TheÂ IncasÂ were the leadersÂ ofÂ the largest American empire of the ancient South American world.Â Near theÂ endÂ of the fourteenth century, the empireÂ began toÂ expandÂ fromÂ its initial positionÂ in theÂ region ofÂ CuzcoÂ toÂ the southÂ of theÂ Andes MountainsÂ ofÂ South America and up to the north where Ecuador is located nowadays. TheÂ IncasÂ calledÂ theirÂ territoryÂ Tahuantinsuyo, which inÂ Quechua, theÂ Inca language,Â means the empire ofÂ The Four Parts.Â A landÂ ofÂ diverseÂ terrainsÂ and climatesÂ very marked whichÂ includedÂ aÂ longÂ desertÂ stripÂ onÂ the coast, interspersedÂ with rich irrigated valleys,Â high peaksÂ andÂ deepÂ fertileÂ valleysÂ of theÂ Andes,Â and theÂ mountain peaksÂ ofÂ the rainforestÂ to the east. The soilÂ and climateÂ haveÂ alwaysÂ playedÂ an important roleÂ in theÂ type andÂ life led byÂ people andÂ particularly inÂ howÂ to organizeÂ their activities.
Peru, theÂ centerÂ ofÂ the Inca Empire,Â isÂ a countryÂ in whichÂ both climateÂ andÂ landscapeÂ areÂ quite differentÂ so farÂ from theÂ coast toÂ the mountains. TheÂ land nearÂ theÂ coastÂ isÂ a dry desert.Â InÂ theÂ north, theÂ plants onlyÂ bloomÂ for aÂ shortÂ periodÂ of time. However,Â across theÂ desert, manyÂ smallÂ riversÂ that flow fromÂ theÂ Andes MountainsÂ crossÂ theÂ fertile valleys. IncaÂ wordÂ designatesÂ theÂ leader himselfÂ and the peopleÂ of the valleyÂ ofÂ Cuzco,Â theÂ capitalÂ of the empire.Â It is sometimesÂ usedÂ to referÂ toÂ all the people includedÂ inÂ theÂ Tahuantinsuyo,Â butÂ this is not correct.Â MostÂ of theÂ smaller kingdomsÂ kept their identityÂ even thoughÂ they wereÂ linkedÂ politically and economicallyÂ toÂ theÂ Incas but they were not Incas.Â Quechua wasÂ the official languageÂ spokenÂ inÂ mostÂ communities
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IncaÂ childrenÂ wereÂ educatedÂ for the role they were to playÂ inÂ society whenÂ they were adults.Â InÂ males,Â the age of 14Â wereÂ firstÂ putÂ theÂ loin cloth.Â This ceremonyÂ was veryÂ specialÂ amongÂ theÂ nobles becauseÂ thatÂ dayÂ wasÂ organizedÂ aÂ pilgrimageÂ to the valleyÂ ofÂ Cuzco,Â theÂ priestsÂ sacrificed llamas andÂ honoredÂ faceÂ smearedÂ withÂ bloodÂ from the sameÂ animal.Â ThenÂ theÂ boyÂ dressedÂ as aÂ warrior andÂ made â€‹â€‹himÂ swear allegianceÂ to theÂ Inca.Â Since that timeÂ educationÂ was directedÂ andÂ given specialized. Inca warriors were placed in full brainwash training with the object of forgetting fear.
TheÂ IncasÂ developedÂ aÂ highly functional styleÂ of public architectureÂ that was remarkableÂ forÂ its advancedÂ engineeringÂ andÂ fineÂ stoneÂ work.Â The cities planÂ wasÂ basedÂ onÂ aÂ systemÂ of main avenues intersectedÂ byÂ smaller roadsÂ that convergedÂ onÂ anÂ open plazaÂ surroundedÂ by municipal buildings andÂ temples.Â . ForÂ theÂ constructionÂ ofÂ majorÂ monumentsÂ suchÂ as the great fortress ofÂ SacsayhuamanÂ nearÂ Cuzco, massiveÂ polygonalÂ blocksÂ were put togetherÂ with extraordinary precision in a way that Spanish tried to imitate but thy never accomplished.Â In mountainous regions such asÂ the spectacular Andean cityÂ located in MachuÂ Picchu, the Inca architectureÂ often reflects ingenious adaptations ofÂ natural surroundings.
