Road Of The Independent Malaysia History Essay
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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016
Hundreds of years ago Malaysia passed through many of the historical periods, where the occupation came to Malaysia one after another, started from the Portuguese and ending with the British. During the colonial period, the Malay people have struggled and fought to regain their land and rights until the year 1957.
In 31 August 1957 has been declared the independence of Malaysia after several negotiations were among Malaysians led by Tengku Abdul Rahman and the British. In that day, Tunku Abdul Rahman proudly declared the independence of Malaya (now Malaysia) by shouting out “merdeka” seven times at the merdeka stadium.
The independence of Malaysia is different from much of the independence of other countries, because is a peaceful independence achieved by holding talks with the British. No other country has ever done that before Malaysia. Additionally , the Malaysian independence was realised by three people with different culture and religion
After independence, Tunku Abdul Rahman became the Prime Minister of Malaysia and he was the first Prime Minister of Malaysia then Tun Abdul Razak b. Hussein then Tun Hussein b. Onn then Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad then Dato’ Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi then Najib Tunku Abdul Razak, the Prime Minister of Malaysia now, and Malaysia developed and became a tourist country after independence.
ROAD OF THE INDEPENDENT MALAYSIA
After the Japanese Occupation
After the Japanese Occupation the Malayan Union was proposed to unify the peninsula under one central administration. Singapore remained a Crown Colony, but the other British settlements and protectorates came under the administration of a British High Commissioner in Kuala Lumpur. The traditional power of the Malay rulers was restricted, and the large immigrant populations, namely the Chinese and the Indians, were accorded citizenship in the new federation.
Malay opposition to the Malayan Union proposal was powerful, and the Malayan Union was quickly replaced with the Federation of Malaya and preparations for self-government began. But the Malayan Union gave rise to the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), then led by Dato’ Onn Jaafar, the Menteri Besar of Johor. Dato’ Onn resigned when his idea to open UMNO to non-Malay participation was opposed by a majority of UMNO members.
Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Aj-Haj became UMNO’s second president. The Tunku was aristocratic, an anglophile and popular among the non-Malays. He was considered ideal for the stewardship of a new nation, and it was him who steered the people of Malaya and Borneo towards present-day Malaysia.
However, the road to independence was not without obstacles, the biggest of which was certainly the up rise of the communists, mostly from Chinese quarters. In 1948, a state of Emergency was declared when communist rebels in Sungai Siput murdered three European planters. The communists declared an armed struggle to liberate Malaya from the British and started the bloodiest British undeclared war that should last twelve years. Eventually the communists were beaten through a combination of aggressive jungle warfare, the cutting-off of supplies and the establishment of multi-racial co-operation between the respective race-based parties in Malaya. Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaya’s first Prime Minister, declared the Emergency over in 1960.
During the 1951 Kuala Lumpur Municipal Elections, UMNO decided to join the Malayan Chinese Organisation (MCA) to woo voters. This formula of racial co-operation saw the establishment of the Alliance Party that eventually won the first Malayan elections in 1955. Tunku Abdul Rahman became Malaya’s first Chief Minister and began negotiations with the British for independence.
Following the favourable recommendations of the Reid Commission, the Tunku arrived home from London with the good news that independence would finally come to Malaya. Between the years 1955-57, the Tunku and his cabinet prepared the Malayan Constitution, discussed the administration of justice, cemented racial harmony in the country and resolved to beat the Communists. The Tunku led the nation when he shouted Merdeka seven times at the newly built Merdeka Stadium on the 31st of August 1957.
The independence of Malaysia is different from much of the independence of other countries. What makes it so different? It is a peaceful independence achieved by holding talks with the British. No other country has ever done that before Malaysia. Additionally, the Malaysian independence was realised by three people with different culture and religion. It is amazing how independence was gained that way. On the glorious day of 31 August 1957, Allahyarham Tunku Abdul Rahman proudly declared the independence of Malaya (now Malaysia) by shouting out “Merdeka” seven times at the Merdeka Stadium.
Since that day onwards, the people of Malaysia promised to renew the political, economical and social structure in order to reduce the gap among the society. It is no easy job as there are many challenges ahead. The independence became unstable when the 13 May tragedy occured, caused by racial conflicts. Fortunately, the problem was overcomed immediately, ensuring the independence is unjeopardised. Measures are taken but success comes from individuals. How one acts can affect the whole nation.
