for the country’s entry into the war. Progressives Group Midwest has opposed the decision, but on April 6, 1917, Congress still has declared war on Germany.
U.S. involvement in World War I, 1917-1918. Having suffered a fiasco as a peacemaker, a mediator in an attempt to achieve peace on terms acceptable to the United States, Wilson hoped to achieve this goal by making a contribution to the victory over Germany. Two of its main objectives to be attained before the U.S. entry into the war and gradually elucidated during 1917-1918, amounted to restore stability in Europe and the creation of the League of Nations, which would ensure peace and serve as an effective instrument of international development. U.S. immediately broadened the scope of economic and naval aid to allies and began preparing expeditionary force to join the fighting on the Western Front. Since the beginning of March 1918, the allies held back a strong German offensive. By the summer, the American reinforcements managed to deploy a counter-offensive. The U.S. Army has played a significant role in defeating Germany, successfully acting against the enemy and taking part in the general approach of the Allied forces.
(4) The cultural milieu of the Roaring Twenties and its impact on the Great Depression. U.S. interwar period (1918-1941). «Prosperity» (1921-1929) – is the period of economic recovery in the U.S., particularly after the First World War. Postwar America was a leader in economic growth. Thereby, it further strengthened its leading position in the world. By the end of 20’s, America was producing almost as many industrial products, as the entire rest of the world. They were, in fact, years of growth. The average worker has increased his salary by 25%. The unemployment rate did not exceed 5%, and in some periods of 3%. In the 20 years of prosperity period, the price level was absolutely stable. The pace of economic development of the USA was the highest in the world.
The Great Depression (1929-1933). In 1929, the most severe outbreak of the global economic crisis, which lasted until mid-1933 and to the ground shook the whole system of capitalism. Industrial production during the crisis in the U.S. was declined by 46%, in the UK by 24%, Germany 41%, France by 32%. Stock prices of industrial companies in the U.S. fell by 87%, in the UK by 48%, Germany 64%, France 60%. Unemployment has reached colossal proportions. According to official statistics, in 1933 in 32 capitalist countries, there were 30 million unemployed, including those in the U.S. 14 million world economic crisis of 1929-33 showed that the contradiction between social production and private form of appropriation of the results of production has reached such a pitch, when the capitalist economy can no longer more or less normal function. This circumstance required the intervention in the economy, the use of methods of public exposure to natural processes in a capitalist economy in order to avoid the turmoil that has accelerated the development of monopoly capitalism into state-monopoly capitalism.
According to The Great Depression (2007), preceded the Great Depression, an event the U.S. stock market crash 1929: slump in stock prices that began in the “Black Thursday” October 24, 1929, has taken catastrophic proportions in the “Black Monday” (October 28) and “Black Tuesday” (October 29). October 29, 1929 – the day the stock market crashed on the Wall Street.
(5) The causes and consequences of the Great Depression and its socio-economic impact on American society. Economists have not agreed on the causes of the Great Depression. There are several theories on this, but, apparently, in the emergence of the economic crisis has played its role as a combination of factors. Most scientists support the Keynesian explanation of the Great Depression – the lack of money. While the money was tied to gold reserves, is restricted money supply. At the same time, production grew at the turn of the century; there were new kinds of goods such as cars, airplanes, radio. Number of commodities, such as gross and scope, has multiplied. As a result of the limited money supply and rising commodity weight, there was a strong deflation – falling prices, which led to financial instability, the failure of many businesses, credit default. A powerful multiplier effect hit even the growing industry. The essence of the loan is simple – you can buy shares of companies making only 10% of their value. For example: shares worth $1000 can be purchased for $100. This type of loan has been popular in the 20 years because they were all playing the stock market. But in this loan, there is one trick. Broker at any time may require the payment of debt and its need to return in 24 hours. This is called margin requirements, and it usually causes the sale of shares bought on credit. On October 24, 1929 New York brokers, who gave out margin loans, have become popular to demand payment for them. Everyone started to dispose of shares to avoid paying for the margin loans. This caused a shortage of funds in banks, and for the same reasons led to the collapse of the sixteen thousand banks, allowing the international bankers to not only buy up the banks of competitors, but for mere penny to buy major U.S. companies. When a society has been completely ruined, the U.S. Federal Reserve bankers decided to cancel the gold standard for the United States. To this end, they decided to collect the rest of the U.S. gold. Thus, under the pretext of combating the effects of depression was carried out the confiscation of gold from the U.S. population.
