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Impact of the Battle of Baltimore

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18/05/20 History Reference this

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The Battle of Baltimore

The Battle of Baltimore contend an important role within the War of 1812 and acted as a turning purpose within the war to convey the Americans the superiority within the war. It showed that the Americans service weren’t to be messed with and will hold their ground against land.

James Maddison contend an enormous role within the war, and as a foundation father of the us. He wrote the primary drafts of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. He became called one in every of the “ foundation Fathers.” President Madison became a political party and served as Jefferson’s Secretary of State. In 1803 Madison oversaw the Louisiana Purchase, that secured heaps of land for the U.S. The states they acquired were American state, Missouri, Arkansas, Iowa, American state, Mount Rushmore State, Nebraska, and Sooner State. President Madison conjointly became the fourth U.S President and his term lasted from March fourth 1809 – March fourth 1817. President Madison had the thought that the liberty of individuals would destroy the colonies from the within, however it couldn’t be any higher than being dominated by a king and being told what to try and do. President Madison once same, “Liberty is also vulnerable by the abuse of liberty, however conjointly by the abuse of power.” [1]

The Navigation Acts screwed over the colonists. It restricted them from commercialism with alternative countries and also the British understood the Act hardly on them. land annoyed the Colonists with British War Ships implementing the Act on them. land would came upon blockades to dam U.S ships from commercialism with France and alternative countries. The Americans became furious.  The British would instigate fights between the Native Americans and the Americans causing conflict between them. The British would give the indians firearms and info on the American frontlines and the Indians would attack the Americans.[2]

  Parliament would pass these parliamentary acts that would intend to take control of neutral merchant ships attempting to trade with other countries such as France. After France got word of this they were not happy. So, they did the same thing British did on the colonies to prevent the colonies from trading with any neutral countries so they couldn’t trade with Britain.  On January 7, 1807, Britain issued the following Order in Council, “. . . it’s herewith ordered, that no vessel shall be permissible to trade from one port to a different, each that ports shall belong to, or be within the possession of France or her allies, or shall be to this point beneath their management as that British vessels might not freely trade thereat; and also the commanders of his majesty’s ships of war and privateers shall be, and are herewith schooled to warn each neutral vessel returning from any such port, and destined to a different port, to discontinue her voyage, and to not proceed to any such port; and any vessel, when being warned, or any vessel returning from any such port when an inexpensive time shall are afforded for receiving data of this his majesty’s orders that shall be found continuing to a different port, shall be captured and brought in, and along side her merchandise, shall be condemned as lawful prize.”[3]

Basically no ships from the colonies were aloud to trade with France or any other countries against Britain. Later, Britain passed another act saying that the Americans can’t trade with any county on the European continent.In result, France started seizing american ships before they could get to Britain.

 Before the Navigation Acts, the British Parliament put many other acts on the colonies which led to the first Revolution War. The Colonies were being harshly taxed and they did not like it. The british were passing acts such as the Stamp Act or the Quartering Acts. It was costing the colonist a lot of money to the point where they couldn’t even feed their families. After the British passed another act called The Tea Act, the Colonists finally acted against it. The famous Boston Tea Party occurred. Colonists in a group called “ The Sons Of Liberty” dressed up at native Americans and boarded trading ships and threw over 300 boxes of tea overboard .[4]  Now this may have seemed like a big act towards the repeal of taxes, but it on;y made it worse. British parliament closed down the Boston Harbor until all the boxes were paid for in taxes. SO, if anything it just increased the taxes on the colonies. This act was called the Boston Port Act.

 The colonists finally had enough of these harsh taxes and the British bullying them all the time.  The Battles of Lexington and Concord, fought on April 19th, 1775, launched the Revolutionary War. Tensions had been building for several years between residents of the thirteen colonies and also the British authorities, significantly in Massachusetts. On the night of April 18th, 1775, many British troops marched from Boston to Concord to seize the Colonists arms cache. Revere and other riders raised the alarm, and colonial militiamen began mobilizing to intercept the British troops. A confrontation on the Lexington city started off the fighting, and shortly the British were retreating underneath intense fire. This was the beginning of the American Revolution for America’s independence.[5]  While the colonists lost several minutemen, the Battles of Lexington and Concord was a serious military triumph and showed the  King of England that unjust behavior would not be tolerated in America. The battles implanted the primary military conflicts of the American Revolution. After the battle of Lexington and Concord, the next battle was the battle of Bunker Hill. Breed’s Hill in Charlestown was where the battle took place. 2,300 British troops attacked the bunker in an attempt to seize british arms. The British succeeded and won the battle, but to the Colonists, this was no loss. The colonists held their ground. This was a big motivation boost for the colonists and gave them spirit to fight more. The colonial struggle with the British already looked like a civil war. At the end of 1775, the war did not aim at dividing nations; but the publication of the Common Sense pamphlet by Thomas Paine suddenly put independence on the agenda. The Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson and revised in committee after the Congress suggested that colonies form their own governments. The Congress voted for independence on July 2; the Declaration of Independence was ratified on July 4. Now that independence was declared, the Colonists had a much bigger reason to fight this war.[6]

