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Empowerment Of Women A Review On Women History Essay

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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016

Abstract- In India country the realities of rural life in the India are difficult to understand. Now we are seen some type educational institutes are like that schools & colleges and even in profession educational institutes. Department of Rural Development, Government of India provides financial assistance to National Institute of Rural Development, Hyderabad, 28 State institutes of Rural Development (SIRDs) and 89 Extension Training Centres (ETCs) in the States. In their health we saw better result as compared to earlier many years. In many years ago, women are entering into the job circle market area in increasing numbers of area saw their skills even in old fashion trade sectors like state police, defence area, administration, media and research fields area. In the Indian political area, the reservation for women is an important step forward towards for their political empowerment. When announced 33% reservations allotted for women in Indian Parliament .Make a reality Indian women’s fight will be on own honour in the highest height of top freedom. That day, women of India will reach top point in their empowerment. People were not allowed to share own property, they did not have a Share in the property of their parents, they had no voting rights, and they had no freedom to choose their work or job and so on. The present seminar has been planned with a view to discuss the various issues related to the Empowerment of Women and to suggest measures for achieving this end. According to the In India population of According to years 2001 Census, in the India country the percentage of female literacy is fifty four percentages up to from nine percentages 1951. In the order helping women to be in popular, this is necessary to be empowered. In this way there is a condition for empowerment of women is to the convert in an uprising country into a developed country. In this paper we are highlighting that in India country women’s strength critical and we explain the critical value of women how improve their value & status for some ways.

Keywords- Economics, Status, NGO, PEP, Improving,

CEDAW,

Introduction

The improving empowerment status of rural women involves few things like that economic condition, social equality condition, and personal human rights. Often women had not involved for any human activity is not fulfil as a matter of tradition review. Often In rural areas women are cannot understand for any hard work only they have not meaningful capacity for income. Hence, they are only for housekeeping duties like child born and low salary labour. Now we saw a steady rising status in the enrolment of women in educational center such as in schools & colleges and profession institutes. In the view of health is better as comparison to earlier hundred years ago. Women are going into the vacancy area in increasing numbers in hundred years ago. They are showing that their own skills in govt. job in sectors such as police, defence, administration, media and research fields. [8]. In particular define empowerment is depend just like that power cannot change if power cannot be change. If this is inherent in neither positions or nor people, then women empowerment impossible, nor is any other way women empowerment conceivable in any meaningful way by Bookman & Morgan [5]. In 1984 defining that empowerment status of women level on that time, women level on that only born child and work at home. [15] Seibel, Hans Dieter is defining what role of microfinance scheme in rural area develops. [4] VARA LAXMI is definition in an article way by A Sustainable approach for Women Empowerment through Micro-finance, the micro-credit or micro-finance has got much avowed attention among government circles, voluntary sector and the academia. More importantly after the success of Bangladesh’s Grameen Bank started by Prof Mahammad Yunus who bestowed with the Nobel Peace prize for 2006, for the efforts to create economic and social development from below. There is also mounting evidence to show that the availability of financial services for poor households – such as micro-finance -can empower the rural people to achieve their goals and enhance their lives accordingly. It is assumed that women’s control over income will lead to increased well-being for women and their children. This individual economic empowerment is also assumed to lead to wider social and political empowerment. [9] NGO plays an important for role for improving empowerment. This Asian-foundation organization has two running program MDG-3 (Gender, Equality and women empowerment) & the Women (CEDAW) for women empowerment.[16] Aidan Hollis review on gender in the Irish Loan Funds scheme.

