Effects Of English Settlers To The Aborigines History Essay
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Aborigine was a term used to identify the earliest settlers in Australia. Approximately there were 144, 000 aborigines who was called the first inhabitants that put their foot in the native lands. These early settlers were mixed of both white and aboriginal settlers.
As the way people live in 30,000 years ago Aborigines lived their lives through cultivating plants and animals, hunting, fishing. In the last ice age Australia was connected to New Guinea, which includes the island of Java and Borneo, in this way Australian Aboriginals passed through north to Australian lands. But no body knows how long they traveled to settle in Australia, the place where they settle in distinct lands and it can provide the information when the white groups reaches the great lands.
Australia's indigenous people or the Aborigines where the government statistically counted approximate comprises about 2% of the Total population of Australia. Aborigines have some connectivity among them, wherein, strong spiritual beliefs and story telling and arts that symbolize them to their lands. These aborigines were able to preserve their culture on spiritual practices and traditional styles of doing art and craftworks. Parbury has defined aborigine or indigenous people as social not racial. Aboriginal people refers to the people who became descendants of Australia particularly the indigenous people (1997).
The very first recorded European settlement in Australia has been traced back the year 1606. The journey was lead by an explorer in the name of Willem Janszoon as he started to travel along the west coast of Peninsula. Several Europeans has also fallowed Janszoon in his exploration with the purpose of trading. With their arrival to the land on Australia, many Indian Aborigines have been killed and were forces to move out from their homes by the white settlers. In most cases these Indian aborigines have chosen to start living in a tribal settlements.
The primary reason of British settlement in Australia was to establish a penal colony. Furthermore, they have been convicted to transform the land into a place were the convicts could be sent. The Europeans have seen Australia, as a land of opportunity, by which there is scarcity of labor but full of wealth from the agricultural activities such as faming, mining and trade. These have leaded them to grab the lands that of the Aborigines whom they think don't have the rights to own the land. They show no respect of the earlier settlers of the land or the aborigines. However, it took them a while to finally set up their penal colony since they have encountered several problems which includes the following:
The convicts who were task in building the settlement for the white settlers were not good workers who don't have basic knowledge on agricultural tasks such as farming or fishing and mining.
The Aborigines who have been living in the land for a while has been equip with the skills in doing agricultural tasks. These problems have made the settling for the European easier.
The Aborigines on the other hand lacks knowledge on the idea of European ownership. Since, the white settlers have shown deliberate ill treatment to the aborigines, miss understanding and conflicts occurred. Furthermore the aborigines due to the terrible impact of the white settlers such as the following: Death, illness, displacement and dispossession disrupted traditional lifestyles and practices; has leaded them to form movements against the white settlers.
Land Rights Movement Assimilation in 1880s when the aborigines have started to migrate and join the white and rural communities, which they are more exposed to diseases and more civilize, this actions leads them to be instinct and depopulation for different groups of aborigines. Land rights movement in 1970s towards the acquirement of land property for aborigines was put to important by the civil movement, aborigines have declared equal rights for lands that was forcibly taken my the English settlers. Aboriginal Land Act, became helpful for the territories held by tribal association. In 1990s more highlights for aborigines which government legislation was form that have created the increase benefits and wages for the aboriginal people.
In the settlement of Europeans on the indigenous inhabitants of Australia the folloing were the impacts or effects:
The Aborigines were considered to be citizens but there is no distinct collaboration or commitment that will protect the indigenous people from the indigenous people.
The law made by the Indigenous people thousand years ago in Australia was distinguish but in prior to small part of the Australian law, and it is some big issues in Australia today.
The effect of English settlement also pointed that the higher court of Australia in 1992 form delivered the native title of the indigenous people.
The Australia law established a racially exclusive meaning the "whites only" migration policy, wherein, in 1960's a multicultural basis was apprehended through western liberal culture, and most of the population as of 2008 was 21
In this effect Australia is one of the member of united nation wherein the implementation of international human right treaties was created.
This implies that the coming of the European or the white settlers have destroyed the serenity of the land of Australia for its earliest settlers. The land became so small for the aborigines and white settlers. Until the two groups have conflicts and fights towards their rights of the land.
Another distinct impact of the European settlers to the aborigines were the case of Mabo v Queensland (No 2) (1992) 175 CLR 1 as landmark case. Parbury has presented a summary of the Mabo Case High Court decision: The decision of the High Court of Australia on the case of Mabo vs Queensland states that Meriam residents have the right for occupation, possession and enjoyment of the lands in Murray Island located in Torres Strait. Reaching this decision involves the recognition of the Australian Legal System, in observance of the common law, respecting the form of native title (that the people who have build their connection of the land whose title of the land has not been recognized by the government) (Parbury, 1997).
In 1992, the prime minister Paul Keating stated that a new relationship of indigenous and non Aboriginal Australians can turn to historical point, in this view many indigenous Australians can't be affected by the decisions of Mabo, maybe because they can't defend the relativity of their land or neither the Australian law stated that they have no right in the land.
The two essential features of the Mabo decision are:
The Aboriginal rights stated that only if the land was own or transferred to private ownership either leasehold or freehold and use by the government through public works, it is considered to be invalid.
Settling on the land by the Aboriginal people only be describe through establishing on having a traditional association within a land.
The European colonization deals with the Aboriginal people long ago by removing them from their land because they have lost the needed connectivity with their lands. This is some case in claiming lands, unclaimed lands will be on the government inquires and
Aboriginal, some Torres Strait Islander peoples mentioned that it is the fundamental cause
of their physical and social conflicts that they experienced through out the British
colonization, there are some issues that all Australians is needed to response to high
court's decisions, and claims that the native title which be can't succeed and inflammatory
statements due to problems in land grabbing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
The Aborigines of Australia upon the coming of European Setllers have been affected psychologically. Land movement reforms movements have been iniated by the aborigines in fighting for their rights to the land. One case which has exemplifies this argument is the Mabi vs Queensland case.
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