 Having been forced by the British to flee New York City and pushed through New Jersey, George Washington and the Continental Army struck back on Christmas night by stealthily crossing the ice-strewn Delaware River, shocking Trenton’s Hessian garrison at dawn and capturing some 900 prisoners. A British army under Gen. John Burgoyne seized Fort Ticonderoga in the summer of 1777, moving south from Canada. In Bennington, Vermont, and Bemis Heights, New York, before losing decisively. After losses in the Battles of Brandywine and Germantown, Washington and 11,000 troops took up winter quarters at Valley Forge, 22 miles northwest of British-occupied Philadelphia. While rampant disease, semi-starvation, and bitter cold decimated its ranks, the reorganized Continental Army emerged as a well-disciplined and effective fighting force the following June. Since 1776, the French had secretly provided financial and material aid to the Americans, but the Franco-American alliance was formalized with the signing of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce and the Treaty of Alliance in Paris.[7] France began to prepare fleets and armies for the fight, but only in June 1778 did not formally declare war on Britain. The Confederation Articles, a state structure document that acted as a link between the Continental Congress ‘ initial government and the U.S. federal government. The 1787 Constitution was written in 1776–77 and ratified on November 15, 1777 by the Congress. Nevertheless, by March 1, 1781, the states had not completely ratified the articles.

 The ground wars in America largely died out after the British defeat at Yorktown, but the war continued at sea, primarily between the British and the European allies of America, which included Spain and the Netherlands. North America’s military decision was expressed in the 1782 Anglo-American Preliminary Peace Treaty, which was included in the 1783 Paris Treaty. [8]By its words, Britain accepted America’s independence with expansive borders, including the western Mississippi River. Britain held Canada, but ceded to Spain East and West Florida.[9] This was the first time America was finally free from the British, finally independent. Although america is finally free, the British still didn’t leave America alone. Before the British came back to bother them more, America had their own problems. The war was won by the 13 colonies, but both sides had spent so much money in the war that they were almost bankrupt. England had to find a new source of income after the war, because there was trade in the colonies where they had a lot of their money. The United States of America, the new name of the 13 colonies, now that they were no longer controlled by Britain, had to work out a government plan. In many aspects that still influence us today, the Revolutionary War has changed the world. One of the most obvious results is that the U.S. became a separate country from England and no longer had to obey Britain and the King’s rules. For either state, though, it wasn’t all convenient, but particularly not for America’s new United States. Around 7,200 American soldiers have been killed in combat, another 8,200 have been injured, and 1,400 have been missing. Ultimately, as a result of the war, there were about 25,000 American deaths and 10,000 British deaths. The soldiers who made it through the war were poor and destitute because very little money was given to support them.Small plots of land were granted to some soldiers in the North, but most sold them for the money because they had nothing to do with the land. Before 1818, Congress did not allow military benefits. America also had huge war debts, and they didn’t have a lot of money to pay them because they were a new country.  Financially, Britain and France were also greatly affected. France was in financial trouble already, so spending money on the American Revolution further plunged them into debt. Also the French Revolution in 1789 sparked and influenced the ideals of the revolution.[10] Revolutions started happening all over the world. Including France, Haitai, and Latin America.

 After the American Revolution, the United States government was a mess and they needed someone to step up. George Washington was that guy that stepped up. During the American Revolution, George Washington was commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and served two terms as the first U.S. president from 1789 to 1797. Washington was born in colonial Virginia as the son of a wealthy planter. He worked as a young man in the French and Indian Wars as a surveyor. He led the colonial forces to victory over Britain during the American Revolution and became a national hero. He was elected representative of the U.S. Convention in 1787.  Washington became the first president of America two years later. Realizing that the manner in which he treated the job would influence how future presidents approached the role, he handed down a legacy of power, honesty and national intent. He died at his Virginia plantation in Mount Vernon, at the age of 67, less than three years after leaving office.[11] The two most famous appointees to the cabinet are State Secretary Thomas Jefferson and Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, two men who strongly disagreed with the federal government’s role. Hamilton favored a powerful central government, while Jefferson favored the rights of stronger states. Washington claimed that the new government’s stability was vital for divergent views, but he was troubled by what he saw as a growing partisanship.

