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Leadership Of Sultan Said Bin Sultan 1804 1856 History Essay

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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016

In history there are good examples of leadership. Models can be studied and analyzed so that we can draw to the successful leadership. The report will discuss the biography of Sultan Said bin Sultan, as a leader. The period of the reign of Leadership Sultan Said bin Sultan who ruled Oman, from 1804 to 1856, the greatest period in the history of Oman in terms of growth and prosperity. Sultan Said was the greatest person in the nineteenth century ruled Oman.

Oman became in the reign of Sultan Said empire stretched from Bandar Abbas on the coast of the Arabian Gulf to the port of Zanzibar on the east coast of Africa, in addition to some islands in the Arabian Gulf, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean, including the Comoros.

Report will give Sultan Said background, his experience, the analysis of Sultan Said achievements, his Styles of leadership, and ethics, capabilities of our leader. In the end, will be the conclusion.

Why choosing Sultan Said

To write an excellent report on the leadership hesitated to choose the best leadership. I was interested in history, especially history of Oman. I did not find a better Leadership than Sultan Said bin Sultan which is the greatest ruler of Oman in the modern era. The long reign of Sultan Said bin Sultan, over fifty-two years has a lot of events and experiences. The Empire ruled by him was distant and different races and religions. So I wanted to analysis the experience of leadership Sultan Said to be as useful in the leading of governance.

Background of Sultan Said (1776 — 1856)

Sultan bin Said was born According to the author Holly (1985) in the town (Alghabra) in the governorate of Muscat in 1776.The Sultan Said bin Sultan, a grandson of the founder of the ruling family in Oman from 1741. He assumed power after the death of his father, Sultan Ahmed bin Sultan. Sultan bin Said, took the reins of power in Oman in 1806.

As a child Said bin Sultan at that time studied the holy of Koran and the Arabic language with specialist’s teachers. Also Said studied the history, literature and read history books to know great leaders and nation history. He defined political and management of government through his father, Sultan Ahmed bin Sultan.

Sultan Said had three wives legitimacies only, according to Islamic law the right man to marry four women at the same time Ruth (1988). Tow of his wives from Persia and the third wife’s the daughter of his uncle her name Azza Bint Saif. Azza has been the only legal wife until his death. In addition to his wives had a number of different nationalities of the women maids’ in royal palace born to him, dozens of boys and girls. Who’s inherited him were about seventy heirs of boys and girls.

Sultan Said died in 1856 in aboard on his ship Victoria during the trip from Oman to Zanzibar, near the Seychelles Islands, and was buried in Zanzibar Holly (1985).

His experience

Sultan Said was the greatest personality in the nineteenth century ruled Oman. Sultan Said was able by his experience as leadership governed an empire stretching from Oman to Bandar Abbas on the coast of the Arabian Gulf to the port of Zanzibar on the east coast of Africa, in addition to some islands in the Arabian Gulf, the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean, including in the Comoros. Ruth (1988).

Sultan Said was able to gain the loyalty and satisfaction citizens. He was a modest leader. Sultan Said had long experience in rule extended about fifty-two years. Sultan Said benefited from the experience of leadership during the reign of his father Sultan.

As the military leader, he was a brave leader is personally leading the most of the fighting. He was a veteran diplomat was able to establish relations with major countries in the world. Sultan Said was a commercial mentality was able to develop the financial resources of his state. The era of Sultan Said was the golden period in modern history.

In the era of Sultan Said economic life flourished. Race has coexisted Arabs, Africans, Asians and other potentially well. The concept of the economy in the era of Sultan Said bin Sultan depends on the development of free trade with the various nations. Sultan Said built a huge commercial fleet backed naval force. Sultan Said distinct commercial relations with China, East Asia, India, Sri Lanka, Iran and other countries. Ruth (1988).

The Analysis of Sultan Said

Known in the past that the leadership of a hereditary nature. Leaders are born not make. With the emergence of concepts of equality and democracy, has begun a new concept of leadership. The leaders are born not make. Leadership can be learned and acquired. In the end have great man theory. The leaders people with unusual features and abilities to shape events and change the situation. There are a number of personal traits such as: the magnitude of the body, intelligence, confidence and control Huczynski and Buchanan (2007)…

Functional theories focus on the functions of leadership – how the behavior of the leader affects and is affected by a group of his followers Huczynski and Buchanan (2007). It focuses on the nature of the group and subordinates. It is believed that leadership skills can be learned, developed and improved.

