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The Incas were the leaders of the largest American empire of the ancient South American world. Near the end of the fourteenth century, the empire began to expand from its initial position in the region of Cuzco to the south of the Andes Mountains of South America and up to the north where Ecuador is located nowadays. The Incas called their territory Tahuantinsuyo, which in Quechua, the Inca language, means the empire of The Four Parts. A land of diverse terrains and climates very marked which included a long desert strip on the coast, interspersed with rich irrigated valleys, high peaks and deep fertile valleys of the Andes, and the mountain peaks of the rainforest to the east. The soil and climate have always played an important role in the type and life led by people and particularly in how to organize their activities.
Peru, the center of the Inca Empire, is a country in which both climate and landscape are quite different so far from the coast to the mountains. The land near the coast is a dry desert. In the north, the plants only bloom for a short period of time. However, across the desert, many small rivers that flow from the Andes Mountains cross the fertile valleys. Inca word designates the leader himself and the people of the valley of Cuzco, the capital of the empire. It is sometimes used to refer to all the people included in the Tahuantinsuyo, but this is not correct. Most of the smaller kingdoms kept their identity even though they were linked politically and economically to the Incas but they were not Incas. Quechua was the official language spoken in most communities
Inca children were educated for the role they were to play in society when they were adults. In males, the age of 14 were first put the loin cloth. This ceremony was very special among the nobles because that day was organized a pilgrimage to the valley of Cuzco, the priests sacrificed llamas and honored face smeared with blood from the same animal. Then the boy dressed as a warrior and made â€‹â€‹him swear allegiance to the Inca. Since that time education was directed and given specialized. Inca warriors were placed in full brainwash training with the object of forgetting fear.
The Incas developed a highly functional style of public architecture that was remarkable for its advanced engineering and fine stone work. The cities plan was based on a system of main avenues intersected by smaller roads that converged on an open plaza surrounded by municipal buildings and temples. . For the construction of major monuments such as the great fortress of Sacsayhuaman near Cuzco, massive polygonal blocks were put together with extraordinary precision in a way that Spanish tried to imitate but thy never accomplished. In mountainous regions such as the spectacular Andean city located in Machu Picchu, the Inca architecture often reflects ingenious adaptations of natural surroundings.
The empire religion was based on Sun worship the god sun was the creator of everything and maximum deity but the Incas had many other gods hundred of them but none as equally important as the sun. Inca emperors were considered the descendants of the sun and were worshiped feared and respected as gods. Gold, symbol of the Sun God, was exploited for the use of leaders and members of the elite, not as currency exchange, but for decoration and rituals matters. Religion dominated the entire political structure. The annual cycle of religious festivals was regulated by the Inca calendar, extremely precise, and the agricultural year. Due to these and other aspects, the Inca culture was very similar to some cultures of America such as the Mayans.
The Inca army is one of the pillars of the empire and had a very special training. This training was so intense and lasted years that resulted in perfect fearless suicidal warriors. One of their weapons was their only presence; his confidence and their battle war scream were used to scare their enemies and these were enough sometimes. The Incas would fight and confront their enemies until the last one was death. The Inca's way of graduating from the Incas military school was by receiving their Inca weapons, and they were given a metal badge, a military uniform called Huara, military shoes called Ojetas and big earrings. This special earrings would mark their status in the army. The most important part of their training was that each Inca was taught that the gods were protecting their cause of fighting. This heavy training was very important for the Inca people. The Incas resided in the highland Cuzco, Peru. Cuzco was founded around 1200 AD by the legendary Manco Capac. Their influence began to expand in the twelfth century, this great civilization were the creators of the amazing city of Machu Picchu.
They controlled South America and were the strongest culture of their time in South America. The Incas starting appearing in South America around 1000 CE, The inca empire became the largest in pre-columbian America, involving which nowadays are Ecuador, Peru large part of Chile brazil Colombia etc. it was a very large empire that was constantly growing until the conquistadors arrived. The Empire of Incas started when Inca Pachacutec took the throne in 1438, and that's when they overcame by force their neighbors. With Pachacutec reign the empire began to expand not only its territory but also its power.
