The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....
while also seeking to broaden the public's participation in government. This democracy demanded elected judges that were not appointed and rewrote many state constitutions to reflect the new values. In national terms the Jacksonians favored geographical expansion, justifying it in terms of Manifest Destiny. Manifest Destiny was the 19th century belief that the United States was destined to expand across the North American continent. The Jacksonians initially favored a federal government of limited powers. Jackson said that he would guard against "all encroachments upon the legitimate sphere of State sovereignty". As the Jacksonians Democracy consolidated power, they often preferred to expanding their federal power and presidential power. Jackson represented those who wanted to make government responsive to the will of the people rather than to the power of special interest groups. As the Jacksonians Democracy consolidated power, they more often advocated expanding federal power and Presidential power in particular seaboard to the Pacific Ocean.
The Jacksonians Democracy believed that there was a deep rooted conflict in society between the producing and non producing classes of people. These classes included the farmers and laborers and on the other hand the business community. . "Jacksonians Democracy was rather a second American phase of that enduring struggle between the business community and the rest of society which is the guarantee of freedom in a liberal capitalist state. (Schlesinger, 1945, 307)." Another part of the Jacksonians Democracy was how it affected the Law. The democracy did not agree with the court system that was in place. It ran sharply against their inclination to devise new guarantees for property and made it almost impossible with all the obstacles that were presented. This conflict had two major parts and those were to change the personnel in the courts, and the struggle to simplify and change the law itself. The Jacksonians Democracy was the first to have a large scale reform on the economic mechanisms. This affected the Industrial part of the colony. For owners and large investors this adjustment was a small change, since they had the power. However, those on the outside of that culture had a feeling of deep misgiving due to change. While this occurred they were in shock. With Industrialism occurring this only made the distance of master and slave very long, They were no longer together but on different playing fields. By this I mean that others were hired to ensure the slaves did the work while the owner stepped aside and tended to business. Although he made many changes they were never extended to the native American Indians. As he progressed westward the American Indians lost almost their battles. The battles were between the American Indians and the settlers and soldiers. The American Indians were forcibly removed from their homes so the white Americans can move in and make a life there. In 1830, at President Jackson's request, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which required the forced relocation (removal) of the Southeastern Indians to a new Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. The Cherokee Indians were moved from their homes in Georgia to these lands in the west in 1838 and 1839 became known as the Trail of Tears. While the Indians were on this march many died of hardship, sickness, and starvation. Other tribes were also either relocated from Atlantic Coast states to Oklahoma or confined to reservations. Another point of the Jacksonians democracy was that it sparked a women's rights movement. This reform movement worked to give equal rights to American women, especially the right to vote. It formally began in 1848 at a meeting at Seneca Falls, New York. On a final note there was a consensus among both Jacksonians and Whigs that battles over slavery were not good and should be avoided. The Jacksonians era lasted from his 1828 election until the slavery issue became dominant after 1850.Nullification CrisisASA
The Nullification Crisis was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of Nullification. This ordinance declared, by the power of the State itself, that the federal Tariff of 1828 and the federal Tariff of 1832 were unconstitutional and...
Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2009
Schlesinger, Arthur M. The Age of Jackson. Boston, 1945
Groom, Winston. Patriotic Fire: Andrew Jackson and Jean Lafitte at the Battle of New Orleans. Canada, 2006
September 10, 2010
Mini Research Paper #2
Summarize the factors that led the United States to declare war on England in the war of 1812. Evaluate what the Unites states gained as a result of the war?
In writing this paper I took into account how many students have written about this and the number of times you have read it. Logically I would go in chronological order, but I think that would be boring. Therefore, I will be jumping on the different ideas out of order just to be different. The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the United Kingdom and its colonies, especially Upper Canada (Ontario), Lower Canada (Quebec), Nova Scotia, Bermuda and Newfoundland. The war lasted from 1812 to 1815, although a peace treaty was signed in 1814. By the end of the war both sides had heavy casualties, 1,600 British and 2,260 American troops had died. Great Britain had been at war with France since 1793, and to impede neutral trade with France imposed a series of restrictions that the U.S. contested as illegal under international law. The Americans declared war on Britain on June 18, 1812 for a combination of reasons, including: outrage at the enlistment of American sailors into the British navy; frustration at British restraints on neutral trade; anger at alleged British military support for American Indians defending their tribal lands from intruding American settlers; and a need and desire for territorial expansion of the Republic. The biggest thing we gained was the ability to trade with France and other European countries. The United States did gain a measure of international respect for managing to withstand the British Empire. The morale of the citizens was high because they had fought one of the great military powers of the world and managed to survive, which increased feelings of nationalism; the war has often been called the "Second War of Independence." The war also contributed to the removal of the Federalist Party, which had opposed the war. "A significant military development was the increased emphasis by General Winfield Scott on improved professionalism in the U.S. Army officer corps, and in particular, the training of officers at the United States Military Academy ("West Point"). I did fail to mention that the war not only affected the colonists but the native Indians as well. For the other parties to the War of 1812-the Indian tribes east of the Mississippi-the conflict was another disastrous blow to their ability to resist white expansion. Tecumseh was dead. The British were gone from the Northwest. And the intertribal alliance of Tecumseh and the Prophet had collapsed. As the end of the war spurred a new white movement westward, the Indians were less able than ever to defend their land (Brinkley, 2006, 199)." The United states also gained our now Nation Anthem that was penned by Francis Scott Keys. There have been updated versions on the National Anthem from the original version which is now its standard form.