CONCEPT

India country work on the empowerment improving process at women has start before some years ago. NIRD conducts action research, I training programmes, both off and in campus, and organizes workshops, conferences and seminars to facilitate implementation of rural development programmes. The SIRDs have five core faculty members who are fully paid by Government of India. Because of the progressive expansion of the rural development programmes, the training needs have grown considerably. NIRD needs to increase its role in organization of off campus training programmes in the States and work in closer partnership with SIRDs to meet the training needs of the flagship programmes. For many years women were not standing equal to men in many ways. when in large cities people give small minority benefited from any other scheme in the past years, they lives over 650 million people in rural India have hardly improved their life. Now that we have come out of those dark days of oppression of women there is a need for strong movement to fight for the rights of women and to ensure that they get all the rights which men have or in other words a movement for the Empowerment of Women. According Indian enacted twenty sixth laws women protect from different type of crimes. These types of steps are very positive signal which meaning that women can be leaders. Though most of women had not show his mettle a large number of them have to quality their leadership qualities in various ways. The present law on the ‘safety of women against crime in domestic violence area’ satisfies the long time pending demand of the women activities. Through a lot of work on women education has to be done. But as there is a category of women those who consider themselves they highly educated and proudly accepts that we don’t have digital literacy, though they were own a personal computer, those type person cannot operate any other bank accounts or don’t make travel plan for family or even they don’t handle hospital work during emergencies period. Even for a very easy work like they going for shopping or generally work they need help any senior or husband. It is necessary to women should to remember that think, they are also rational, intelligence & thinking strong human beings. Those women are dependent on other person empowered women. If today modern women think that they all are empowered, it’s a false story for them. Empowerment said that to improving women’s status with inspire to break their chains from limiting beliefs. Societal view and religious conditions view that have old traditionally kept woman depressed and unable to realize their mind , true beauty & body and strong.

Many type Levels of Empowerment

In line with most theorists on empowerment the one has to view empowerment as taking place on different levels and that change on all levels is necessary if the empowerment of women is really to occur. We have to relate empowerment at three levels: empowerment on the individual, group, and societal/community level and the interaction between these.

The individual level deals with individual women’s abilities to take control over their lives, their perceptions about their own value and abilities, their abilities to identify a goal and work towards this goal.

The group level deals with the collective action and sense of agency that woman experience together, in a group.

The societal level deals with the permissiveness of the political and social climate, the societal norms and the public discourse on what is possible and impossible for women to do, how women should behave etc.

The different levels are seen as connected and mutually reinforcing, e.g. when empowerment on individual level occurs, this will have effect on the group and societal level. Women who are empowered on an individual level will most likely go on and affect the other levels. Empowerment on a group level e.g. women organizing around a particular need is likely to have effect on the individual empowerment of the women in the form of increased self esteem and sense of agency.

Historical Background of Women Empowerment in India

This status of Women in India has been subject to many great changes over the past few million. In early Vedic period Women enjoyed equal status with men. Rigved & Upanishads mention several names of women sages and seers notably Gargi & Maître. However later the status of women begun to deteriorate approximately from 500 B.C. years. This situation worsened with invasion of Mughals and later on by European invaders. Few improvement movements by Guru Nanak, Jainism, Raja ram Mohan Rai, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Pandita Ramabai and others did give some relief. It is not that Britishers didn’t do anything for improving the condition of women. Some laws were enacted such an “Abolition of practice of Sati”, Widow Remarriage Act 1856 etc.Feminist activism picked up momentum in India during later 1970’s. Later on many groups and NGO’s have been working for the Empowerment of women. We are proud that in India Women got voting right much before USA and some other European countries.

Women and Microcredit or Microfinance in History

The concept of microfinance is not new. Savings and credit groups that have operated for centuries include the “susus” of Ghana, “chit funds” in India, “tandas” in Mexico, “arisan” in Indonesia, “cheetu” in Sri Lanka, “tontines” in West Africa, and “pasanaku” in Bolivia, as well as numerous savings clubs and burial societies found all over the world. Their principal purpose was making small loans with interest for short periods. At their peak they were making loans to 20% of all Irish households annually. In the 1800s, various types of larger and more formal savings and credit institutions began to emerge in Europe, organized primarily among the rural and urban poor. These institutions were known as People’s Banks, Credit Unions, and Savings and Credit Co-operatives. Between the 1950s and 1970s, governments and donors focused on providing agricultural credit to small and marginal farmers, in hopes of raising productivity and incomes [16].

