World War II, which took place during the 1940s, was a time of great chaos. This was when the holocaust took place. The holocaust is when Adolf Hitler wanted to get rid of the entire Jewish race because of his anti-Semitic beliefs. I have chosen three memorable people for this paper. In this paper, I will discuss Anne Frank, Eva Mozes Kor, and Josef Mengele.
Annelies Marie Frank was born June 12, 1929 in Frankfort on the Main, Germany. She was the youngest child of Otto and Edith Frank; her older sister was Margot. While she was a child some of the things she liked to do were riding her bike and having fun with her friends. Sadly this all changed in 1933.
In 1933, Hitler became the dictator of Germany and began killing Jews because of his anti-Semitic beliefs. Because of this, Otto moved his family to the Netherlands where it was safe for Jews. Then in 1940, Hitler invaded Holland and the Jews had to wear the Yellow Star of David which made them different from non-Jews. If Jews where caught they were arrested by Nazis and sent to concentration to work slave labor or die. In 1942, the first Jews in Holland received call-up notices to report to "work" at Westerbork. If the notices were ignored, Jews would be sent to prison camps. The Franks decided to go into hiding after they got the notice. So Otto and the "Helpers" prepared a hiding place with food and clothing for them. The hiding place has later called the "Secret Annex" which was in the office of Otto Franks business located on Prinsengracht Street. The "Helpers" where Johannes Kleiman, Victor Kugler, Jan Gies, and Miep Gies. Otto and his family went into hiding with Hermann, Auguste, and Peter van Pel. They all knew each other before because Hermann and Otto worked in the same business together. On June 12, 1942 Anne received her first diary for her 13th birthday. She took it with her into hiding and called it "Kitty". That is where she wrote down her fears, hopes, and experiences and often read some of them to the "Hiders" in the annex. At first she thought hiding was an adventure but she often became hungry and bored. When Anne got older she always wanted to be a journalist because she liked to write. She had 5 notebooks and more than 300 loose pages. Her last entry in her diary was August 1, 1944 but on August 4, 1944 she was betrayed.
In 1944, they were discovered by the Gestapo and tipped off by an anonymous caller. Anne and the others were arrested and sent to Westerbork in Poland August 8th. After the arrest Miep Gies found Anne's diary and kept it for her. In September everyone in hiding was sent to Auschwitz. Where Edith was selected for labor and died January 1945. Anne and Margot had to do hard labor because of there youth and were transferred to Bergen-Belsen. Otto stayed and worked as a slave labor for 8 months. He then was liberated by the Soviets in Auschwitz January 27, 1945. Anne and Margot died of typhus in Bergen-Belsen about February or March 2 or 3 months before the war ended. On April 15, 1945 British liberated Bergen-Belsen. Otto Frank was the only survivor from the annex. Anne's diary was published after her death in 1947 and translated into almost 70 languages. Anne will always be remembered as 1 of 1 million Jewish children who died in the holocaust.
Eva Mozes Kor
Eva Mozes Kor was born in the tiny village of Portz, Romania in 1934. Her father was Alexander Mozes and her mother was Jaffa Mozes. Alexander Mozes was a wealthy landowner and a farmer. Together they had four girls: Edit, Aliz, and identical twins Eva and Miriam. During Eva's first 4 years of education she attended a one-room schoolhouse. When Eva was six her small village was occupied by a Hungarian Nazi armed guard. After being under occupation for four years the family was transported to a regional ghetto in Simleu Silvaniei in 1944.
A few weeks later the family was put into a cattle car with other Jewish prisoners and transported to Auschwitz Nazi death camp. They were in the cattle car for almost 3 days without food or water. After they got out onto the selection platform Eva and Miriam held onto there mothers hand. Eva then looked around and realized her father and two older sisters were gone. Sadly, she never saw them again. Soon after they were separated from there mother Eva and Miriam became part of a group of children who were used as human guinea pigs in genetic experiments. Dr. Josef Mengele was under the direction of this. Approximately 1500 sets of twins were abused and most died from these deadly experiments. Eva herself became really sick but was determined to stay alive and help Miriam survive. On January 27, 1945 the Soviet Army liberated the camp and found approximately 200 children alive most of them were Mengele twins. Eva and Miriam then were all alone and no longer had anyone else except each other.