As time flies, the danger seems to have extinct, but it lurks beyond the naked eyes. Younger generations tend not to bother the importance of independence anymore, not only in Malaysia but other countries as well. This would cause them to fall prey to the superpowers. Colonization could happen economically and even socially in some parts of the world. Independence should be maintained no only externally, but also internally into the minds of the people. The effects of this agenda which may jeopardise our independence could be our lack of learning, egoism, seggregation and political struggle. If this phoenomena worsen, the independence will extinct.
This country was colonized for more than four centuries before attaining independence and the end of World War II saw the rise of nationalism amongst its people. Malaysia’s road to independence, however, was far from being a smooth ride. Nevertheless, Malaysia is unique compared to other countries because her fight for independence did not involve bloodshed or vocal strife. Independence was realized by the courageous unity of her multi-ethnics, multi-cultural and multi-religious population
The termination of the Malayan Union in 1948 made the British to commit themselves to prepare the way for the federation’s independence. Under the twin pressure of the emergency and the development of a strong Malay nationalist movement, that is UMNO, the British introduced elections in 1951 at the local level.
The problem of obtaining political cooperation among the main ethnic groups in the country to fight for independence was resolved by the successful establishment of an alliance between UMNO and the Malayan Chinese Association (MCA), the two principal communal parties and later joined by the Malayan Indian Congress (MIC). When the first federal elections were held in 1955, the UMNO-MCA-MIC Alliance, which was headed by Tunku Abdul Rahman, won an overwhelming victory.YTM Tunku Abdul Rahman was appointed the Federation of Malaya’s first Chief Minister. However one of the important events was the negotiations of the London Independence Treaty.
The day was 1 January, 1956. Spirits soared high, as the Mission from Malaya was sent off to London by a huge crowd with high expectations. Their goal is to attend the Independence talks and after many weeks and rounds of negotiations, the London Independence Treaty was finally signed on February 8, that year. It was nine-member delegation led by Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Hajj (Tunku) when they left for London. The delegation comprised four members of the Alliance Coalition and four Rulers. The Alliance Coalition consisted of the United Malay National Organization (Umno), Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) and Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC).
On that day, the mission arrived in Singapore on February 19, and reached Melaka the following day. Upon arrival, the team was transported by a motorcade to Padang Bandar Hilir (presently Padang Pahlawan). People from all walks of life gathered at the field to welcome the team who had secured the greatest gift for the nation. It was at this padang that Tunku Abdul Rahman first read out the Proclamation of Independence.
2.2 Transcript of YTM Tunku Abdul Rahman’s speech as follows:
Picture : Prime Minister of the Federation of Malaya, Tunku Abdul Rahman announces Merdeka! on August 31, 1957
You’re Majesties, Your Royal Highnesses, Your Highnesses, Your Excellencies, and People of Persekutuan Tanah Melayu.
I am indeed proud that on this, the greatest day in Malaya’s history it falls to my lot to proclaim the formal independence of this country. Today as new page is turned, and Malaya steps forward to take her rightful place as a free and independent partner in the great comity of nations – a new nation is born and though we fully realize that difficulties and problems lie ahead, we are confident that, with the blessing of God, these difficulties will be overcome and that today’s events, down the avenues of history, will be our inspiration and our guide. It is therefore with a feeling of particular solemnity that we have listened to the eloquent words of His Royal Highness and in particular to the moving message he has conveyed from Her Majesty the Queen. We are indeed honored that Her Majesty should have deputed her own uncle, His Royal Highness, to be with us on this occasion particularly when we remember that he is no stranger to this land: We recall too with pleasure his previous visit to Malaya and happy recollections of his stay have remained with us.
His Royal Highness has spoken in moving words of the past associations of our two countries. We in Malaya have a long history, but we do not lightly forget old relationships.
For many years past our fortunes have been linked with those of Great Britain and we recall in particular the comradeship of two world wars. We remember too the products of our association; justice before the law, the legacy of an efficient public service and the highest standard of living in Asia. We shall therefore always remember with gratitude the assistance which we have received from Great Britain down our long path to nationhood; an assistance which culminated today with the proclamation of Malaya’s independence.
But the long-standing friendship between our countries does not cease with independence: Rather it takes on a new form. As you have heard in the gracious message from Her Majesty the Queen, Malaya will henceforward take her place in the great Commonwealth of Independent Nations whose members are found in all parts of the world, and as an equal partner in that great association. We in this country will do all in our power to promote its well-being in the interests of mankind in general and in the particular service of world peace.