Situational and contingency theories focus in the leader appears in certain situations, because he who with the best situations to lead the group. Situations as the theory had three components: the leader, the situations and followers. The situation is the installation of interpersonal relationship within the group. Situation will change if the group changed targets. Leadership based on: situation, confidence, habits, traditions and circumstances of the group Huczynski and Buchanan (2007)…

In assessing the biography of the Leadership must refer to the time he was living and environment his inception. After the death of his father, Said bin Sultan was thirteenth years, He found himself front of his cousin Bader, who wanted power. Where can be the killer or murdered. He has chosen the first option if he wants to sustain life and power. He is believed that leadership skills can be learned developed and improved Huczynski and Buchanan (2007). Those, the person can become a leader in the group by achieved goals. Posts associated with the choice of target and identify ways to achieve the objective.

The reign of Sultan Said bin Sultan start in 1804, – grandson of the founder of the ruling family El Busaid in Oman – the brighter times that Oman experienced during the nineteenth century. The most prosperous despite the many difficulties encountered in building state. Sultan Said bin Sultan, one of the most prominent figures in the family El Busaid, which played a role in the history of Oman and the Gulf and East Africa. Ruth (1988).

Sultan Said found his predecessors have on the East coast of Africa kind of sovereignty ambiguous. The Sultan Said ruling became active not nominal. Sultan Said vision and intelligence was able to make real sovereignty in East Africa. Oman became in the reign of Sultan Said wide Empire. So that all areas between Bandar Abbas, on the east coast of the Arabian Gulf to the port of Zanzibar on the east coast of Africa, the influence of Oman. In addition to the many islands in the Gulf as well as the entrance to the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean including Comoros was under the influence of Oman.

There are a number of personal traits such as: the magnitude of the body, intelligence, confidence and control Huczynski and Buchanan (2007).Can be reached from the Traits theory, the Sultan Said bin Sultan successes combines a leader as above-mentioned theories. On this basis, the successful leader is able to combine traditional qualities and skills gained in the leadership. Sultan Said governance inherited from his father. The Sultan Said to prove that the commander was able to develop features and gain experience in running the country.

Sultan Said was marked on morality, reverence and attractive personality. The Sultan Said has great potential to affect around him and raising their respect and admiration for him. Sultan Said was able to gain the loyalty and satisfaction citizens. He was a modest leader. Holly (1985).

Characterized the Sultan Said, can be loved him and frightens him at the same time, many and varied aspects of his personality. He was character, combining capacity and minimalist. Sultan Said was mixed in his actions as the situation, acumen, compassion, tolerance, firmness, violence, cruelty and revenge. Italian doctor’s Vensenzo (Roth. (1988)), who worked in the service of Sultan Said, described as “handsome man, moderate strength, the skin is bright, good character, Debonair and of a broad vision.”

The Sultan Said bin Sultan, who ruled more than half a century a wide range in the Gulf and Indian Ocean, moving between the property in Oman and the African coast. Sultan Said believed how the behavior of the leader affects and is affected by a group of his followers. He focuses on the nature of the group and subordinates. In the last years of his rule, he would have preferred justice as long as possible in Zanzibar so that can oversee his property in coast of Africa. He had a very broad relationship with the leaders of African tribes and the kings of provinces and islands, which many could not control, such as Madagascar and others. Therefore, the saying goes (Roth. (1988))” If were banged drum’s Sultan of Zanzibar, dancing by members of the African Lakes”.

Sultan Said was interested the needs of subordinates comfort increate a comfortable working environment. Sultan Said gives subordinates area to participate in decision-making. Sultan provides subordinates the procedures and expectations clear. Sultan Said was set to defy their subordinate’s goals, helping to develop their confidence and reassure them their leader.

According to (Ruth (1988) Sultan Said was simple person. He wearied simple clothing, where was difficult to distinguish between him and any of the population of Muscat. He was wearing cotton Dashdashh and above it wool coat and put over his head a turban. His daughter Salamh said (Ruth (1988) he was “front the God, he was the good example of reverence and piety, he was a simple and modest. He was far from the superiority and arrogance and estrangement. He went by himself to a section of slaves to congratulate them equal to or novelty in mourning.”