Over the next nine months they were in three different refuge camps and returned to Romania to live there with there aunt. In 1950 Eva moved to Israel and for 10 years she attended an agricultural school. While living in Israel Eva met Michael Kor. Michael Kor was also a holocaust survivor and an American tourist. Then in 1960 they both got married and moved to the United States. She then became a US citizen in 1965, and the couple raised two children, Alex and Rina. In 1984 Eva started a holocaust museum called CANDLES. CANDLES stands for Children of Auschwitz Nazi Deadly Lab Experiments Survivors. On January 27, 1985 six Mengele twins met at Auschwitz to observe the 40th anniversary of the camp liberation. While in 1993 Miriam died because her kidneys never fully developed. Soon after that Eva returned to Auschwitz with Dr. Hans Münch for the 50th year anniversary in 1995. Hans Münch was a Nazi doctor who knew Dr. Mengele but did not work with him. Eva then read Dr. Münch's signed witness statement to deny those who denied the Holocaust. After that she felt the need to forgive the Nazis. The forgiveness healed Eva and made her stronger but it didn't mean she would forget about what happened to her. She then opened a small museum in Indiana that contained different artifacts from Auschwitz and documents relating to Dr. Mengele. Then in November of 2003 the museum was set on fire. It was because of hatred an arsonist destroyed it. April 2005, CANDLES Holocaust Museum Education Center was re-opened to the public. Later On in 2009 Eva taught a course at Indiana State University on philosophy about overcoming difficulties in life using the Holocaust as an example. As an adult Eva has suffered serious health problems such as miscarriages and tuberculosis. She is one of many who survived Dr. Mengeles experiments.
Josef Mengele also known as "The Angel of Death" was born March 16, 1911 in Günzburg, Germany. He was the oldest child of Karl and Walburga Mengele; his younger brothers were Karl junior and Alois. His father Karl was the creator of a company that produced farm machinery. Growing up he was remembered as a "sunny and fun loving child" but at school he was teased by his classmates about his "Gypsy looks." Then in the 1920's he studied philosophy at Munch and received a medical degree at the University of Frankfort. In 1926 Josef had been diagnosed with a bone infection. After in 1937 he joined the Nazi party then went to the SS in 1938. Where he served as a Medical officer in France and Russia. Soon After he married his 1st wife Irene and had one child Rolf. Rolf was born March 11, 1941. Then in 1942 he got hurt at the Russian front and was unfit for duty so, he volunteered to go to the death camp Auschwitz.
On May 30th, 1943 Josef arrived at Auschwitz and was chosen by Heinrich Himmler to be chief doctor at Birkenau, which was the extra extermination camp at Auschwitz. There him and his staff selected incoming Jews for labor or execution and supervised medical experiments on inmates. When he got there the enormous camp was surrounded by barbed wire, patrolled by SS guard dogs and had 5 crematoria and gas chambers. It also was packed with almost 140,000 prisoners. Mengele had also studied genetics so, soon after working he found pairs of twins and did a lot of studies and these twins were usually murdered and then there bodies were dissected. He choose twins because they were almost the same person. After injecting and doing experiments on the twins he would record what he did. Then one day he sent the records to Dr. Von Verschuer at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute and they were shipped out in two truckloads and destroyed later. Any of the remaining notes Mengele had he carried with him on his escape to South America and were never found.
Then on January 27, 1945 Auschwitz was liberated and Mengele escaped
Auschwitz disguised as a member of a regular German infantry and went underground,
serving four years as a farm stableman near Bavaria. After in 1949 he reportedly escaped
Italy to South America (Argentina), but moved from country to country afraid of being caught. Then in 1958 Mengele divorced Irene and married his brother Karl's widow,
Martha under his own name known as "Jose Mengele." She later moved to Argentina to
join him. Soon after in 1961 he moved to Brazil and became friends with an old-time
Nazi, Wolfgang Gerhard. Then in 1985 a team of Brazilian, West German and American
forensic experts determined that Mengele had taken Gerhards identity, died in 1979 of a
stroke while swimming and was buried under Gerhard's name. It was later confirmed that
the dental records where his.
Anne Frank, Eva Mozes Kor, and Josef Mengele are just three of the many fascinating subjects from World War II. Anne Frank was a strong child with a good heart. Eva Mozes Kor was a survivor that survived Mengele's experiments with the will to live and Joesf Mengele was a Nazi doctor who didn't care how he treated the Jewish race. In addition to being interesting to talk about, these topics can also teach us how we should respect all races.