 President James Madison signed the declaration into law the day after the Senate joined the House of Representatives in voting to declare war on Great Britain and the War of 1812 begins. In reaction to the British economic blockade of France, the recruitment of American seaman into the British Royal Navy against their will, and the British protection of Indian tribes along the Great Lakes frontier. The American war declaration, opposed by a large minority in Congress, had been called. A Congress group known as the “War Hawks” had been advocating war with Britain for several years and had not concealed their expectations that a U.S. invasion of Canada would lead to significant territorial gains for the U.S. American forces conducted a three-point invasion of Canada in the months after President Madison declared a state of war to be in place, all of which were decisively unsuccessful. The British were able to allocate more military resources to the American war in 1814, with the fall of the French Empire by Napoleon Bonaparte, and in August, Washington, D.C. fell. British troops destroyed the White House, the Mint, and other structures in Washington in retribution for U.S. soldiers ‘ earlier destruction of government buildings in Canada.[12] The battle of Baltimore was a huge turning point in the war for the Americans.

 The people of Baltimore, including free blacks, worked feverishly to build defenses in Baltimore as events unfolded in Brandenburg and Washington. To shield the approach from the sea, more than a mile of landworks extended north from the harbor. Hulls have been sunk as navigational obstacles. A string of masts connected to the inner harbor through the main entrance. As the British fleet reached Baltimore at North Point near the mouth of the Patapsco River, Americans watched in panic on September 12, 1814. Approximately 4,500 British troops landed in Baltimore and continued their 11-mile march. The British warships moved up the Patapsco River to Fort McHenry and the other defenses around the harbor as the troops marched. The ships opened the fort’s 25-hour assault, but failed to force the surrender of their commander, Major George Armistead, and other defenders. As the British fleet withdrew down the Patapsco, the garrison flag, now known as the Star-Spangled Banner, was raised over Fort McHenry. There were heavy British casualties on land, including Major General Robert Ross, after a skirmish called the Battle of North Point. The British troops, manned by 15,000 Americans, entered the impressive defensive earthworks of Baltimore. Hearing of the failure to take Fort McHenry, the British prudently decided to withdraw. With this defensive victory for the Americans, the Chesapeake Campaign essentially ended. Beanes and Key had witnessed the bombardment of Fort McHenry from onboard the truce vessel. Key was so moved by the scene of the battle that he composed a poem that eventually became the National Anthem. [13] Key, Beanes, and the other Americans were liberated as the British retreated, and Key was writing on his poetry that day. The poem’s handbills were easily printed and distributed copies to every person who was in the bombardment at Fort McHenry. Key’s poem was first printed on September 20, 1814 under the title “The Defense of Fort McHenry” in the Baltimore Patriot and Advertiser. By the end of the year, the poem and tune were printed throughout the country as a reminder of American victory. The United States in 1931 Congress passed a law that made the official National Anthem “The Star-Spangled Banner.”[14] Interestingly, the melody Key allocated to complement the words of “The Star-Spangled Banner” was a popular English drinking song called “To Anacreon in Heaven.” Written about 1775 by John Stafford Smith, the song celebrated the ancient Greek poet Anacreon, a wine lover. It was originally performed in a music club called the Anacreontic Society of a London gentleman. Key began his flourishing career in law after the 1812 war. He served as a member of the Kitchen Cabinet of President Andrew Jackson, and in 1833 he was named U.S. attorney for the District of Columbia.

Over the course of his life, he composed other verses, but none received near recognition of “The Star-Spangled Banner.” Key died at the age of 63 in 1843 after contracting pleurisy. While his popular song declared the United States “the land of the free,” Key was in reality a slaveholder from an old family of Maryland plantations, and as a U.S. lawyer he fought against the abolitionist movement in several notable proceedings. He spoke out against the slavery institution’s cruelties, but he did not see abolition as the solution. Then, Key became a pioneer of the independence campaign, supporting the migration of black slaves to Africa and ultimately leading to Liberia’s modern nation. At first, among the patriotic songs of the 19th century, “The Star-Spangled Banner” followed “Yankee Doodle” and “Hail Columbia.” Yet Key’s music acquired a deeper meaning during and shortly after the Civil War, as the American flag became an ever more powerful symbol for national unity. By the 1890s, for ceremonial purposes, the U.S. military had adapted the song, performing it to complement the rising and lowering of colors. President Woodrow Wilson signed an executive order in 1916 designating him as the United States ‘ national anthem.[15] “The Star-Spangled Banner” made its sporting event appearance in September 1918 during the Chicago Cubs and Boston Red Sox’s first World Series game that year. In addition to World War I’s ongoing toll, a cloud of violence hung over Comiskey Park in Chicago, just the day before the Chicago Federal Building had been torn apart as a bomb. The military band on site played “The Star-Spangled Banner” during the seventh-inning break, and in a stirring sight, all players and fans fell silent and welcomed the banner.[16]

