Roanoke: Roanoke was England's first attempt in establishing a colony in North America. It was funded by a wealthy Englishman named Sir Walter Raleigh who was trying to seek glory and a profit in North America. However, the colony disappeared after three years due to the absence of supplies as England was at war with Spain and the colonists having armed conflicts with the Native Americans. The significance of Roanoke was that it showed the motive behind establishing colonies since it was privately funded, which was seeking a profit and glory. At the same time, it showed England that colonizing North America was possible but there was the threat of the Native Americans. Finally, it showed the impact that Europeans had on the colonization of America because the lack of supplies from England lead to the eventually destruction of Roanoke.
Stuart monarchy: The Stuart monarchy was a time period during the 1600's when the Stuart family owned the royal throne. Members of the Stuart monarchy weren't committed to Protestantism because they were Catholic and pushed for an absolutism country in England. As result, Protestants and members of the Parliament weren't satisfied with the monarchy. This caused Oliver Cromwell to lead a rebellion that ended the Stuart family rule from 1649 to 1658 because it went to a Commonwealth society. However in 1660, the Stuart family would reassume the royal throne until the end of the Glorious Revolution where they would be removed from power in favor of Protestant monarchs. The significance of the Stuart monarchy was that they encouraged many citizens to seek new life in North America because they sparked rebellions and civil unrest due to their beliefs. They encourage the citizens because the citizens have the reason to moved, which was to avoid the conflicts occurring in England.
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Absolutism: Absolutism is the belief that the leader should have complete and limitless power over their subjects. It is significant because it lead to many conflicts during the 1600's in England. James I and Charles I had little respect for the English political culture and pushed for England to become an absolutism country without the Parliament. However, this led to rebellions and civil unrest that lasted for around 80 years. During this period of 80 years, it encouraged many English citizens to move to North America because it provided a reason for them to seek a new life in North America, allowing the colonies to grow larger.
Oliver Cromwell: Oliver Cromwell was the leader of the rebellion against Charles I after he failed to satisfy the radical members of the Commons when he reinstated the Parliament. In 1649, Oliver Cromwell brought monarchy to an end by executing the king and establishing a Commonwealth where he was leader. It lasted until 1658 before monarchy was restored. Oliver Cromwell was also help caused the conflicts between Catholic and Protestant settlers in Maryland. Since Oliver Cromwell was a Protestant who also anti-Catholic, he overturned the law by Toleration Act that gave peace to both religious groups. This led Maryland to be taken away from the Calvert family and have a Protestant government established there. Cromwell was significant because he weakened the power of the monarchy in England forever. At first, he overthrew the monarchy in England in order to establish the Commonwealth, which was dominated by PuritanÂ¸ merchants and gentry. Even after his Commonwealth fell, it was apparent that the Parliament was gaining more power than the monarchy because the Parliament could force James II from the throne and offer it to James II's Protestant daughter. At the same time, he changed the society in Maryland forever. Maryland was intended to be a haven for Catholic but the civil war that Oliver Cromwell help cause between Catholics and Protestants led Maryland to join the Church of England and create a Protestant government, thus abandoning its idea to become a haven for Catholics.
Glorious Revolution: The Glorious Revolution was the events in 1688 that ended Stuart monarchy and crowned new Protestant monarchs in William and Mary. Since James II was Catholic, the Parliament offered the throne to James's Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband William. James II fled to France peacefully so there was no blood that spilled. William and Mary understood the importance of the Parliament as they knew they couldn't act without it. This event was significant because it showed that Parliament growing power over the monarchy, making it closer to a constitutional monarchy than a monarchy. The Parliament had the power to oust King James II from power and force it to flee while still being able to offer the throne to James II's Protestant daughter. At the same time, it led to the Puritans losing their power in Massachusetts because William and Mary abolish the Dominion of New England but didn't restore the Bay Colony charter. Later, Massachusetts was instead declared a royal colony with a governor appointed by the throne. This meant that church membership would never become a criterion for citizenship in Massachusetts. As result, the puritans lost power because they couldn't have the power to control the colony anymore so they were replaced with other colonists with a "Yankee" ideal of trade and commerce, bustling sea port cities, varied beliefs and more secular orientation to daily life.