High confidence has been reposed in us; let us united face the challenge of the years.
And so with remembrance for the past, and with confidence in the future, under the providence of God, we shall succeed.
Moment Before The Independence Of Malaysia
The first general election in 1955. Parties such as PAS, the National Party under the leadership of Dato ‘Onn bin Jaafar, the Labor Party, Perak Progressive Party, the Alliance Party UMNO-MCA-MIC and others compete in the general election .Party Alliance UMNO-MCA-MIC won 51 seats of the 52 seats contested. 1 more seats won by PAS. With the victory in the election, the government cabinet was formed. Tunku Abdul Rahman became the first Chief Minister.
In 1956, Tunku Abdul Rahman led a delegation to London to discuss matters of independence. This negotiation takes three weeks in London. 1956 Treaty of London signed on February 8, 1956 the state agreed to give independence to Malaya. Come back to Malaya, Tunku Abdul Rahman announced the date of independence in Malacca.
In 1956, the Commonwealth established a Constitutional Commission to draft the constitution. Commission of the Commonwealth Constitution or better known as the Reid Commission which is chaired by Lord Reid from Britain consisted of legal experts from Commonwealth countries. Reports issued by the Reid Commission amended by the Working Committee and approved by the Federal Legislative Council.
Flag of the British Union Jack flag which was revealed in front of the Sultan Abdul Samad Building, Kuala Lumpur on the right at 12 pm August 31, 1957. Then, Prime Minister of the Federation of Malaya, Tunku Abdul Rahman declared independence in Stadium Merdeka.
Cabinet also announced today the declaration of independence.
Picture : Stadium Merdeka
2.4 Declaration of Independence
When the date of Independence has been determined, Tunku was directing the Public Works Department to build a stadium that will be the open declaration of Independence. Tunku choose their own location, in a low hill near Birch Road and the stadium is named ‘Merdeka Stadium. Merdeka Stadium, 5.00 am, August 31, 1957, with the driving rain. Dato ‘Abdul Razak, who visited the stadium on the morning of the worries about the water reservoir in the middle field where the Soldiers will conduct Malay honorary parade. Dato ‘Razak is the Deputy Chairman, Committee for the Preparation of Independence Tunku himself was chairman.
7.00 am, the rain started down. Dato ‘Tunku and Razak menalifon report the situation in the stadium. He suggested that the arrival of the Malay rulers, the Duke and his wife and High Commissioners delayed an hour. 9.00 am, the sky is clearing up, rain-shrinking and disappearing from view. Furniture and ornaments began immediately carried out. Tunku was preparedness at home. Wearing Malay black cloth, Tunku waiting time for departure. Stadium Merdeka, Tunku received arrivals stood soldierly Duke of Gloucester, who wore ceremonial military rank of the British Field Marshall. ‘God Save The Queen’ echo when the Duke of Gloucester is the uncle of Queen Elizabeth II in and take place. Duke has been accompanied by British High Commissioner, Sir Donald MacGillivray.
Malay rulers were sitting protected by nine yellow umbrella, which cater Agong shall sit in the middle, the left and the right Tunku Duke. Duke then surrender ‘Instruments of Independence’ which is a recognition that it is the British surrender of sovereignty Penang and Malacca to the new country and subsequently withdraw the ‘protection’ given to the Malay states. Tunku was then read out the declaration of Independence, among others, mentions “the name of Allah, the Federation of Malaya forever a country democratic and Freedom”. Often lost his voice and screaming Merdeka! Merdeka! Merdeka!
2.5 Proclamation of Independence:
In the name of God, the compassionate, and the merciful. Praise be to God, the Lord of the universe and may the blessings and peace of God upon His messenger. Whereas the time has now arrived when the people of the Perekutuan Tanah Malayu will assume the status of a free independent and sovereign nation among the nations of the world and whereas by an agreement styled the Federation of Malaya Agreement, 1957, between Her Majesty the Queen and Their Highness the Rulers of the Malay states it was agreed that the Malay states of Lohore, Pahang, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor, Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, Terengganu and Perak and the former Settlements of Malacca and Penang should as from the 31st day of August, 1957, be formed into a new Federation of States by the name of Persekutuan Tanah Melayu.