The Sultan Said bin Sultan, had been able to establish commercial and military fleet, which was able to maintain this state. It also managed to establish international relations with Egypt, some European countries and the United States of America (Holly (1995). The functions of the group are measures of leadership. There are two functional identified are linked to the achievement of leadership: goal and the preservation, which the Sultan chive it.

Sultan Said genius leader when he chose Zanzibar in 1833 Holly (1995). To be the capital of East Africa, after the successful transition from a small island to a source of political, economic and cultural and mid-east Africa. Enable the Omani in the presence of his Mogadishu from the north to Cape Delgado in the south east coast. Omani also extended influence in the north-western direction to the Kingdom of Buganda and the west as far as Upper Congo (now Zaire).

Sultan Said known as “Lord of the Seas” he has sailed long and many distance (Ruth (1988). Sultan Said sent his ship Omani (sultana) to the United States of America, carrying the first Omani ambassador. The envoy was the first Arab to reach the United States also sent a Sultana ship to Britain to confirm diplomatic relations with it. Most researchers have praised the wise leadership in the leadership of his empire. Sultan Said bin Sultan had agreements with 22 countries and the exchange of letters with 33 countries. He treated other countries the principle of reciprocity. He distanced his country from becoming involved in international problems at that time.

Sultan Said stability the government of Oman (Holly (1995), despite the ambitions and foreign conspiracies. Sultan Said been able to maintain the independence of his country’s balance of using diplomacy over military force in order to reach its objectives. Sultan Said was coordinated between the parties his wide country to guide their work toward the goal. Promote the highest level of performance efficiency and effectiveness. Sultan Said overcome the obstacles and personal conflicts between the royal families (Ruth (1988). This requires the Sultan Said permanent contact with the constantly reminded of the motivation for cooperation. Sultan was working to create a team spirit integrated united goals and aspirations.

Sultan Said has not a large military force. He was Dealer. Therefore, survival in power was to receive the consent of the people and leaders. He has taken a new approach in giving the mandate authorities. Oman relies on a large commercial fleet. Experts considered the second largest fleet in the Indian Ocean at that time (Ruth (1988). Support the commercial fleet naval force distinct. Sultan Said bin Sultan, the economy developed his empire in East Africa in addition to the extensive trade with China, South East Asia, India, Sri Lanka and Iran. (Holly (1995).

The Sultan has the vision and future plans, when planting the cultivation of cloves in Zanzibar. As, a commercial crop in several farms created on the ground of African, also provided assistance of European explorers, who have disclosures in Africa during the first half of the nineteenth century.

Styles of Sultan Said

Leadership styles can be divided into three Styles: the democratic leadership, authoritarian leadership and Laissez-faire leadership. democratic leadership based on the principles of consolation and persuasion to influence people. Authoritarian leadership based on tyranny and oppression. As authoritarian leadership, style resort to intimidation of followers to harm them. authoritarian leadership adopts policy maneuver and decision-making. Laissez-faire leadership shows in this type of leadership, when he leaves the decision-making for his followers and implementing the decisions Huczynski and Buchanan (2007).

When the Sultan Said assumed power the rule was a hereditary monarchy. Sultan Said might be collecting three styles of leadership some time. As required by the situation and the politics need at that time. But can say Sultan Said was inclined to approach democracy in the governance of the country. Sultan said had Council met with senior commanders and advisers. The Sultan had public council which was held on Friday and Monday each week, the first meeting in the morning, and the second meeting in the evening(Ruth (1988). The right of every citizen is required to meet individually with the Sultan if he had found a special requirement in his embarrassment to all.

As we know that the Sultan has the wide country. So it was authorizing governors appointed by the administration areas. When he adopted Zanzibar as second capital for him in 1832, (Holly (1995), when he is in Zanzibar delegate to administrate the Government of Oman to his son Thowani. The opposite will happen, when he is in Oman delegate administration of the Government of Zanzibar to his son Majed (Ruth (1988).

Some people said that the behavior of the Sultan is a courtesies east. He wanted their fame and emerging. On the contrary, the Sultan was simple in his life and clothing. The citizens consider him a father. Sultan Said palace doors were opened for citizens and delegations each day. He used to receive people in the palace with kindness and listen to their complaints Ruth. (1988). Sultan Said was an effective problem-solving. Sultan did not hesitate to move quickly in the country when crises arise. He was able to develop plans and strategies and effective decision-making.