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Joint-stock company: Joint-stock company is a business that is financed through the sales of shares of stock to investors so both the merchant and the investors share the profits and the losses of the company. This was the result of merchants who realized that they could protect themselves from losing their entire fortune if they join together in purchasing shares and splitting the costs. As result, companies were willing to colonize America because neither the Stuart kings, Cromwell nor individual noblemen were willing to finance the colonization of North America. This is significance because it allowed the opportunity to colonize North America because merchants had protection from losing their entire fortune. Since merchants had protection against losing their entire fortune, they were willing to take the risk in the potential benefits of colonizing North America. As result, companies took the risk in colonizing North America, allowing North America to grow.
Jamestown: Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in North America. It was formed in 1607 by the Virginia Company and it was named in honor of the king James I. The significance of Jamestown was that it showed that the colonizing North America was possible and profitable. Jamestown became profitable because of the tobacco industry that start to grow after the actions of John Rolfe. As result, many people from England wanted to come to North America in hopes of becoming wealth from the tobacco industry. This helped convince other companies to form new colonies in the region because it was successful and profitable. Finally, Jamestown also started the headright system that ended the Virginia Company's monopoly on the land and its distribution and led to many important concessions to the colonists like giving them a voice in the colony's civil government. The headright system helped the colonies in North America grow further.
Captain John Smith: Captain John Smith was the leader of Jamestown starting in 1608. He changed the style the settlement was run as it run like a military outpost. For example, those who worked would be the only ones who would get food. John Smith's leadership allowed Jamestown to survive and not meet the same fate as Roanoke. At the same time, he also had poor relationships with his neighbors like Chief Powhatan and his Powhatan Indians. As result of John Smith's aggressive policies toward Indians, Jamestown continued to fight with the Indians even after John Smith returned to England. The significance of John Smith was that he helped Jamestown to survive due to his strict policies. Without his leadership, Jamestown wouldn't have been the first permanent English settlement in North America. He also influenced the poor relationships that happened with the Indians even after his departure from Jamestown. His arrogant and aggressive stance towards the Indians brought conflict between Jamestown and Powhatan. Finally, he showed that colonizing North America was possible as Jamestown survived.
John Rolfe: John Rolfe was one of the colonists that went to Jamestown. He managed to transplant a milder strain of West Indian tobacco to the colony. This started a mad race to plant and harvest as many acres of tobacco as possible, thus creating a tobacco industry at Jamestown. He also attempted to end the English-Indian conflicts by marrying the daughter of Powhatan but she died after visiting England. The significance of John Rolfe was that he sparked the "Brown gold," which made Rolfe and many colonists wealthy. It would also lure people to come to Jamestown because Rolfe and other colonists showed that you could get rich from tobacco. As result, the headright system started because the companies didn't want to sell more shares but instead allowed the potential colonists to become investors. The headright system ended the Virginia Company's monopoly on Virginia's land and its distribution and helped encourage people to come over to North America.
(Finish)House of Burgesses: The House of Burgesses is the representative lawmaking body established by the Virginia Company in 1618 in order to give the landholders of Virginia a voice in the colony's civil government.
(Finish)Separatists: Separatists are English Protestants who decided to leave the Church of England because they felt the need to separate themselves from a religious institution they believed to be corrupt. James I hated Separatists and was motivated to drive them out of England.
