Mother Teresa And Martin Cooper Leadership Styles History Essay
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According to the Beahvioral Theories of leadership, successful leader is based in definable, learnable behavior. Leaders are not only born but they can also be made. This assignment is based on social cognitive theory of behavior by Bandura and Walters. This theory is about self efficacy comprising three common factors that are People, Environment and Behavior. It also explains the behavior of the people that they acquire at certain situation. Main focus of the theory is on the self efficacy, goal orientation, confidence, and emotions, participation, cooperation and making broad vision to face certain situation.
3. Leadership examples:
This assignment explains the leadership behavior of the leaders in different fields. The following examples of leadership are showing the traits, abilities and skills of the leaders. Leadership behavior of different leaders has been identified in three different areas of life i.e. Economic, Social and Technology etc.
3.1. Economic leaders:
Economically developed countries have been able to reduce their poverty level, strengthen their social and political institutions, and improve their quality of life, pressure natural environments and achieve political stability. Economic leadership is also related to enhance the economic growth of the country. Economic leadership is about runningthe country with prosperity, equality, belief in values and political stability etc.
The examples used here to describe the economic leadership qualities are Warren Buffett and Henry Clinton:
3.1.1. Warren Buffett:
Warren Buffett is known as the Guru of investment. He is the superior business leader and American investor which is often known as "Oracle of Omaha" or the "Sage of Omaha." He is the third richest person in the world ranked by Forbes magazine in September 2007 behind Carlos Slim and Bill Gates.
According to Spindler (2011) Warren Buffett as a child loved to play with numbers. He remembered the scores of baseball and horseracing odds. At a very early age he started making money. He setup a stand of gum at his home and started selling them to the passersby at the age of five. Later on he also sold lemonade and along with his friends he collected golf balls from local golf course, separates them according to their brand name and do their packaging again for resale purpose.
According to social theory of cognition he was a visionary leader. He was a goal oriented person. Warren Buffett learned from his mistakes and always directed his efforts to turn his mistakes into positive signs. His favorite books were about how to make money. Buffett was introduced by his father to the world of stock who opened his own stock brokerage firm. He even bought the shares of Cities Services for himself and for his sister. Here he learned his 1st lesson of life that was the patience. Because he sold those shares earlier in the market without keeping in view the price index changes and when he sold the shares. The price increased to a certain level which gave him a lesson of doing business. Mr. Warren Buffett's investment strategies and leadership style are practical smart thinking examples. The main series of work of Mr. Buffett was to analyze the continual approach of analyzing marketing trends, investment strategies and the ability to place management resources of right aptitude in a right position. Investment needs innovation, risk taking and creativeness that was Buffet's approach
. (Kalibre, 2006).
The idea that Mr. Buffet focus was to compete within the competitive advantage. can be applied in all the fields of life. Mr. Buffett's idea has allowed him to live a continues successful life with minimal stains. He started as a self employed person and today leads a number of business . Buffet approach was to be very honest to his partners and committed to his work.
3.1.2. Henry Clinton:
Thinking of the economic leaders the name that plunged into the mind of anyone is Henry Clinton.
Hickman (2009) stated that General Henry Clinton was born in 1930 and he was a major General when he returned to America to aid in putting down American Revolution. He also led a failed attack on Charleston and developed a successful plan for the battle of long island. He also took part in Battle of Bunker Hill. In this plan of Bunker Hill British wanted to attack the American defenses to evacuate America and getting hold of it. But America under the leadership of Henry Clinton developed patriotic intentions and stopped the Battle of Bunker Hill. However, the Commander of British Troop worked with Henry Clinton and following his ideas they led a victory at the battle of long island. He also acted as a British Commander-in- Chief in North America.
According to theory he had a participative style and emotional as well regarding his aims and objectives. He listened to everyone and tried his level best to resolve their problems. He passed the commission and reached at a higher level. He had the advantage of strong financial background. His communication skills made him to be loved by everyone.
3.2. Social leaders:
Social leaders are blessing for the people. They devote their lives and talents for the well being of their nations and for improving their society. The main purpose of the social leaders is to protect freedom, keep peace and ensure the prosperity for the people of their country.
The examples that are used to describe the social behavior of leaders are Mahatma Gandhi and Mother Teresa.
3.2.1. Mahatma Gandhi:
Ray (1969) stated the behavior of Mahatma Gandhi the great Socialist. He thought to be a conservative person hating the modernized system of the Western Culture. He was truly in the favor of peasants and labors. He was religious person focusing not only on the philosophy of Hindu culture but also the socialism. He did not want the modern culture in India. He wanted India to be a nation of prosperity and peace and well sufficient in political and economic resources. Gandhi did not like the socialist culture of West and the Russian Communism because he wanted a system of Communism and socialism based on nonviolence system supported by harmonization and cooperation between landlords and masses, labor and capital. Gandhi was a true revolutionist and belief in reactionary efforts. His thought was very positive that he wanted to clear the hearts of the labors and landlords and wanted to bring a revolution in the labor capital work force.
Gandhi also played an important role in drawing the large number of women population into the stream of the freedom movement. He was in the favor of women as a working lady. His ideas about women changed the reforms about the women that were made in 19th century. He saw the potential force in women and he knew that women could be a better helping hand in the development of new social order in the economy. He did his best to articulate the power of the women and struggled hard to bring the women in power to do something for the welfare of nation. Although he was somehow disappointed by the ideas of other leaders who believed in this fact that women are only for household chores. He was instrumental in creating a situation in which women can come out the spheres of domesticity (Kishwar, 1985).
