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Kashmir: Conflict Between India And Pakistan

Info: 1407 words (6 pages) Essay
Published: 3rd May 2017 in History

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Kashmir a region between the India and Pakistan has been the main cause of conflict between these two nations. The region of Kashmir is rich in culture, this being attributed in the integration of the Muslims as well as the Indians, communities that are known for their abundance in culture. However, this is of little comfort as their differences lead to disagreement and conflict, which has shadowed the country for many years. The conflict being witnesses in Kashmir is due to a number of reasons, which are mainly based on the differences between two communities. These reasons are discussed below.

Boarder/Regional Conflict

The root of the conflict in Kashmir stated at the wake of independence in of the Indian continent in 1947 from the Britain (Schofield, 2002). The continent consisted of Hindu and Muslim communities, thus once they gained their independence the two groups divided into two nations India and Pakistan. The Hindu communities choose to occupy India, while the Muslims choose Pakistan as their country. However, one leader of Hindu heritage, Maharaja, remained neutral choosing to remain an independent state from the two nations (Net Pakistani, 2008). Some people in the region as well as the two nations did not approve this decision, thus became a constant issue to test dominance and power between the two nations. According to Bose, the issue dominance of the state of boundary between Pakistan and India is considered exogenous, with each nation trying to prove their superiority over the other (1999, p.762).

Agreement Treaties between Kashmir and the Two Nations

In an effort to maintain peace within the region of Kashmir, Maharaja chose to enter into a number of agreements, which led to tension within the nation, and soon after the conflict being witnessed up to this day. The first agreement was signed immediately after the independence of the continent. Since the leader wanted to remain independent and still maintain control in his country in terms of economy and other needs he entered in an agreement with Pakistan. According to The Telegraph, the agreement allowed the Kashmir to participate in trade and other operations such as communication without any interruptions from Pakistan (2001). However, the same treatment was not applied to India thus; they continued contributing towards issues related Kashmir. The Muslim people in Kashmir saw this as discrimination on their part as a result they started rioting and causing disruptions in the region, factors that eventually led to the conflict in Kashmir.

Internal Conflict

With the rise in internal conflict in Kashmir, Pakistan saw this as an opportunity to gain control and obtain power over India. This fuelled by the suffering of the Muslim in Kashmir led the nation to plan and implement an attack in the nation in October 1947, months after the continent gained its independence (Schofield, 2002). This attract prompted the leader Maharaja to call onto India for assistance. He signed an instrument of accession, consenting to India involvement with the matter of bringing law and order within the region. This agreement in most cases gives the contracting party the authority to act as it pleases with the main goal of the agreement.

Authentication of the Accession Agreement

This agreement between maharaja and India was deemed void by Pakistan, as it claimed that India took advantage of the instability within the region and decided to establish control over the region (Schofield, 2002). Pakistan claims that matters were not discussed and resolved in an orderly manner, they also claim that Maharaja was forced to attesting to the accession in order to be assured of passage and protection by the Indian government. According to a statement by the Pakistani government, “some parties i.e. the V.P to Maharaja was not aware of any agreement being made between Maharaja and the India government since the leader had already left the nation,” (Bose, 1999, p.765). Despite the fact that, some people were not aware of the said agreement of accession between Maharaja and the Indian government led to conflict within the region as well as between India and Pakistani, two nations who were fighting over the control in the region.

Differences in Culture and Political

Both the Hindu community and the Pakistani have their own culture, which seem to segregate them. For example, the Hindu has the caste system where certain groups maintain superiority over others. The same applies to the Muslim. As a result, there are also different political systems in the region. The fact that the Hindu held a larger population than the Muslim, led the Hindu to hold authority over the other community as well as in the region (Bose, 1999, p. 767). This created tension within the nation a matter that attracted the attention of Pakistan to fight over the control in the region. A matter that led to the rise of conflict in Kashmir, as the Indian government claim that Pakistan attacked Kashmir first in 1948 and they only came forth to defend the Indian community living in the region.

The Referendum or the New Government

With the singing of the accession agreement by Maharaja to the Indian government, the leaders of Kashmir were promise a new government or referendum. However, this never happened as the Indian government still holds power over Kashmir a matter that has angered the Muslim people living in the region. As a result, there has been one riot after another within the region.

Military Involvement

When the Indian military came to Kashmir in the first place in 1948, they were requested to come and intervene in the invasion of Pakistan in Kashmir. However, the military choose to remain in the region even after the leaders resolved the issue. In addition to their presence in the country, they have started acting violently towards the Muslim community in the region (Net Pakistani, 2008). Cases have been brought forward to the attention of international bodies over the violence practice by the Indian military as they rape and kill innocent people in the region of Kashmir. All this is done under the leadership of the Indian government who seem to take no action at all in resolving the issue (The Telegraph, 2001).This prompted the Pakistani government to intervene and help ease the suffering of the Muslims. In addition to this, other militia organizations also sought to declare their control over the region. According to the Indian government these groups are supported by the Pakistan government, a claim that is denied by the Pakistan government who cite condemnation from the Indian government (Bose, 1999, p. 764)

The Failure to Adhere to Agreements

The leaders in both India and Pakistan have the tendency of holding meeting and coming to agreements that mean nothing to either party after some time. Take for example the first agreement between Kashmir leader and the Pakistan government. The Pakistan did not follow the terms of the agreement, which led Maharaja to seek the support of the Indian government. Other cases include the agreement between the two nations, which was enforced under the UN mandate in 1949. Pakistan government was told to seize their military activities in Kashmir and let the leaders within the region resolve their own issue without any interference from either India and Pakistan (Net Pakistani, 2008). Pakistan however did not live to their end of the agreement as later in 1965 Pakistan attacked the region citing that India still had major influence in the Kashmir. These are just but a few of such agreements that held no foundation in the regions politics, and only acted to cause more reasons for conflict within the region.


The conflict in Kashmir started over regional boundaries but it progressed slowly to involve other issues such as the oppression of the people, as well as the fight over dominance in the region. This conflict started in the late 1990 and it is still ongoing. International bodies have tried to resolve the matter, but the problem seems to be rooted deeply between these two nations as efforts from international bodies go unnoticed. Thus, the nation has been the battleground between Pakistan and India and peace within the region seem inevitable as none of the two nations seem to back down.


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