The Inca Empire was known as socialist and communist. Under the power of the Inca empire there was no private property and nothing began to any Individual; everything was only from the Inca . People would wear same clothing and the crops were divided equally between members of the village and families. Food was also divided equally; everyone would eat same in same amounts the only difference was the social ranks. This fairness was only applied in people of same rank. Such as the artisans the soldiers the clerics and of course the Inca .Above this rank was the chief of the villages, then local governors, the supreme master was known as The Inca.
The Inca's way of ruling was by conquering small cities and tribes around its boundaries gain their respect and ten make them fight for them. This job was not easy either because the whole empire rested upon their shoulder. The Inca warriors were trained to have a deep self-believe, they were proud of themselves, full of bravery and courage. Their perfect military organization was the power of the Inca empire resided. This allowed a fast raise of troops. Men joined the army when they were asked to, all of them would receive military instructions. By these trainings they would form legions of regular armies at certain locations. The training of the Inca consisted in making then fearless warriors. During their training the Incas were brainwashed. The Incas were taught to not fear because they were protected by the gods. The severe military training started around when the person was 16 years old. The age range in the Inca army was between 25 and 50 years old. The process of choosing the elite force of the army was was very important only the most capable soldiers were chosen and this elite warriors were designed to protect the Inca and special missions in war times, they would have to go thru a more severe and specialized training. This severe training would absorb and increase their strength and after will only focus in one particular weapon. Their formations would be divided into specialties and each group was divided according to what weapon there were specialized .These young males were fully trained in the arts of war. What differed the Incas from other civilizations was their discipline. Their punishment was serious and harsh and went thru strict supervision at all times. Any showing of weakness or pain in front of the enemy was punished by death. Neither slangs nor burglaries were permitted in the Inca Empire. The expansion of the Incas consisted of a military strategy.
The routes were long and straight, usually were paved or cobblestone. These networks will walk came to the limits of empire. In the desert, the road marked only by posts. In the highlands, the roads are constantly up and down the slopes of the mountains in some places too steep, steps were built to be the easiest step. In the valley walls were built along the routes and get used to decorate them with paints All except the nobles, had to walk to get from one place to another, since they could travel in the back of the llamas. The way the Incas used to manage their empire was to train runners called "chasquis" who would deliver messages and also build roads which would allow them to do this. In this civilization they had no source of transportation or long distance communication. these runners were trained from a very young age. Some of best of the entire empire would run up to 50 miles a day. Nothing has equaled the Inca runners, not even nowadays.
After the Incas returned from battle they were received by their community with a huge ceremony which was held in their honor. Part of their military campaign consisted in checking the weak points of the enemy, these were carefully prepared. The Incas would gather their armies in a size big enough to force their enemies into harmony and avoid a open battle. Not only their army size would cause this but the warriors would demonstrate their superiority on the battlefield. Incas tried to achieve submission so there would be no battle, but if there was betrayal involved it would end up harsh and bloody. The Inca's weapons were quite simple. Some of their weapons were slings, bows and arrows, spears, javelins, axes being the preferred and most common the mace. Shields, cotton vests and wooden helmets were to protect the soldiers. The units were divided by groups who were specifically trained for each weapon. The Slings were the most popular weapon, not only the slingers were perfect to shoot but also for hunting. Bows and arrows were popular in the rainforest region, Inca warriors in this area would use them.
It is difficult to understand how the powerful Tahuantinsuyo was defeated by a small group of Spanish. The causes of the defeat of the Incas are divided into two ... visible causes and deep. The Spanish was very inferior to the Indians, numerically speaking the Spanish were just about under 200 men but they had fire weapons, They also had dogs and horses, which were considered "men-eaters" to the Incas, lack of unity and identification with the inter-ethnic Tahuantinsuyo and finally the surprise actor was decisive in the Spanish victory. The vas majority of the Inca army by the time of the conquest by the Spanish decimated by illness Spanish attacks and rebellions. The Inca soldiers feared the horses and firearms of the Spanish which reduced their fighting efficiency. At the end of this period the Inca army lost battles not just to the Spanish conquerors but also to subjected tribes that took advantage of the arrival of the Spanish and weakness of the Incas to take revenge. It is thought that when the Incas surrender, the empire had a population estimated of more or less twelve million people which represents today Peru and Ecuador and a generous part of Argentina , Bolivia y Chile.