Slavery "referred to involuntary subjection to another or others" (Dictionary.com). During the process of slavery, Africans were taking from Africa to the plantations in North and South America (for forced labor) and it started in the late fourteen hundreds. In the course of the procedure, millions of slaves were brought to the American continent. Here in the United States throughout the years it has become a social problem. A lot of social movement (such as the civil war, Underground Railroad movement) were created and lead to the abolition of slavery in eighteen sixty-five, by the enactment of the thirteenth amendment.
In the United States of America, the abolition of slavery was a long, difficult, and notorious procedure. Antislavery feeling had started in the United States of America at some point in colonial period, but it was only throughout the period prior the Civil War that the abolitionist group became more combative. Countrywide abolitionist groups organized pro-abolition meetings, became politically active with open abolition views, published abolition journals, and helped runaway slaves. In the southern states, slaves had created the profitable support of the plantation structure ever since the sixteen hundred and the presence of slavery had caused a strong support to those who wrote the Constitution in the eighteen century. After the abolition of slavery, and the end of the civil war many opponents of racial equality in the United States had risen among Caucasians (white) and had created movement like the Ku Klux Klan (which is totally against freeing the slaves (Black folks) and theirs equality with the white race).
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"Despite its eventual success abolitionism was never a reform movement of a unified North. Although abolitionists mostly came from the North, most Northerners were not abolitionists. Moreover, most white American abolitionists, while fighting against the institution of slavery, still did not regard African Americans as their equals. Immediatists such as Garrison were regarded, even among other abolitionists, as crazed extremists. Other reform movements linked to abolitionism, such as the women's movement, further divided abolitionist leaders." (http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=53).
In the book "The Souls of Black Folk", Dubois used the tale of a young man named John, who was sent by his mother to go to school in a big town to get his education. John was presented as the new hope of the black folks living in Altamaha, a small town in Georgia. In that period; which Dubois spoke of very few "Negros" had the chance of going to school, and John was one of them. Once out of his town John, was exposed to a different experience in his life, which was the truth about how black folks are treated in America. John grew up socially and find out about the veil. The veil he didn't know about until he left his beloved family to seek for knowledge. After completing his education under pressure and a lot of struggles due to discrimination, John returns home with a new ideology and new goal (which is opening the Negros eyes about equality of race and better their life). Educated, John comes home with a wake up message to the same black folks who watched him leave and welcomes him when he came back. Unfortunately, he is misunderstood by the same people he comes from, because they were still undermined by their white neighbors. He tries to pass on his knowledge to the young Negroes, but he was soon shut down because of a fear; the fear that he doesn't encourage the Negroes to raise and seek for equality.
Thus, progress of the Civil Rights group in the United States is a turning point of the effort of black people in the country for their human rights. Leaders like Martin Luther King, Malcolm X and Rosa Park lead the post abolition Civil Rights movement with the goal of obtaining equal rights and opportunities for black people as suppose to white folks. The Civil Rights movement did not happen suddenly. Instead, it was the consequence of a progress of general awareness of black folks from the period of slavery through abolition of slavery, racial prejudice and the durable effort of black folks for their civil liberties, which affected their collective situation in the society and their economic situation as well. The Civil Rights movement resulted from the rising social awareness of black folks. The influence and actions of the movement's leaders such as Martin Luther King lead to the solid change of the situation and the American society.
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Through the story of John, Dubois show the social division in the United States of America where black people only attended to black school(as John did when he went to Wells Institute a black college). Another example of social division in John's journey is, when he was asked to move from his seat because some white folk (who happened to be his boyhood playmate) wanted the seat. "Go 'round to the kitchen door, John, and wait." ("The Souls of Black Folk", chapter thirteen) said the judge to John when he met him at the front door that happened because John is a Negro (inferior class). These examples point out the existence of at least two social classes, the whites and the blacks. Nowadays, the social division still exists in America even if, it is done under the radar. Many times, you heard stories about how one was, disqualified for a job, punished harder, accused of fault, all that because of the color of the skin.
The prejudice of black folks was carried on all the way to the middle of the twentieth century. As a result, the segregation of the entire American society was the unexpected effect of the abolition since black Americans even though freed, were still treated as second-class citizens and did not have equal rights and opportunities compared to the whites. In such a situation, black Americans, became inactive and fought to reinforce their right. In the long-run positive effect of the abolition of slavery was obvious since a few educated and strong leaders of the black Americans community managed to launch the Civil Rights movement that united all black Americans and marked the realization of their civil rights. In the same talking, it is worth mentioning activities of Martin Luther King, who appealed to the equality of black Americans and white Americans. In his public speeches, such as "I Have a Dream", he developed his concept of the new American society, free of discrimination and segregation.
Today it is almost impossible to debate on the subject of the entire abolition of the discrimination of whites folks and blacks people in the United States of America. In fact in politics, every time there is an election the topic of race always comes up and the subject social division is there as well. For instance in two thousand eight during the presidential election many anti-equality advocates had shown their anger and disappointment because Barack Obama, a black man became the first United States president, even his opponents had slip of tongue and mentioned his race. I also recalled in two thousand one seating on the train next to white folks (at least three different occasions) and they will got up and leave the whole bench to me. In two thousand seven, I was breaking a fight between a white off duty cop and a black co-worker as soon as he heard my accent he told me he is going to send me back to my country. All these examples show that discrimination, even thought is not openly expose for everyone to see is still there on other more sophisticated form with sophisticated name.
The Civil Rights movement had its roots during the period of the abolition, which was the beginning of the success of black Americans in the fight for their rights. Yet, the abolition of slavery did not succeed on bringing the development of the being of black Americans. At last, the abolition gave the black Americans the chance to overcome the struggle they went through to defend their right and better their life in the American society as a whole. Dubois, an advocate of the black folks cause; uses at the end of the John's story tale from "He leaned back and smiled toward the sea, whence rose the strange melody, away from the dark shadows where lay the noise of horses galloping, galloping on. With an effort he roused himself, bent forward, and looked steadily down the pathway - "
"Freudig geführt, ziehet dahin."
Amid the trees in the dim morning twilight he watched their shadows dancing and heard their horses thundering toward him, until at last they came sweeping like a storm, and he saw in front that haggard white-haired man, whose eyes flashed red with fury. Oh, how he pitied him,-pitied him,-and wondered if he had the coiling twisted rope. Then, as the storm burst round him, he rose slowly to his feet and turned his closed eyes toward the Sea. And the world whistled in his ears." ("The Souls of Black Folk", chapter thirteen) a poetic style to show how John enjoyed his journey at the end of which he somehow had some type of victory. Black people felt the same way after the abolition of slavery, the civil rights movements because; some improvements have been made in black folks' life after each one. The example of the "Of the Coming of John" The Souls of Black Folk", chapter thirteen) fits every bit of the black progress toward success. Today there is still hope in our mind that someday things will be almost perfect; because they are right know a lot better than they were hundred years ago.
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