And whereas it was further agreed between the parties to the said agreement that the Settlements of Malacca and Penang aforesaid should as from the said date cease to form part of Her Majesty’s dominions and that Her Majesty’s should cease to exercise any sovereignty over them
And whereas it was further agreed by the parties aforesaid that the Federation of Malaya Agreement, 1948, and all other agreements subsisting between Her Majesty the Queen and Their Highness the Rulers or anyone of them immediately before the said date should be revoked as from that date and that all powers and jurisdiction of Her Majesty or of the Parliament of the United Kingdom in or in respects of the Settlements aforesaid or the Malay States or the Federation as a whole should come to an end.
And whereas, effect has been given in the federation of Malaya agreement, 1957, by Her Majesty the Queen, their highnesses the Rulers, the Parliament of the United Kingdom and legislatures of the federation and the Malay States. And whereas a constitution for the government of the Persekutuan Tanah Malaya has been established as the supreme law therefore.
And whereas by the federal constitution aforesaid provision is made to safeguard the rights and prerogatives of Their Highness the Rulers and the fundamental rights and liberties of the people and to provide for the peaceful and orderly advancement of the Persekutuan Tanah Melayu as a constitutional monarchy based on parliamentary democracy.
And whereas the federal constitution aforesaid having been approved by an Ordinance of the Federal Legislatures, by the Enactments of the Malay states and by resolutions of the legislatures of Malacca and Penang has come into force on the 31st day of August, 1957, aforesaid.
Now in the name of God the Compassionate, the Merciful, I, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Bin Al-hajj Marhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halimshah, prime minister of the Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, with the concurrence and approval of Their Highnesses the Rulers of the Malay States do hereby proclaim and declare on behalf of the people of the Persekutuan Tanah Melayu that as from the 31st day of August, 1957 the Persekutuan Tanah Melayu comprising the states of Johor, Pahang, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor, Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, Terengganu, Perak, Malacca and Penang is and with God’s blessing shall be forever a sovereign democratic and independent state founded upon the principles of liberty and justice and ever seeking the welfare and happiness of its people and the maintenance of a just peace among all nations.
MALAYSIA ETHNIC RIOT
In 1963, Malaysia suffered from the imbalance of wealth between groups that generally Sino traders, who controlled most of the Malaysian economy, with the poor, people of Malays. In addition, the Tionghoa also controlled most of the wealth of the nation. Racial riots in Singapore in 1964 is also one of the causes of the country’s exit from Malaysia (formerly Singapore is part of Malaysia), and the ongoing racial tensions. Most Malays are not satisfied with the country’s newly independent who wish to settle the ethnic Tionghoa with their expenses.
In the general election May 10, 1969, the ruling Alliance coalition headed by the United Malays National Organization (UMNO) suffered a big defeat. Tionghoa largest party groups and the Democratic Action Party movement got votes in the election, and the right to hold a victory parade through the established channels in Kuala Lumpur. However, the parade is rough and noisy and deviate from its course and towards the district of Kampong Bahru Malays, fun people.
Although Movement Party issued an apology the next day, UMNO announced a counter march started from Selangor state chief Dato ‘Harun bin Idris at Jalan Raja Muda. Reportedly, the people who gathered were told that the Malays who headed the procession had been attacked by the tribe Tionghoa the path, a few miles to the north. The protesters are angry with a quick vengeance by killing two motorcycle riders who pass, and riots broke out. When the riots took place loudspeakers in the mosques used to encourage the rioters to continue their action.
Vandals went into action in the capital Kuala Lumpur and Selangor area around the country, with the exception of minor disturbances in Melaka elsewhere in the country remained peaceful. National emergency and a curfew was announced on May 16, but reduced the curfew in some parts of the country on May 18 and removed in a week in central Kuala Lumpur.
According to police data, 184 people were killed and 356 wounded, 753 recorded cases of arson and 211 vehicles were destroyed or heavily damaged. Other sources put the number who died around 196 people or even more than 200 people. Some estimate the number of deaths reached even 700 people as a result of the riots.
3.1 AS A RESULT OF RIOTS
Immediately after the riots, the government imposed emergency law and suspend parliament (the newly formed back in 1971). The press was also frozen and the National Operations Council was formed. This unrest led to Mahathir Muhammad, Malays nationalists at the time, was dismissed from UMNO. But this incident also prompted him to write a work the importance of The Malay Dilemma, (Dilema Melayu). In this book he proposes a solution to racial tension in Malaysia.