Ethics and the capabilities of Sultan Said

Diversify sources of leadership and literature. The authorities granted to the leaders and vary in scope and impact. Leader needs to skills based on his character and qualities. Successful leader needs skills to ensure the success of its functions. The most important of those Ethics and the capabilities:

Leader learning and training: the leader has to be a coach. Leader shows the potential of each follower’s member to training under his supervision. It creates enthusiasm and confidence to help him to carry out his duties. Sultan preferred choice of strong leaders and empowered to manage areas (Holly (1995). Then give them sufficient powers and give them opportunities to develop themselves through their experiences and take advantage of their mistakes.

Leader like the work: man is inherently lazy. Sultan Said was dominated by followers who wish to work. Sultan retained the eminent personalities to selected ministers, advisers and judges who help referees in the conduct of the State( Ruth. (1988).


Sense of responsibility: the difference between the human and machines is a sense of responsibility. Followers are passionate about the duties if it gave them as social service. Sultan Said was a successful businessman who extended trade from the coasts of China in the east to the west coast of America profits promised by wide Ruth. (1988)… Profits did not keep him out of politics and governance.

Organizing: The duty of leader is organizing the tasks to followers as possibilities. The leader is suspended direct efforts to reach the goal. Sultan said the division of responsibilities and functions between his followers as competencies, expertise, capabilities and aspirations. So, able Sultan Said to rule wide empire (Holly (1995).

Ethics of quell resistance: Perhaps some negative resistance in the country. The leader here expects trouble before they occurred so they do not have to put down after they arise. Sultan said was on the conduct of a private matter, far from Amman. He was often forced to leave Zanzibar to address the problems arising in Oman to resolution. He has long period in Zanzibar.

The Ethics of observation: Sultan Said believed the necessary for leader to observation follower. That the duty for the leader. That’s easy for giving orders to supervise the implementation. Do not show characteristics of the leader only when observation of implementation.

The Ethics of cooperation with the other leaders: A member of the group does not belong to one or farm workers exploited by the leader of her own. But men are gathering goal. And share both as potential trouble. They do not work in the service of one person but home. Sultan Said was discussed with his leaders in the decision-making task during the morning meetings, both in Muscat or Zanzibar. Sultan discusses to resolve the problems of the spirit of collective autistic. Ruth. (1988).

Weaknesses of the Sultan Said

Many researchers said because of the problems and unrest continued in Oman and the Gulf. That makes Sultan Said turn to East Africa, which led to losing areas power of the Gulf, (Holly (1995).

Second issue, there was other case similar events in history. Sultan Said has not been appointed crown prince in advance. Civil war seizes power between the heirs of the Sultan. The war threatened the Omani State Asian and African collapse. Foreign powers interfere in this issue Ruth. (1988). Omani empire was divided into two parts, Oman and Zanzibar. Zanzibar so separated from Oman. Omani people’s ruled Zanzibar until 1964.


Useful to conclude this report by saying that, Sultan Said bin Sultan was Leader. Sultan Said smart politician and a great leader. Oman became in his reign empire stretched from Bandar Abbas on the coast of the Arabian Gulf to the port of Zanzibar on the east coast of Africa, in addition to some islands in the Arabian Gulf, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean, including the Comoros, Sultan Said bin Sultan is all seriousness and respects deserve to examine a model as leadership.


Holly, D. (1995).Oman .London: Stains published

Ministry of Information. (1995). Oman in History. London: Immel Publishing

Ruth, Rudolf Said. (1988).Sayyed Said bin Sultan 1791 – 1856 .Bruit: Arab House

Johnson, H. (1997). Oman a pictorial Resuscitation .Hong Kong

Hall, R. (1999). Empires of the Monsoon. Abu dubi: Emeriti studies.

Abass, A. (1981). Groups and Leadership. Cairo

Posner, Kouzes. (2003). The Leadership challenge. Third edition

Huczynski, A. and Buchanan, D. (2007). Organizational Behavior. 6th edition. London: Prentice Hall

Grint, K. (April 2008). Leadership, task and relationship. Human Resource Management Journal, 18, 188 — 195.

Goleman, d. and Boyatzis, R. (Sep. 2008) Intelligence and Biology of Leadership, Harvard Business Review, 74 — 78.


Appendix: photo

Sultan Said bin Sultan from 1776 — 1856 (photo)

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