The empire religionÂ was basedÂ onÂ Sun worship the god sun was the creator of everything and maximum deity but the Incas had many other gods hundred of them but none as equally important as the sun.Â Inca emperorsÂ were considered the descendantsÂ ofÂ the sunÂ and wereÂ worshiped feared and respectedÂ asÂ gods.Â Gold, symbolÂ ofÂ the Sun God,Â was exploitedÂ forÂ theÂ use ofÂ leadersÂ and membersÂ of theÂ elite,Â notÂ as currencyÂ exchange, butÂ for decorationÂ and rituals matters. ReligionÂ dominatedÂ the entire political structure. The annual cycleÂ of religious festivalsÂ wasÂ regulatedÂ by theÂ Inca calendar, extremelyÂ precise, andÂ theÂ agricultural year.Â DueÂ toÂ these and other aspects, theÂ Inca cultureÂ was very similar toÂ someÂ culturesÂ of America such as the Mayans.
The Inca army is one of the pillars of the empire and had a very special training. This training was so intense and lasted years that resulted in perfect fearless suicidal warriors. One of their weapons was their only presence; his confidence and their battle war scream were used to scare their enemies and these were enough sometimes. The Incas would fight and confront their enemies until the last one was death. The Inca's way of graduating from the Incas military school was by receiving their Inca weapons, and they were given a metal badge, a military uniform called Huara, military shoes called Ojetas and big earrings. This special earrings would mark their status in the army. The most important part of their training was that each Inca was taught that the gods were protecting their cause of fighting. This heavy training was very important for the Inca people. The Incas resided in the highland Cuzco, Peru. Cuzco was founded around 1200 AD by the legendary Manco Capac. Their influence began to expand in the twelfth century, this great civilization were the creators of the amazing city of Machu Picchu.
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They controlled South America and were the strongest culture of their time in South America. The Incas starting appearing in South America around 1000 CE, The inca empire became the largest in pre-columbian America, involving which nowadays are Ecuador, Peru large part of Chile brazil Colombia etc. it was a very large empire that was constantly growing until the conquistadors arrived. The Empire of Incas started when Inca Pachacutec took the throne in 1438, and that's when they overcame by force their neighbors. With Pachacutec reign the empire began to expand not only its territory but also its power.
The Inca Empire was known as socialist and communist. Under the power of the Inca empire there was no private property and nothing began to any Individual; everything was only from the Inca . People would wear same clothing and the crops were divided equally between members of the village and families. Food was also divided equally; everyone would eat same in same amounts the only difference was the social ranks. This fairness was only applied in people of same rank. Such as the artisans the soldiers the clerics and of course the Inca .Above this rank was the chief of the villages, then local governors, the supreme master was known as The Inca.
The Inca's way of ruling was by conquering small cities and tribes around its boundaries gain their respect and ten make them fight for them. This job was not easy either because the whole empire rested upon their shoulder. The Inca warriors were trained to have a deep self-believe, they were proud of themselves, full of bravery and courage. Their perfect military organization was the power of the Inca empire resided. This allowed a fast raise of troops. Men joined the army when they were asked to, all of them would receive military instructions. By these trainings they would form legions of regular armies at certain locations. The training of the Inca consisted in making then fearless warriors. During their training the Incas were brainwashed. The Incas were taught to not fear because they were protected by the gods. The severe military training started around when the person was 16 years old. The age range in the Inca army was between 25 and 50 years old. The process of choosing the elite force of the army was was very important only the most capable soldiers were chosen and this elite warriors were designed to protect the Inca and special missions in war times, they would have to go thru a more severe and specialized training. This severe training would absorb and increase their strength and after will only focus in one particular weapon. Their formations would be divided into specialties and each group was divided according to what weapon there were specialized .These young males were fully trained in the arts of war. What differed the Incas from other civilizations was their discipline. Their punishment was serious and harsh and went thru strict supervision at all times. Any showing of weakness or pain in front of the enemy was punished by death. Neither slangs nor burglaries were permitted in the Inca Empire. The expansion of the Incas consisted of a military strategy.