In the ensuing power struggle within UMNO, Tunku Abdul Rahman toppled. The new government dominated by the “ultra-Malays” who quickly acted to calm the public with the Malays of Malaysia’s New Economic Policy (NEP) which contains policies that protect the native (Malays). Many of the press laws of Malaysia’s hard trying to control the racial tension, is also from this period.
Independence is the right where a state has full control over all areas of the country and the right to control her own without interference of others and whether or not depend on anyone else. Cases we adopted here is a dissection of why after 12 years of independence day malaysia on 31 August 1957 appear a case of rioting that occurred in malaysia. This case does not just happen. Many versions of the case study of this unrest. May 13 events in the riots of 1969 is applicable as a peak on the difference in Malaysia. This tragedy that resulted in loss of lives and property and have a tight connection with the “Pilihan Raya Umum 1969” is a black point in the history of the country of Malaysia.
Why after independence malaysia on August 31, 1957, in which malaysia express their independence as the various ethnic communities and to celebrate the independence of these together in a variety of different ethnic and after 12 years appears the case of the riots which give meaning to freedom of the people of Malaysia have not completely . What is causing this to happen and why did this happen?
Racial issues in the 1969 election
Issues affecting racial sentiments and emotions become the main theme throughout the election campaign that has raised the spirit of the men in Malaysia. During the election campaign 1969, election candidates and politicians, especially from opposition parties, has raised sensitive issues related to national language (Malay), the special position of Malays (Bumiputera) and non-Malay citizenship rights. This has given rise to feelings of racism and suspicion.
Alliance Party (UMNO-MCA-MIC) has suffered a severe defeat in Election 1969. Number of seats won in the House of Commons (Parliament) has been reduced from 89 seats in 1964 to 66 seats in 1969. Alliance Party has lost two-thirds majority in the Parti Gerakan Dewan Rakyat, DAP and PPP won 25 seats in the House of Commons fruit while PAS won 12 seats.
Because the occurrence of Events May 13, 1969 is a victory parade of the opposition. Supporters of Parti Gerakan and DAP have been cursed and insulted the Malays during the parade held in the roads around Kuala Lumpur. This incident occurred following the announcement of general election results on May 10, 1969. Dr. Tan Chee Khoon of Movement party won big in Batu, Selangor. He requested police permission to march to celebrate the victory party that saw 50:50 in Selangor in Selangor. Processions that cause traffic congestion in Kuala Lumpur. Procession to the Hale Street and Campbell Street and proceed to Kampung Baru. While in Kampung Baru, over 30,000 people occupied the fortress of Malay UMNO, feel threatened by the victory of the opposition. Here is located the house when the Selangor Menteri Besar, Dato ‘Harun Idris.
It is said the Chinese had won the broom binding to marched with their vehicles as a symbol of their sweeping victories net seat while announce slogans. There is also the opinion of the broom as a symbol that says they will apply of the Malays into the sea. In the Malay community, brooms have negative connotations. There is cursing and spitting from the truck towards the Malays at the roadside. In Jinjang, Kepong, death due to a sick old Chinese be allowed along with the permission of police. But the death procession turned into the election with a victory parade insulting Malays.
On the day Tuesday, May 13th, Yeoh Tech Chye as President Movement apologize for members that already do the violence during processions. Yeoh won big in the Bukit Bintang, Kuala Lumpur. But apologies are too late. UMNO held a counter-parade in the morning May 13, 1969 that resulted in the occurrence of these events. This is because a high sense of emotional control and a lack of both parties. The procession was not planned. Malay people gathered at the home in Selangor Menteri Besar Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz in Kampung Baru, Kuala Lumpur. Dato ‘Harun Idris as the Menteri Besar Selangor then try to make a peace conditions. those who carry weapons has been gathered and swords and long waiting only the signal green light from Dato ‘Harun Idris to go berserk. When gathered, stories about the violence. Movement party and DAP members and spreading seething. 3.00 pm incident came news of the Malays in one way murder, only two kilometers from resident of Great Ministry Selangor. 4.00 pm two motorcycle drivers through the Chinese New Village Road has been beheaded. A van carrying cigarettes burned and killed the driver. Young men said to be from the Chinese partner and MCP-secret societies have responded. They kill the Malays in Kuala Lumpur. Look-look Chinese and Chinese youth is complete with a variety of iron weapons, spear and javelin at the end of the war like the old Chinese films.