The Battle of Baltimore impacted the United States not just after the war, but for the rest of History. The Star Spangled Banner is still around today showing how hard our troops fought for their independence and shows how people are so supportive of their country. But, the war of 1812 was a war for their “ second independence.” The American Revolution became the big kick-off for independence. The Colonists wanted independence from Britain so bad because the British were bullying them. The British treated them so badly and the Colonists had enough of it. After the Revolutionary War between The Colonists and Great Britain, the United States was in great debt and had a weak government. Overcoming all of that, America kept pushing on and progressing their government and debt to get back on their feet. But, the British came back to try and ruin the United States. America had the fight for their  “second Independence.” The Battle at Fort McHenry was a very patriotic day for the United States. As the bombs were falling on the fort through the night, Key thought about the Moment, and realized how motivational this moment could become for America. Key wrote a beautiful poem of that night. It showed how hard American troops fought for their countries freedom “ And the rocket’s red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.”[17] The Battle of Baltimore changed America forever, not even just the battle, but from a poem written by a captive listening as his brother in arms fought proudly for their country. 


[1]  “James Madison Quotes.” James Madison Quotes ***. Accessed October 15, 2019. http://www.presidential-power.org/quotes-by-presidents/james-madison-quotes.htm.

[2] Brooks, Rebecca Beatrice, and Rebecca Beatrice Brooks. “What Caused the War of 1812?” History of Massachusetts Blog, November 30, 2018. https://historyofmassachusetts.org/war-of-1812-causes/.

[3]  Brooks, Rebecca Beatrice, and Rebecca Beatrice Brooks. “What Caused the War of 1812?” History of Massachusetts Blog, November 30, 2018. https://historyofmassachusetts.org/war-of-1812-causes/

[4] “Tea Act 1773.” Stamp Act History. Accessed October 17, 2019. http://www.stamp-act-history.com/tea-act/1773-tea-act/

[5] History.com Editors. “Battles of Lexington and Concord.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, December 2, 2009. https://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/battles-of-lexington-and-concord

[6] Wallenfeldt, Jeff. “Timeline of the American Revolution.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. Accessed October 22, 2019. https://www.britannica.com/list/timeline-of-the-american-revolution.

[7] Founders Online: The Franco-American Treaty of Alliance, 6 February 1778.” National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration. Accessed October 23, 2019. https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Franklin/01-25-02-0476.

[8] National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration. Accessed October 23, 2019. https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals/paris.html.

[9] Wallenfeldt, Jeff. “Timeline of the American Revolution.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. Accessed October 22, 2019. https://www.britannica.com/list/timeline-of-the-american-revolution.

[10] Results of the Revolutionary War. Accessed October 23, 2019. http://www.cr-cath.pvt.k12.ia.us/lasalle/Resources/Rev War Websites/katie, rachel,lily rev war/Rachel Flaherty Rev War/Results_of_the_Revolutionary_War.html.

[11] History.com Editors. “George Washington.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, October 29, 2009. https://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/george-washington.

[12] “War of 1812 Begins.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, November 24, 2009. https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/war-of-1812-begins.

[13] “The Battle for Baltimore.” National Parks Service. U.S. Department of the Interior. Accessed October 24, 2019. https://www.nps.gov/stsp/learn/historyculture/battlebaltimore.htm.

[14] National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration. Accessed October 24, 2019. https://catalog.archives.gov/id/6384919.

[15] History.com Editors. “The Star-Spangled Banner.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, September 28, 2017. https://www.history.com/topics/19th-century/the-star-spangled-banner

[16]  History.com Editors. “The Star-Spangled Banner.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, September 28, 2017. https://www.history.com/topics/19th-century/the-star-spangled-banner

[17] “The Lyrics.” NMAH | The Lyrics. Accessed October 24, 2019. https://amhistory.si.edu/starspangledbanner/the-lyrics.aspx

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