Level Today Empowerment of Women in Rural India area

Indian rural life is difficult to comprehend in the realities. On other hand small minority of people in large state have got very good rural farmer is profited from information technology kranti in some old years in India country, their lives & life change with difficult. A low landlord’s majority of cannot improving sustainable economies condition, they think oppression doing on the women & lower caste people, higher castes people and government people or servant support a good life for his life. Private sector rules are low strong according as comparison government rules, they ready preserve own power has on every step punishment. For example today government health care scheme is all over of rural family in India is a free government service in government hospital, In original way we see that the first stage of primary health care scheme is totally failed. A lot of charitable trust and most non-governmental organizations doing very good character usually from government grants and non Indian people donations [2]. NGO, s and civil society at large in order to use the research document as a springboard to launch a sustained advocacy strategy to achieve the MDG-3 target of 33% of women in parliament. Our operating premise is that improving, economic and political opportunities for women improve societies as a whole [9].

Empowerment of rural women includes some things such like economic opportunity, social equality, and personal rights. But as a thinking of tradition for women are no any human right give. Often in rural areas women are not understanding for any type earn income collecting capacity and hence they are visited mainly to moral duties and cheap labour. Women voices are doing quiet without seen the power for doing his work or collecting a good income. Even in any matters women are not free for discussion or sex nether childbearing to oppose the wishes of their men. When people can control on reproductive birth control of ladies and they can’t do this that day women health care, economics and education. Until when we cannot accept these realities, the desired effect developing shall not be seen in the future.

In a man society where men control handles the destiny of women, how it is possible to empowerment women status? Simply we encouraging women to oppose the wishes of men should not only fail, but should be creating distrust of any good will attempts from the outside to help rural women communities. Women will gain power then both men and women began to honour and we accepted the contribution of women in goodwill. Developing women’s capacity for earning income generation without normal man is way.

Role of km in management Education system

All approaches to KM essentially look at the methods to manage the human interactions better. The KM approach is conscious integration of all human resources involved, all the academic processes and the technological advancements

Involved in designing, capturing and implementing the intellectual infrastructure of any management institution. The approach supports in shaping and managing the academic rigor to learn by balancing among various entities in an academic environment. (Fermie et al, 2003) examines the issues on engaging the individual in any approach at sharing knowledge as the notion of knowledge cannot be separated from the user. However the emphasis has to be on KM at the institutional level, not at the individual level. Studies have shown that (Telem, 1996) technology tools alone cannot be used to address discordant organizational information. Institutional obstacles include (Petrides, 2004) factors like data access, data integrity and technological incompatibility [14].

Stories

Story based at The George Foundation. This Foundation is found in state Bangalore India. That foundation was built in 1995 for help to low poverty, promote health and a clean environment, and to strengthen democratic institutions and values in India. We have come to know of the following two events, among many others, in the course of our work with the families of the children in our boarding school, Shanti Bhavan. The first case involves a young pretty mother who was living with her son in a small hut. Her husband had earlier abandoned her, and she was not able to return to her parents as they considered her “unworthy.” One morning, she accompanied two men from the city who promised employment for her in the Middle East following an interview at an office somewhere, only to be gang raped and then returned to her village after a few days. Her absence was noticed by her neighbours, who blamed her for the outcome and accused her for the separation from her husband. Feeling shame, and finding that she could no longer live in the community, she set herself on fire with kerosene.