Major riots occurred. Emergency orders issued, all persons can not be out of the house. Guarded by police force in Kuala Lumpur. Army Ranger Regiment from earlier deployed to protect the security around Kuala Lumpur. But according to Dr. Kua has reviewed the record results of this tragedy in London said that these events occurred not only because unsatisfied from other ethnic groups in Malaysia and also because the desire of non-Party of China and India for control of Malaya. However, the unrest caused by the provocateur who overthrew the government led by Prime Minister of the first. And this comes from within UMNO Party itself. I think that part of the Prime Minister might want to fall with the first way to make bad impression on the people of China and India about what has been done.
Malaysia, which claimed 196 lives (according to official records), is still a secret, and so there are different versions about it. ‘Official version’ mention of riots due to the action provocation supporters of the opposition dominated the Chinese, who celebrate their success in the general election which saw the Alliance Party lost badly. However, there are other theories which claimed that riots were planned to overthrow the Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman. Therefore, when there is a set of new declaration documents in London, has opened opportunities to sociologist Dr Kua Kia Soong to seek the truth.
At the end of last year, Principal College of New Era took study leave for three months to examine records and documents in the Public Record Office in London on May 13 tragedy that has declaration after the lapse of a period of 30 years relevant declaration documents as secret. He said, “Riot found May 13 was not caused by violence from people, as the image of Malaysians. History (official events) May 13 full with profanity, it does not disclose any. It was shifted to the opposition parties that are not true, they are not a cause, “said Dr Kua. He said, “shows that the responsible party is the capitalist (in UMNO), elements of the internal planning and implementing this plan. There are plans based on those who gathered at the residence of Great Ministry (Selangor). There are documents and intelligence reports that indicate that matter. History official must disclose the truth and instead shifted to each person who should not be blamed, “said social activist and education.
Dr. Kua asserted “that the May 13 incident was a ‘coup d’Etat’ or a coup against the Tunku by the Malay capitalist class when it appears – which is supported by the police and army – to seize power from the old aristocracy to implement the new Malay agenda”.
He said, “Riot act is ‘Malay gangsters’ supported by politicians behind the coup plan.” For example, he said, “a group of gangsters suddenly appear from all corners” on May 13 to gather at the residence Datuk Harun and actions of police and military can only stand and questioned only observe what is happening. Added, the documents also revealed that less than a week after the riots, the then Deputy Prime Minister, Tun Abdul Razak, who chaired the National Operations Council, fully authorized to administer the country – an indication of the existence of conspiracy about it. While the discussion about future planning has been done before, including the National Cultural Policy (announced in 1971). A secret document from the office of the cabinet that Britain be in the book, show, not until a week after the riots that occurred, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) can identify what is being planned by Tun Razak – ‘to strengthen Malay supremacy, marginalize the Chinese and waive Tunku ‘. Dr. Kua also questioned the role of members of security forces in the bloody May 13 incident was. “In fact, at that time, among diplomatic (also wonder) why, on the day riot that happened, Razak met with top police officers and soldiers, but they do not do anything,” he said. Much more interesting, said Dr Kua, Malaysia security forces is a team experienced during the war against communist terrorists launched between 1948 and 1960 and reputable high. “They succeeded in eliminating the communist resistance involving the operation more difficult than controlling riots, but they can not control (riot) in 1969 for days, weeks”, actually.
Until Dr. Kua concluded: “May 13 Incident is a ploy to seize power I was not the first person to say that it is a coup, but I provide documents to show that it is a coup.”
In our opinion, turbulence caused by egoism ethnic respectively. Respectively ethnic want to be the most major ethnic. Ethnic background of Malaysia ethnic Malays make is they have more power than other ethnic-ethnic Malaysia. This makes Malaysia the government takes shape policies regarding the country Malaysia is in the set as an Islamic state. They even say “that is not Islam, it is not the Malay”. Therefore, ethnic living in Malaysia can not accept these conditions. Because, of course not ethnic China are Muslims, and can not be said of the Malays. Ethnic India also non Muslims, so they feel eliminated from Malaysia.
They feel government in Malaysia is quite unfair and not think of many parties. Most of the Chinese people moved to Singapore and extend the life there. Some of them choose to remain living in Malaysia, but not diffuse with the Malays. They seem to separate themselves from the Malay.
Why this commotion emerging after 12 years of independent India? That’s because after 12 years the independent of Malaysia, Malaysian though that their gov
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