In reading the books about this war of 1812 there were other smaller conflicts within this large one. Each had a profound way of affecting the gains and losses each side had. An example of that would be the treaty of Ghent. "It was here in Ghent , Belgium rather than on the Canadian-American frontier that the United States consistently out maneuvered the enemy, and it was here that the Americans could claim their most significant victory (Hickey, 1989, 281)!"
The War of 1812 had a dramatic effect on the manufacturing capabilities of the United States. The British blockade of the American coast created a shortage of cotton cloth in the United States, leading to the creation of a cotton-manufacturing industry, beginning at Waltham, Massachusetts by Francis Cabot Lowell. These are just a few and major gains the War of 1812 caused. "Few Americans attempted to estimate the ability of the United States to wage war. None of them doubted the inherit strength was available, but many, such as John Randolph, questioned the ability of the government to channel that power (Mahon, 1972, 10)." There will always be a few who will question authority or ideas but that is what makes our nation great. We are able to voice our opinions even if it falls on deaf ears.
Brinkley, Alan The Unfinished Nation. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006
Hickey, Donald R. The War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict. Illinois: Illinois Books, 1989
Mahon, John K. The War of 1812. Florida: Da Capo Press, 1972
Mini Research Papers #3
Describe four major Battles of the Civil War from Ft. Sumter to Gettysburg.
What factors help to explain the course of the war to this point?
The Civil War had many battles that each battle chronologically set up the next and set the outcome. They each had a significance in the development of our country. The first one I will discuss would be the Second Battle of Bull Run. The Second Battle of Bull Run was a very important victory for the South. In fact, it was the most decisive battle in the Northern Virginia campaign for the Confederates. It was a very important victory for the South .It was the most decisive battle in the Northern Virginia campaign for the Confederates. In order to draw Pope's army into battle, Jackson ordered an attack on a Federal column that was passing across his front on the Warrenton Turnpike on August 28. The fight at Brawner Farm lasted several hours and resulted in a stalemate. Pope became convinced that he had trapped Jackson and concentrated the bulk of his army against him. On August 29, Pope launched a series of assaults against Jackson's position along an unfinished railroad grade. when these attacks occurred they were disgusted with heavy casualties on both sides. At noon, Longstreet arrived on the field from Thoroughfare Gap and took position on Jackson's right flank. On August 30, Pope renewed his attacks, seemingly unaware that Longstreet was on the field. When the Confederate artillery got organized they devastated a Union assault by Fitz John Porter's command, Longstreet's wing of 28,000 men counter attacked in the largest, simultaneous mass assault of the war. The Unions left flank was crushed and the army driven back to Bull Run. He had effective Union rearguard action prevented a replay of the First Manassas disaster. Pope's retreat to Centreville was precipitous, nonetheless. The next day, Lee ordered his army in pursuit. This was the decisive battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign.
The next battle I will discuss will be the Battle of Antietam. This battle forced the Confederate Army to retreat back across the Potomac River. President Lincoln saw the significance of this and issued the emancipation proclamation. On September 22, 1862, after the Union victory at the Battle of Antietam, the president announced his intention to use his war powers to issue an executive order freeing all slaves in the Confederacy. " It applied, in short, only to slaves over whom the Union had no control (Brinkley, 2006, 364)."
Another battle was the Seven days Battle. This battle lasted from June 25-July 1, 1862 In which McCllelan's forces advanced to Richmond. On June 26th, Lee's forces attacked Union forces at Mechanicsville. The Union forces were victorious, but McClellan ordered a withdrawal to Gaines' Mill. Once they got there the Confederate forces broke the union lines. McClellan then ordered a general withdrawal. Three more battles were fought, including one at Malvern Hill, in which Confederate troops were slaughtered, in an ill advised attempt to scale it. In the end however, McClellan withdrew all of his troops to Harrison Landing. " Lee left a mere 25,000 of his own to guard Richmond and face off all of the rest of McClellan's army, and on the 26th he struck (Strokesbury, 1995, 91)." To summarize this battle it just seems that it was poorly executed. This was due to McClellan's inability to change from trainer and organizer to commander.
The final battle would be Gettysburg because it was the largest fought battle on the North American Continent. People know something about it when the word Gettysburg is mentioned. Nearly 16,000 men fought this battle and of those 51,000 were killed or wounded. Under the direction of Meade the troops did well and fought with courage. As far as Lee was concerned this war at Gettysburg was his biggest failure. This was attributed to his bad decision making due to lack of information. "Perhaps the event that had the greatest significance at Gettysburg did not happen during the battle: instead, it occurred in November when Abraham Lincoln came to speak at the dedication of the union soldier's cemetery on the battlefield. His short speech known as the "Gettysburg Address" is one of the masterpieces of the English language (Dickson, 2001, 213)." As previously stated this throughout this paper the Civil War that had many little battles leading to one large one. You cannot help but think how our lifestyles would be if these wars had not occurred. All wars past and now shape the future of all Americans because they affect us many different ways that we can't control.