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The Protestant Reformation is a movement that happened in the early sixteenth century. There were issues during this period that had to deal with two main religions. Catholics and Protestants were the ones fighting for this reformation. One of the main reasons that caused this reformation is that there were priests that were not doing their jobs. The Protestant Reformation caused things like division of regions and the Western Christendom, the making of Catholic Reformation, and a change in people’s lives in social levels. People from the reformation and the church’s workers both have different views on what happened.
A cause for the Protestant Reformation was with priests in churches. There were complaints about workers who had too much power, never showed up for their work, and did actions that were deemed inappropriate. Many workers had a big income because working at a church was so high on a social level. The workers would collect money and hire someone to do the preaching and work. I understand that people in this century had a desperate want for money. So, it does not shock me that people would try to take all the money that they can and then not do their work. Some clerics did not even show up to their benefices for work, not even to check for progress. Many people were also angry because they were privileged in certain situations. They did not have to pay taxes, which was a big deal back then. Many people did not have sufficient money so I bet they were asking, “How come we who do not earn much have to pay taxes and those who do have more than needed do not have to pay taxes?”.
Something that was caused by the reformation a division in a number of things. One of the things that was divided was the Western Christendom, a church. Because there were priests who did nothing, when people found out about a priest who actually did his job, the people were ecstatic. I know that they felt that they had a voice and someone to speak for them. I believe that he had come in great timing because people were starting to feel like they should start acting violently in order to be heard. The priest was Martin Luther. He was a protestant who explained the Cristian doctrine in a new light with the Bible. This is a reason that the religion started to grow because it taught many different aspects of what they were accustomed to before. Where Luther lived, the ruler was Catholic. He was called up before the ruler but for some reason, he was not arrested. He was allowed to keep his beliefs. With this, more people started to learn this new religion and they started to support this movement. This, in turn, allowed for Protestant churches to be made.
This reformation was also the cause of another reformation, the Catholic Reformation. ”Many historians see the developments within the Catholic Church after the Protestant … Counter-Reformation that opposed Protestantism spiritually, politically, and militarily” (516). This reformation was intentionally made to go against the Protestant Reformation, it seems. I think that this was a wrongdoing action because people are trying to limit one’s choice of religion. They improved some of the problems that there had been earlier, for example, the people who were absent from their work. People now had to live where they worked and had to prepare some place for educating clergy. There was the Society of Jesus helping spread Christianity to other parts of the world.
One of the last things that it caused was a change in certain people’s lives. There was more violence because people contradicted each other based on their religions and teachings. Also, there was a termination happening when it was believed that witches lived among the people. It was all based on what the religions believed in. The Peace of Augsburg was made to finally acknowledge Lutheranism. However, there was still war dealing with the religions until finally it was recognized that there could be both religions, just in different locations. At this time, the weather was getting colder and wetter which was not suitable for agriculture. People who worked in the church still had a high income and they had no problem buying food while growing was not permittable. Everyone else struggled with being able to buy their needs. At this time, many women showed aggression because they felt that the families were not being protected. There was a decrease in the populations of the Catholics and Protestants during this time of the Thirty Years’ War. There was a Protestant Union and Catholic League formed. They battled with each other and had allies back them up. What ended the Thirty Years’ War? The Peace of Westphalia which made independent authority and recognized that it was ok to have both religions made for people.
I believe that the Churches response when they found out that people were not satisfied with what they provided, they were angry. I believe that they would have been angry because they would say that they are at least giving people some form of attention. As far as the would-be reformers, I think that they would be very satisfied that they had their own set of beliefs without having to be afraid of getting arrested.
I believe that this Protestant Reformation was one of the best movements that could have happened in society. It showed how the dissatisfaction of people can make big changes in order for them to be heard and acknowledged. It also shows how, in the past, people were very limited to a lot of things that were very important to them. In the end, there was peace and development.
- Mckay, John P. al et. Understanding World Societies, Volume 2. 516. RedShelf.https://platform.virdocs.com/r/s/0/doc/551528/sp/32233261/mi/120546709?cfi=%2F4%F8.
The Scientific Revolution was a time where there were many arguments on things dealing with the world. There were new ways to learn information and there were scientists who were able to prove and disprove what was believed. The Scientific Revolution can be described as the development and acknowledgment of new ideas in subjects such as math, physics, science, and medicine. This revolution was an important time period because this was a time during the Renaissance which is known for the advancement of many things like art. The Scientific Revolution was made known by many people who inserted their ideas and beliefs to the facts given by people in the past. The Scientific Revolution caused new revelations from the past, it made us think whether there was a big change in science, and it was used for advancements
One of the most important things caused by this time was new revelations from the past. Science was different from Medieval thought because, “for medieval scholars, philosophy was the path to true knowledge about the world, and its proofs consisted of the authority of ancients (as interpreted by Christian theologians) and their techniques of logical argumentation” (552). This kind of knowledge presented to the people was inherited from Aristotle. Aristotle showed people that earth was not in movement, was in the center of the universe, and that it had crystal spheres. It was also believed farther there was a Heaven, God, and the souls. So, in this revolutionary time, there were big changes that opposed the beliefs given.
Someone who first showed new interest was the scientist Ptolemy. He made a map that consisted of three continents and that there was more land than water. Then there was Copernicus. He believed that everything revolved around the sun. Although he had his new theory, he never made it public for fear that other astronomers would challenge and judge his ideas. There was one astronomer who did agree with his theory whose name was Tycho Brahe. He used the theory to make his own observations and distinctions with the system. We now have Johannes Kepler who developed laws describing planetary motions: there were elliptical orbits, planets have no uniform speed, and that a planet’s orbit is related to the distance of the sun. Later on, there was the law of inertia introduced. An object is always going to be moving until it is stopped. This was introduced by Galileo who, therefore, proved Aristotle’s theories wrong. While all these theories were being tested and accepted, there was still no explanation for what forces acted on objects that caused movement. Issac Newton used all of the past astronomers’ data to come to the conclusion that gravity was the force, even if it is invisible to us. With this, everyone was satisfied and accepted everything that was shown.
I believe that science had a huge change then. It was very revolutionary because there were doubts, speculations, and data but nobody could finalize any answers. It was huge because there were so many consequences that came with going public with a theory. Other astronomers would either agree and praise or argue and ruin their career. I believe that these astronomers were very brave and that is what made it so big. It was a time that marked history because we saw ideas being challenged and proven. I could see that other people might argue, however. They will say well it should not be that big because if theories were proven wrong then that time period was not that knowledgeable. People will say that the time period could be seen as negative because anything that was made public, it was accepted for specific advancements.
There were rulers that used this revolution, for example, to gain land. With everything they knew, they learned that they could go and explore. “The Spanish crown sponsored many scientific expeditions to gather information and specimens, out of which emerged new discoveries that reshaped the fields of botany, zoology, cartography, and metallurgy, among others” (554). This is an example that shows how important the Scientific Revolution affected other people, jobs, and studies. Without it, people would have been afraid to learn something and develop as opposed to not bothering to be curious.
The Scientific Revolution caused many things that helped shape our future and society. It affected the world with its studies, points, and inventions. It helped promote education because it made people curious and wonder about what else could be discovered. The Scientific Revolution was a spark that encouraged learning in certain subjects and gave answers to the question that applies to many things. What is the purpose?
- Mckay, John P. al et. Understanding World Societies, Volume 2. 554. RedShelf, https://platform.virdocs.com/r/s/0/doc/551528/sp/32233299/mi/120546928?cfi=%2F4%2F8
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