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(Finish)William Bradford: William Bradford was the leader of the Pilgrims, which was a group of separatists from Scrooby Village. The Pilgrims originally decided to take a religious journey to Protestant city of Leyden in the Netherlands after hearing about James I's desire to drive out separatists from England. However, they thought that the pleasant life in Leyden was diminishing the Pilgrims' devotion to God so they decided to begin a new pilgrimage to America on the Mayflower. They formed the new colony of Plymouth Plantation after landing at Cape Cod. When the non-Pilgrims on the Mayflower wanted to make a second attempt to reach Jamestown, Bradford kept the colony together with the Mayflower Compact. The Mayflower Compact granted political rights to any man who was willing to follow the colony's laws. In the end, all talks of leaving ended with the Mayflower Compact. The significance of William Bradford is that
(Finish)Mayflower Compact: The Mayflower Compact was a contract proposed by William Bradford in order to the keep the colony of Plymouth Plantations together. It offered political rights to any man willing to follow the colony's rule without any regards to how wealthy that man was.
Proprietors: Proprietors ware either individuals like George Calvert or companies like Virginia Company that were the owners of a colony. The first step in becoming a proprietor is to get be granted a royal charter from the king so you could legally establish a colony. There were many reasons why proprietors were interested in creating colonies like wealth or idealism. In terms of wealth, many people had gotten rich off the tobacco trade so there was an incentive to establish a colony. In terms of idealism, proprietors wanted to create the "ideal" society for them like George Calvert wanting to create a Catholic society composed of powerful noblemen and obedient tenant farmers. Proprietors were significant because they helped led the formation of many colonies like Maryland because they were willing to finance and plan the creation of new colonies. Due to the support from proprietors, colonies were allowed to be formed and expanded because they had support. Since colonies were allowed to formed, this would allow the colonies to expand further.
(finish)George Calvert: George Calvert was the man behind the project that would bring the existence of a second southern colony called Maryland. He was a wealthy Catholic and a nobleman. He was granted a royal charter to land lying east and north of Chesapeake Bay. He was interested in forming a Catholic society made up of powerful noblemen and obedient tenant farmers, instead of the profits associated with making a colony.
(finish)Toleration Act: Toleration Act was a law issued by Cecilius Calvert, who was the son of George Calvert. The Toleration Act said that anyone who believed in Jesus Christ (Protestants, Catholics, etc) should be free from any trouble or persecution due to their religion. The goal of this law was to protect the Catholic setters from the Maryland's Protestant majority so they wouldn't be harassed or persecuted due to their religion after Oliver Cromwell and Protestants overthrew the monarchy and established the Commonwealth. However, Cromwell repealed the law and the Parliament decided to take away Maryland from the Calvert family so the law wouldn't have any effect. As result, anti-Catholic persecution happened throughout Maryland, which the law was supposed to stop.
(finish)Bacon's Rebellion: Bacon's Rebellion was a revolt that was led by Nathaniel Bacon against the colonial government of Virginia. The backcountry farmers and planters, led by Nathaniel Bacon, were frustrated that they had lots of economic disadvantages. The aristocracy was favored by the government because it was dominated by the aristocracy. At the same time, the aristocracy held exclusive rights to the highly desirable coastal lands that were safe from the Indian resistance. In addition to the Indian resistance that backcountry farmers faced, they have very unfair tax policies that angered them. Then in 1676, the violence between the Indians and backcountry planters led to heated demands for the government to put a military force to protect them. However, the governor refused to send any troops or let the backcountry farmers raise an army. This started the revolt because Bacon's men wanted to send a message to the government by threatening to destroy Jamestown but the governor called them "rebels and traitors" instead. However, the revolt ended after the death of Bacon because his leadership skills were vital.
(finish) Puritans: Puritans are a group of Protestants who were part of the Church of England. They had many criticism of the church and believed that it needed to be reformed.
John Winthrop: John Winthrop was an English Puritan who became one of the founders of Massachusetts Bay Colony because Charles I took a hostile stance towards Puritan reformers that forced many of them to America. He was one of the leaders that encouraged the move to America in order to create and live in a perfect Puritan society. He hoped to spread the Puritan religion ways in America. He was the first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. He was significant because his desire to create a model Puritan society would eventually lead to lots of criticism by the inhabitants of the society. Thus he gave the inhabitants reason for them to leave Massachusetts to find new colonies like Rhode Island, and New Hampshire.