Reason: – This organization has attempted to possible to easy the development of a model social unit together of many villages that successfully from poshaniy and samakalit economic activities in the Dharmapuri District. Health and education related works are being developing again. Some economic advantage is shared like especially among the socially disadvantaged low castes and women [1]. In this article Transitioning from a command and control culture to employee empowerment requires a commitment to long-term change. Too often, management fads and quick fixes in the name of empowerment have been implemented rather than relevant changes in management systems, structures, and cultural values. To be successful, empowerment must be seen as a long-term program of employee participation and involve-ment.but this type of program cannot run for long time [11].

Why today is there still a necessity for Women Empowerment improving?

In spite of the various measures taken up by the government after Independence and even during British rule the Women haven’t been fully empowered. We may be proud of women in India occupying highest offices of President, Prime Minister, Lok Sabha Speaker, Sonia Gandhi, and Leader of the Opposition or women like Ms. Chandra Kochar occupying highest positions in the Corporate Sector but the fact remains that we still witness dowry deaths, domestic violence and exploitation of women. Some create history in space & sport like Sunita Williams & Saina Nehwal, Sania Mirza & Anju Bobby George The female feticide is common phenomenon. The male female ratio though improved over last few years is still far from satisfactory. It is 940 women per 1000 men for India in some states it is as much lower as 877. These are those states where female feticide in counting is maximum. The female literacy rate is also lower than the male literacy rate. The ground reality is deprivation, duration and exploitation of women specially women from rural areas and those belonging to deprived sectors of the society. The Urban élite class women have no doubt been benefitted by the efforts of women empowerment.

Way of Improving Empowerment of poor women in India

Role of Microfinance scheme in India

Moneylenders

Moneylenders who provide loans from their own resources as their only financial service are the oldest of these professions, dating back to prehistoric times. There was probably a long period of transition from gift-exchange, reciprocal lending and trading-cum-lending to specialized lending, and from lending-in-kind to lending-in-money before the first millennium B.C. Money lending became an organized and subsequently regulated profession in India Around 1700-2200 years ago as shown below. Information on rural money lending in medieval and British India will be given below. Money lending is still widespread today, and remnants of its historical informal precedents are still in existence, re-emerging time and again according to demand. Many (informal and formal) moneylenders may have turned into (formal) merchant bankers at various times in history, or into organizers of (informal or formal) chit funds; this is a subject on which I have no information. [15]

Chitty or kuri

Chit funds or ROSCAs are widespread institutions of ancient origin in India; but I have not been able to determine the time of origin. A number of people, usually under an

organizer, join together to regularly (eg, daily, weekly, monthly) contribute equal amounts of money (or kind) allocated to one member at a time; a cycle ends when each participant had his turn. It appears that historically they were relatively small and unregulated. There are two

types: the conventional type, found all over the world, in which the full amount contributed (apart from minor deductions) is allocated to one member at a time, either by lot, demonstrated need or in an agreed-upon sequence; and an advanced type found in a number of Asian countries including China, Vietnam and Nepal where the amount collected is allocated by auction to the lowest bidder and the balance returned to the members, or by tender. In response to increasing business opportunities, the bidding type has

been gradually replacing the conventional type, but I do not know over which period of time. As chit funds grew in size and volume and the risk of fraudulent pyramid schemes increased, there has been a tendency of regulating the chits. Starting with the Travancore Chit Act of 1945 followed by other state-level laws, they were increasingly included in the formal financial sector. Chit funds attained such importance that in 1982, after ten years of deliberations, a federal Chit Funds Act was passed, providing legal status to chits as non-banking financial intermediaries. The act regulates minimum capital, ceilings on aggregate chit amounts,

procedures of dispute settlement, etc. This has greatly contributed to the growth of licensed chit funds, which are found all over India in large numbers.

Merchant banking – financial intermediation comprising lending, deposit taking and other financial services evolved in India during the first millennium B.C. and was widespread in ndia and beyond as early as the third century B.C. Merchant guilds, which dealt in goods and money, appeared already in the Vedic scripts, the oldest parts of which date back beyond the first millennium B.C. Between 200 B.C. and 300 A.D. a differentiation took place

between the guild of moneylenders and the guild of traders, followed by the emergence of a guild of merchant bankers. The guilds eventually turned into strictly hereditary castes, and banking became a sub-caste of the traders’ caste (vaisya).