Rivett (1965) argued that the role played by Mahatma Gandhi in achievements of India's freedom and in challenging the traditional place of untouchables in Hindu society is generally recognized. His ideas were very unique that the Western people also adopted his ideas to have a decentralized economy. Behavioral theory proved that he was confidence about his movements and about his doings. He was very cooperative with his fallows and always made objectives while achieving his aims
3.2.2. Mother Teresa:
Famous People (no date) represent that Mother Teresa was the gift of God to humanity. She devoted much of her life for the prosperity of the poor and destitute. She was famous for serving the poor and destitute. She got a Noble peace Prize laureate. She worked for the destitute people living in the slums of Kolkata. She also acted as a Roman Catholic Nun and established centre for AIDS patients and also founded a Missionaries of Charity.
Mother Teresa was very helpful in nature in the early age of life. Her real name was Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu. She made herself busy in worship and prayers. At the age of eight her father died and she saw the turning position of her family facing the financial crisis. This was the first time when she took a step towards missionary work to carry the burden of her family. She wanted to spread the lesson of love and compassion throughout the world. For this sacred purpose she decided to become a Catholic nun. She worked as a teacher in St. Mary's High School and was called as Mother Teresa when she made a final profession of guarantee to become the spouse Jesus Eternity. According to theory she was very participative and emotional lady and had self confidence of doing something. Whatever she achieved was based only on her self efficacy and power to do something.
Hitchens (1995) argued that image and perception of the person is everything and those who are inborn with these qualities have the potential to create their own myth and bring the revolution in social life. Mother Teresa was one of those who were inborn with these two qualities. She knew what she wanted to do. She never allowed anyone to write a book on her biography but she wanted the whole nation to be as powerful as she was, she allowed writing the biography and she told that her deeds are not going to end even after her death.
3.3. Technological leaders:
Technological leadership is about strategic tech planning process. It is about having a social change within the country. Effective technology leader should maximize the relationship with various people and empower others to invest and involved in planning and modifying technology (Osten, 2001).
Two most famous leaders who make the world largest advancements in the field of technology are Steve Jobs and Martin Cooper.
3.3.1 Steve Jobs:
Steve Jobs the founding father of Apple computer was born in California on February 24th, 1955. He created a new world industry. He was a visionary leader. He always wanted to achieve something only related to him. As a leader he was a freedom fighter, a pirate and an autocrat. Steve and Bill Gated born in the same year and both bring the revolution in technology. Steve was known as the father of world Personal Computers revolution while the bill Gates was known as the father of soft ware industry. He acted as a freedom fighter against IBM movement. He was the leader in the field of personal computing (Wright, 2006).
Woopidoo Biographies Business Leaders (no date) argued about the success of Steve Jobs and explained that he was object oriented and committed person. He found the basis for operating system. Although he was known as a business and sales wizard, but now all the electronic inventions has raised the name of Steve Jobs at a higher level. He started doing job at his early life at Hewlett Packard Company.
Steve Jobs also created a company called NeXT and designed aesthetic interpersonal computing. He also focused on software development and email and World Wide Web development. People recognized him because of his ethical behavior and believed tamper toward his work. He was very confident about his work and very mature thinker. Behavioral theory of leadership proved that he was emotionally stable person. He was visionary hand goal oriented person. When his company went into bankruptcy he showed a very impressive and emotionally stable attitude. He was a true creative thinker and technological leader He was very bold and intellectual person. His thinking was broad. He looked beyond the imagination of ordinary people. He was born to be successful. He was very helpful and provided a working hand to grow Apple from a company to a successful industry today. He also helped in development of new electronic devices i.e. ipod, iphone and other personal devices.
He was awarded a National Technology medal from President Reagan before founding NeXT, Jefferson Award for public Service and Entrepreneur of the Decade by Inc. magazine (Vader, 1998).
3.3.2. Martin Cooper:
Martin Cooper is the name that comes into one's mind while thinking about the foremost important technological advancement in the world economy that is the cell phone. He is considered to be the pioneer of first portable handset and also the first person to make a call on portable handset. Cooper ideas were based on ease of the people. His main purpose of inventing mobile phone was to create an ease for the business personals as well as for the ordinary person while communicating with their fellows. This idea enabled him to make a device that can help the people to communicate their buddies at every place.
Wendy (2010) reported that he had a very broad vision. He did not only want to create a cell phone that can help to contact with any one at any place. While designing the idea that came into his mind he thought about all aspects of this invention. He kept in min all the pros and cons. He was a visionary leader with a broad vision. He worked with many researchers and inventors and spread his invention in different areas of life. He had a very wide list of his inventions. He provided a helping hand to a researcher named Richard Roy and founded ArrayComm company which was more efficient in cellular communication and antennae was used to make internet more people friendly. He spent all his life in developing and inventing the new technologies related to communicating. His achievements and leaderships styles were all based on cognitive theory of leadership. He set the goals before taking steps and involved his partner to be his fellows during his project. As a visionary leader his mind made him alert before the right time about the increasing demand of internet broadband. So his work on broadband internet availability had taken a big step forward and made the people having the access of internet more feasible, inexpensive and practical way of communicating.
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