"A Model of Christian Charity": "A Model of Christian Charity" was part of John Winthrop's speeches as he was approaching Massachusetts with other colonists aboard the Arbella. He said that the new colony that they were going to make would be an example to Christians everywhere of a perfect society for Christians. This was significant because it moved people around to different territories so different colonies were created. Many people didn't believe in a mandatory religious society that Massachusetts was. Some wanted religious freedom while others believed that religion was a personal matter. As result, they criticized the government, which either exiled them or gave them the opportunity to leave. Those who left Massachusetts went on to form colonies like Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Connecticut. If Massachusetts wasn't a religious society that people disagreed with, then many colonies might not have been formed at all. Thus, North America might not have expanded at all.
Anne Hutchinson: Anne Hutchinson was a woman who moved to Massachusetts with her family in 1634. She was a Puritan who challenged the Bay Colony's government and its religious beliefs. She believed religion was a very personal matter and you didn't need to go to church at all. Even though she was a woman, she had the support of many merchants and artisans who lacked political rights. However, she was arrested by the government for criticizing the leadership and latter banished from Massachusetts for being a heretic. The significance of Anne Hutchinson was that she exposed the dominance that Winthrop had over the colony. As result, many colonists left Massachusetts on their own because they sought freedom from Winthrop's dominance and richer land. As the colonists left, they would form the colonies of Connecticut and New Hampshire.
Roger Williams: Roger William was an assistant minister at Salem and a critic of John Winthrop's government. Roger Williams believed that religious belief was a matter of each person's own personal commitment so it couldn't be forced onto them. However, John Winthrop's government exiled Roger Williams from the colony because his beliefs made him an enemy of the government. Many people from the Salem congregation, who support Roger Williams or were critical of the government, joined Roger Williams in exile. In 1636, they created a community named Providence based on the ideas of religious freedom and the church being separated from the state. In 1644, the English government granted Roger Williams a charter for his colony named Rhode Island, which firmly established his belief that the church and state should be separate. It is significant because Roger Williams was one of the first examples of a society where there was religious freedom and a separation of church and state. Both traits are very important parts of the freedom stressed in our society so Roger Williams could have influenced the writers of the Declaration of Independence by providing an example of society with religious freedom.
Pequot Wars: The Pequot Wars were
King Philip's War:
Quakers: The Quakers were members of the Society of Friends, which was a new radical Protestant sect. They believed in that men and women were equal, pacifism and that there was a divine "inner light" in every individual. They were expected to respect all individual equally, regardless of wealth or social status.
Fundamental Constitution of Carolina:
(finish) James Oglethorpe: James Oglethorpe was a wealthy Englishman who wanted to establish his own colony in order to give new moral lives for debtors, which became known as Georgia. He was less focused on building a profit like many men before who established colonies in search of profits. King George II bought into his idea because he wanted a protective buffer between South Carolina and Spanish in Florida. He wanted to have the debtors work hard and live modest, moral lives by putting lots of restrictions like no slaves and no colonist could legally sell or buy property. However, Oglethorpe lost enthusiasm for their reform project because the colonists didn't welcome the trustees' paternalistic attitudes and they decided to challenge all the rules and regulations of Georgia. Many rules very overturned like slave labor was allowed. This is significant because
1. When the seventeenth century English settlers came to North America, they expected various things. The first thing that they expected was an escape from all the social and political problems that the settlers faced in England. Some examples of the social and political problems were religious persecution, civil war and poverty. These problems convinced English settlers to seek a new life where these problems could be avoided because there was a wide gap. Another thing that English settlers expected was a better life opportunity. They expected many opportunities in terms of religious freedom and wealth, while using the same society institutions and family patterns from England.