Consequences of the Great Depression: level of industrial production was dropped to the level of the early XX century, to 30 years ago; in industrialized countries with market economies, there were 30 million unemployed; worsened the situation of farmers, petty traders, the middle class; many people were below the poverty line;
increased number of supporters of both communist and right-wing (fascist) parties (for example, in Germany came to power the National Socialist German Workers Party).
(6) Evaluate the socio-economic effects of the New Deal and its legacy to American history. New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1941). The program began almost simultaneously in all major areas of economic and social relations. To stabilize the monetary system, was banned the export of gold abroad, carried out the devaluation of the dollar, to enlarge the banking system, resulting that in the largest banks received the treasury of substantial loans and subsidies. Wellness industry was entrusted to a specially created agency – the National Recovery Administration industry. In accordance with the law for the restoration of the national economy on July 16, 1933 the entire industry was divided into 17 groups, the activities of each of which was regulated drawn up urgently to regulations – the so-called codes of fair competition, determines the quota of production, distribution, markets, prices , loan terms, working hours, wages, etc.
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In order to reduce unemployment and its negative effects extraordinary measures were taken. Guide the implementation of these measures rests with the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, replaced soon by the Administration of Public Works. The unemployed were sent to set up special organizations (“labor camps”), engaged in construction and repair of roads, bridges, airfields, etc. Of particular importance is the organization of work for young people. Conduct of the New Deal required the mobilization of significant financial resources that were (this was the most important factor of success) by the Government of Roosevelt.
(7) The lingering consequences of the Treaty of Versailles that gave rise to the dictatorships of the Axis powers. Treaty of Versailles (1919). Treaty of Versailles was intended to securing redistribution of the world in favor of the victorious powers. According to it, Germany returned to France Alsace-Lorraine (within 1870); Belgium – Eupen and Malmedy district, as well as the so-called neutral and the Prussian part of the moraine, Poland – Poznan, Pomerania, and other parts of Prussia.
The condition of the Versailles peace treaty has traditionally been considered extremely degrading and violent towards Germany. It is believed that this led to extreme social instability within the country (after the start of the global economic crisis in 1929), the emergence of right-wing forces and the Nazis came to power (in 1933). Reading the Treaty Ferdinand Foch said: “This is not peace; it is an armistice for 20 years”.
(8) The evolution of events that brought the U.S. into World War II. The Second World War (1941-1945). According to Total War and the Law: The American Home Front in World War II (2002), the United States did not enter World War II until the rest of the active allies have done so. The first U.S. contribution to the war was the fact U.S. had stopped the supply of oil and raw materials to Japan, it was vitally necessary for it to maintain the offensive in Manchuria, as well as increased military and financial aid to China. First aid allies were undertaken in September 1940, by creating a program Lend-Lease, together with Britain.
On December 7, 1941 Japan suddenly attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor to justify their actions linked to the U.S. embargo. The next day, Roosevelt organized a joint meeting of Congress on the issue of a declaration of war in Japan. Four days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Nazi Germany declared war on the United States, drawing the U.S. into a war on two fronts.
U.S. participated in World War II from December 1941 (the Pacific). From November 1942 – U.S. participated on the Mediterranean theater of operations. In June 1944, was opened the Western Front in Europe. U.S. forces acted on the territory of France (mainly in Normandy), Italy, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg.
(9) The socio-economic and cultural impact of World War II on U.S. society. The socio-economic impact of World War II was terrible. Losses incurred as a result of the war, striking in its scope. There were killed more than 50 million people, and given the constantly refined data on losses of the USSR (they range from 21.78 million to 30 million people), this figure cannot be called definitive. Only in death camps were destroyed 11 million lives. Economies of most countries at war have been undermined.
(10) World War II’s legacy to American history including its social, economic, political, and cultural impacts. U.S. lost in World War II 418,000 people. During the Second World War in the United States began the military-economic conditions. Before the war, the U.S. has not fully recovered from crisis 1937-1938. From autumn 1939 to autumn 1943, industrial production of the United States has grown almost in 2.5 times. This increase was caused by the war and orders for military equipment, food, etc. Development of U.S. military production was due to the fact that the American continent was far from the hostilities.
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