TheÂ routesÂ were longÂ andÂ straight,Â usuallyÂ were pavedÂ orÂ cobblestone.Â TheseÂ networksÂ will walk cameÂ to theÂ limits ofÂ empire.Â InÂ theÂ desert, theÂ road markedÂ onlyÂ by posts.Â InÂ the highlands,Â theÂ roads are constantlyÂ up and downÂ the slopesÂ ofÂ the mountainsÂ inÂ some placesÂ tooÂ steep,Â stepsÂ were builtÂ toÂ beÂ the easiest step.Â InÂ theÂ valleyÂ wallsÂ were builtÂ alongÂ the routesÂ andÂ get used toÂ decorate themÂ withÂ paints All except theÂ nobles,Â had to walkÂ toÂ get from one placeÂ to another,Â sinceÂ they couldÂ travelÂ inÂ the back ofÂ the llamas. The way the Incas used to manage their empire was to train runners called "chasquis" who would deliver messages and also build roads which would allow them to do this. In this civilization they had no source of transportation or long distance communication. these runners were trained from a very young age. Some of best of the entire empire would run up to 50 miles a day. Nothing has equaled the Inca runners, not even nowadays.
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After the Incas returned from battle they were received by their community with a huge ceremony which was held in their honor. Part of their military campaign consisted in checking the weak points of the enemy, these were carefully prepared. The Incas would gather their armies in a size big enough to force their enemies into harmony and avoid a open battle. Not only their army size would cause this but the warriors would demonstrate their superiority on the battlefield. Incas tried to achieve submission so there would be no battle, but if there was betrayal involved it would end up harsh and bloody. The Inca's weapons were quite simple. Some of their weapons were slings, bows and arrows, spears, javelins, axes being the preferred and most common the mace. Shields, cotton vests and wooden helmets were to protect the soldiers. The units were divided by groups who were specifically trained for each weapon. The Slings were the most popular weapon, not only the slingers were perfect to shoot but also for hunting. Bows and arrows were popular in the rainforest region, Inca warriors in this area would use them.
It is difficultÂ to understandÂ how theÂ powerfulÂ Tahuantinsuyo was defeatedÂ byÂ a small group of Spanish.Â TheÂ causesÂ ofÂ the defeatÂ ofÂ theÂ IncasÂ are dividedÂ intoÂ twoÂ ...Â visible causesÂ andÂ deep. The SpanishÂ wasÂ veryÂ inferiorÂ to the Indians, numerically speakingÂ the Spanish wereÂ just about under 200 men but they had fire weapons, They also hadÂ dogsÂ andÂ horses,Â whichÂ were consideredÂ "men-eaters"Â toÂ theÂ Incas, lack ofÂ unityÂ and identification with theÂ inter-ethnic Tahuantinsuyo and finally the surprise actor was decisive in the Spanish victory. The vas majority of the Inca army by the time of the conquest by the Spanish decimated by illness Spanish attacks and rebellions. The Inca soldiers feared the horses and firearms of the Spanish which reduced their fighting efficiency. At the end of this period the Inca army lost battles not just to the Spanish conquerors but also to subjected tribes that took advantage of the arrival of the Spanish and weakness of the Incas to take revenge. It is thought that when the Incas surrender, the empire had a population estimated of more or less twelve million people which represents todayÂ PeruÂ and EcuadorÂ and a generous part ofÂ Argentina , Bolivia y Chile.