(come back) 2. The roots of conflict in England after 1603 were politics and religion. Politics were the root of conflict in England because the Stuart king believed in the idea of absolutism, which was the idea that the leader should have full and limitless control over their subjects. This sparked conflict because the Parliament believed that it should have some power over England so they fought against the King James I over policy and taxes. They believed that the king shouldn't have absolute rule over the country so they fought to prevent the king from getting too much power. As result, a power struggle happened between the king and Parliament because they refused to lose power to the other. The second root of conflict in England after 1603 was religion. The Stuart kings were Catholic in a time period where the Protestant reformation was in full strength. People campaigned that they should eliminate all traces of Catholic custom. However, during this time period, the king was also the head of the Church of England so it was influenced by Catholic ideas. As result, many puritans pushed for religious reforms in the Church of England.
3. England's early attempts at colonization were financed by wealthy investors and businessmen who were seeking profit and fame by colonizing North America. They were financed by wealth investors and businessmen because noblemen weren't willing to bring out large sums of money on something where failure could ruin their financial future. However, wealth investors and businessmen were willing to invest because they used joint-stock companies to fund colonization. Using joint-stock companies allowed a method where the investor or businessmen could protect themselves from losing their entire fortune by splitting the costs to the investors who buy shares in return for sharing the profits that they made. As result, colonists had a source of funding for their early attempts at colonization.
4. There were two main challenges that were faced by the Jamestown settlement. The first challenged that they faced was adapting to Chesapeake Bay. The colonists didn't what was edible and where was water safe to drink because they were used to having servants care for them. For example, the waters of James River were dangerous because drinking the water could bring diseases and maybe death. They also didn't have the immunity to the diseases in the area like typhoid and dysentery so the diseases were given the opportunity to spread among the population. Finally, they didn't have instant access to supplies that they needed. Supplies that they needed like food came from England only during the spring. This meant that survivors had to learn how to survive when they didn't have the supplies from England. Another challenge faced by the Jamestown settlement was the Indians. The colonists had poor relationships with the Indians because it had aggressive policies toward them. These aggressive policies led to conflicts between the Indians and colonist because the colonists were taking Indian land and resources by expanding. As result, the Indians attacked and killed many colonists, thus reducing the population of Jamestown significantly.
5. The thing who saved Jamestown from failure was the leadership of John Smith. He changed the way Jamestown worked by making it like a military outpost. He forced all newcomers and survivors to build, plant, fish, lay away supplies or anything else that benefits society. The benefit of working was that one was allowed to eat. This allowed Jamestown to continue to progress, even when there were high death toils and the future looked bleak. He also allowed the people of Jamestown to see that colonization was a slow and costly undertaking so they wouldn't break up during the harsh early years of colonization.
6. The Virginia Company encouraged settlers to move to the colony because they introduced a system called the headright system. It was arranged by the Virginia Company as they were having a hard time dealing with expenses of the colony. However, they didn't want to sell more shares in the company so they decided to allow potential colonists to become investors. The headright system gave a man land for every settler he brought to the colony on his own expenses. This helped encourage more settlers to move to the colony because the colonists were willing to pay for settlers to move to the colony since the ownership of land symbolized power and wealth. Since the colonists paid for the settler's expenses, the thousands of men and women who were seeking a new life across the Atlantic had the opportunity to move to North America to start a new life.
7. James I revoked the Virginia Company's charter because news of the 1622 Anglo-Powhatan war had reached him as James I was already investigating the Virginia Company's management of the Virginia. This caused James I to question the Virginia Company's management because they allowed large death toil as more than Â¼ of Jamestown's population was killed. The news didn't reflect the Virginia Company's management of the colony in a positive manner so it aided in decision James I to take revoke the Virginia Company's charter.
8. The intended purpose of the Maryland colony was to create Catholic society that was composed of powerful noblemen and obedient tenant farmers. It was supposed to be a haven for Catholics that were being religiously persecuted or discriminated back in England. The thing that was unique about Maryland compared to other colonies was that the purpose was not created a profit for its proprietor. Instead, religion was the driving factor behind the creation of this new colony. Many other colonies like Jamestown and Roanoke were establish with the purpose to create a profit. These colonies weren't meant to be a safety haven for those feeling persecuted or discriminated so they could have the opportunity to practice the religion they believed in without fear.