Rural finance- Rural finance mostly in the form of abusive money lending, spread under the Delhi sultanate

with the introduction of a system of land revenue, housing tax and cattle tax to be paid in cash. Land was abundant; but the payment of taxes in cash was difficult, forcing the peasants to produce for the market. This resulted in the overall commercialization and monetization of the rural economy and the expansion of trade. At the same time it created a new market for the financial professions: rural moneylenders advanced land revenue payments to the peasantry; merchant bankers financed trade. Indigenous banking in Mughal India, ie, during the period from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, is described in detail by Schrader 1997. The urban population paid a mere 5% of their income in taxes, while land assessments in rural areas varied from one third to one half of the produce. Assessments of actual production were soon replaced by average pre-assessments, which caused severe hardship during bad years. This created a large class of rent-seekers, comprising tax collectors, moneylenders and a ruling class of landlords and officials without a salary but with rights to collect revenues; they kept about one quarter and transferred between one quarter and one third of the revenue to the government.[15]

The World Bank has given the major source of external funding circle through loans provided to governments for specific projects but never directly provided to private institutions. Some project can be ever meet their goals in fact, But most of rural empowerment projects find shall be dismal failures. Corruption with terribly inefficient in all government project at every level has wasted most of wealth in forum of money allotted for rural development. The government officer and politician those people handle that project for those women cannot believe on her potential of women. Yet the process continues, without an alternative International agency continue to pour money into these programs, only to benefit the middlemen. Clearly, a new approach is required to have an impact on the lives of women in rural India, and to ultimately help stabilize population growth [1]. In this article the people empowering People (PEP) program uses the definition of empowerment to connect research, theory and practice. The PEP program builds on theory of critical adult education developed by Friere (1970), Horton (1989), and others. The focus is on the connection between individual action and community action encourages individual change through training sessions and discussions and supporting action through participants give people the opportunities, resources and support that they need to become involved themselves [8]. Nanette Page written in his article empowerment of women is many way dimensional those helps women control over at his lives. In this PEP scheme as in we try to teach people they develop their knowledge, communication skills and start any process to improve his own lives and become to be empowered. [3]. President Pratibha Patil said that women empowerment is of utmost importance if we want women’s progress. He said “Creating the environment which imparts equal status to women in family, society and country is the sole motive behind various facets of programmes being run for women empowerment. We have to work towards making them able to take their own decisions,” .Stressing on the importance of education, the President said, “Education is the first tool of empowerment. Right to Education, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan have ensured that education is available to children between the age group of six and 14. Be it a boy or girl, every child must get education. It is these educated women who can in turn educate other women and teach them independence and self-confidence [10]. In this report develop the empowerment improving mater from Financial Inclusion. MasterCard embarked on an initiative to further the process of women’s empowerment in the country in partnership with SEWA (Self Employed Women’s Association). SEWA is a leading Indian organization that works towards helping women in securing employment opportunities, empowering them to be self-reliant with supportive services. I had the unique privilege of participating in SEWA’s activities and witness their success first hand at the recent inauguration of the seventh Rural Urban Development Initiative (RUDI) processing centre at Bodeli, near Vadodara, Gujarat supported by MasterCard. This program through it we will provide full-time naukri or opportunities for women in hundred adjoining villages to begin with and will expand to a catchment of 300 to 500 villages in Gujarat. In this organization work has been 2,000 farmers and 400 SEWA people from their benefit [12].

Action-Oriented Leadership

The focus is on leading in turbulent and uncertain environments, driving fundamental change throughout the organization, and achieving longer-term objectives. Students discover new insights about themselves; how they analyze problems, what constitutes their leadership style, and how they can best contribute to the success of their organizations [13].