9. The industry that dominated life in Virginia was the tobacco industry. John Rolfe transported a milder strain of West Indian tobacco to the colony to show that there was tobacco that could fit the English tastes, which thought that the local tobacco of Virginia was deemed too harsh in taste. After this information was found, people like John Rolfe and his neighbors became wealthy. This inspired the Virginian colonists to plant and harvest as many acres of tobacco as possible because it could make them wealthy too. It also encouraged people to move to colonies of Virginia in hopes of getting wealthy through tobacco. The key labor source for the tobacco industry was the people who accepted indentured servitude. Indentured servitude was an offer to landless and jobless men and women in England that asked for service for a fixed period of time in return for a passage to the colonies and land when the term of the service ended. Many indentured servants were young males because the planters preferred a male work force. Unfortunately, many indentured servants didn't survive to the end of their contracts because disease and malnutrition killed many of them. This large mortality rate caused a demographic disaster as there was a skewed ratio of male to female so there were few young male indentured servants left. Tobacco companies in desperate need for laborers, turned to purchasing African slaves because they were available.
10. The Mayflower Compact was radical because it showed the existence of a new concept that was never seen before. This concept was that every person should have political power and a say in their government, regardless of their wealth and status. During this period of time, England was an aristocracy where the noble and wealthy had political power. The poor didn't have the opportunity to participate in political decision making. As result, it was a radical idea because it changed from the traditionally accepted concept that only the noble and rich should have political power. This new idea allowed a new population, who never had political power, to have it.
11. The early Plymouth settlers faced the challenges of life in Massachusetts by getting help from the Wampanoag Indians and a Patuxet Indian named Squanto. Since Squanto knew the experience of going to a foreign place and not know how to survive, he helped teach them how to survive in this environment. He taught them how to plant corn, squash and pumpkins so they were able survive by themselves. This also helped the Plymouth settlers for the future because they know that they had friendly relationships with the Indians who helped support them.
13. The life of a colonist living in Massachusetts in 1630 changed compare to a colonist living in Massachusetts in 1690. In 1630, Massachusetts was a society of small farming villages and small seaport towns. It was a Puritan society where the goal of the society was to create a model Christian society. Gaining a voice in the government meant that you were a member of church and Church membership was only granted after a person testifies to having experience a moment of seeing God's power and get the desire for salvation. At the same time there was a strong emphasis on religion because the government also enforced biblical law as well as English law.
14. The colonial experience of New York was that started as Dutch colony named New Netherlands. It was a place where settlers from different nationalities came like those from Holland, Sweden, Germany and France. However, growing rivalry over transatlantic trade and conflicting land claims in the Connecticut Valley started to drift England and Holland from being on friendly terms. They started to fight three naval wars, starting in 1652, where the Dutch lost ground and made abandoning the colony likely. As result, Charles II took over New Netherlands and renamed it New York. He also gave the control of the region to his brother James II. As a ruler, James II allowed the people to keep their land, practice their religion and use their native language for business but he taxed the New Yorkers heavily and allowed no representative assembly so they didn't have a voice in government. From 1665 to 1685, the colony grew rapidly as the population doubled and the settlers added to the cultural diversity. It also started to increase trade and became a religious refugee for French Protestants, English Quakers and Scottish Presbyterians. In 1689, after Glorious Revolution ended, it inspired a revolt was led by Jacob Leisler who said that he was acting in the name of the new English monarchs. He removed the Dominion officials and he called a city election to remove James' remaining cronies. However, Leiser's rule ended shortly after because William and Mary didn't want a local merchant to run a royal colony. They sent a new governor who arrested and executed Leiser and his son-in-law because he refused to surrender control of the colony. Since Lesier was a popular hero, the new governor started a new representative assembly to quiet the dissatisfactory that the people had. In this assembly, some men were Leislerities who made New York politics a battle between the Leislerities and the supporters of the royal governor and the king.