Women’s Economic Empowerment through Co-operative Farming, Vocational Training & Business Development

Due to the lack of specific implementation plans and faulty representations, local communities have not adequately accepted government and private schemes for the upliftment of women. Women have not actively participated in their own emancipation due to their lack of economic independence and rampant illiteracy. Therefore, The George Foundation decided to address this important issue of women’s empowerment in India by raising the status of women in Hosur Taluk through economic empowerment and education.

Krishnagiri District is the most backward district in Tamil Nadu. In the geographical location selected, there are no high schools, no private schools, inadequate primary health sub-centres, and no NGOs. Roads, water supply, drainage and communication network are inadequate to augment economic development. Fragmented land holdings are not conducive to commercial farming. Child labour is rampant in this socially backward area. Population statistics of our country clearly indicate that quality education is out of the reach of the poor and marginalized irrespective of their innate potential. Women are often exploited by their communities. They have very little voice and no knowledge or means of improving their social and economic status.

In the villages of the area, the caste system is deeply entrenched. The lower caste colonies are ostracized and basic facilities are denied to them. Female infanticide is a common practice and women are punished socially for bearing girl

Children Gender biases are very evident in the preferential treatment given to the male child. Normal people are dependence in agriculture on rain, their family on animal husbandry and bricks making process depend on generating activities. Fisheries, horticulture and industries have been established in a few select areas such as Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri and House. Rural folk find it difficult to travel to these cities in search of jobs. The average family income level is below the poverty line.

One of the popular schemes employed by several NGOs, and supported by some international and bilateral agencies, is the so-called “micro-finance” or small loans that usually range up to $100 (Rs. 5,000) per woman to start some form of business. Notable successes have been recorded, and the program has received considerable world attention. Most poor women entrepreneurs are said to have been able to make their businesses successful, and repay the loan. However, our experience in this area with lower caste poor women has been somewhat different.

In India most importantly think that poor women’s those belong from lower lives & backward caste women are most illiterate and untrained worker. In India up to 350 million people lives there life in the rural areas. 350 million people who are live in rural area, 200 million people are unemployment it is a large area of the society. Those type people cannot able into any social status economic power, they cannot start any business or work with his self financial assistance.

To start even a small rural business, it takes no less than $500. According to survey by Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India, Ahmadabad capital is necessary for any people one lakh rupees for starting any work or business. Further, the chance of making any business successful is very small – the odds are barely 1 in hundred for an educated person. Uneducated lower caste rural women find it almost impossible to starting any such entrepreneurial work without adequate capital, proper training, and on-site daily support.

Based on our understanding of the problem faced in our rural community, our organization is starting a scheme for illiterate and needful lower women. That concept shall be such summarized as follows:

Adequate training in an area where the women have natural abilities and understanding (for example, farming and cattle rearing)

Use of superior technology to obtain better output and higher profits (modern farming techniques, such as use of proper fertilizers, deep ploughing, drip irrigation, etc.)

Creation of financial assets through savings (from profits earn more and more wages generated from sold of product in market, )

Access to information and markets, tie up export contracts, etc.)

Only when these requirements can be met, we believe poor illiterate rural women can be expected to turn into entrepreneurs.

The George Foundation has purchased/least 250 acres of land. An executive committee composed of representatives of The George Foundation, village panchayats, and agricultural consultants has been formed. Under its direction, the soil is being prepared for crop cultivation. Superior seeds of selected crops have been purchased. The panchayats members are highly motivated about this project.People from the surrounding villages is participating in the preparation of the land for farming. This program will be expanded to cover the neighbouring state of Karnataka in its later stages. Members of the village panchayats, the village administrative officer and the block development officer have been with the project from its planning stage. The geographic community and the community of beneficiaries, particularly poor rural women, were involved in planning and implementation of the project.

Social Institutions change & Improve way the


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