Development and History of the India-Pakistan Space Program
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Published: Tue, 19 Dec 2017
HISTORY OF SPACE PROGRAM OF INDIA AND PAKISTAN:- Pakistan space program started in 1961 when Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission were established. It’s come under the strategic Plans Division. It is the only research establishment of its own type in Pakistan. The main purpose of SUPARCO is to research and make up new development in the space sciences technology and the application related to the upper space for peace full purposes. Suparco has made two institutes when in Karachi and one Islamabad where it gives training to its employee about aerospace, communication systems and on material engineering and sciences. It offer special course on bachelors and master levels in IST (institute of space technology). Pakistan has launched its first satellite from china in 1990 that was name is ‘BADR1’.There is a ground station for satellite of Suparco in Rawat near Islamabad. It is developed mainly for the timely satellite remote sensing for the relevant department like environmental department wheatear forecasting and other things like that mainly for peace full purposes. Suparco has program of satellite remote sensing from the last thirty years. In 2001 Pakistan launch another satellite that name is ‘BADR2’. It was the earth observation satellite and it is the mile stone towards the making of more satellite. In 2002 Pakistan first geostationary satellite launch by Pakistan that is name as ‘PAKSAT1’.It is more efficient then the pervious satellites and it age life is about eight to ten years. Suparco is planning to replace the existing ‘PAKSAT’ with the with the new satellite with advance feature name as the ‘PAKSAT1-R’ that is to be replaced in the coming year 2011. 
Relevant to Pakistan Indian space program started in 1963. The Indian space program started by the making of the Thumba Equatorial rocket station and the development work start then after. In 1972 the space commission of India formed and progress towards making of efficient system for space program start the after word. India has get lot of advancement in the field of the space technology. India has the capability of the fabricating of the all types of the satellite and also well enough in the launching the low earth orbit satellite. The most important thing about the Indian program is that it ranks among the six in the world in space program and it capability. The Indian Space Research department set up and gets the responsibility of executing of the space program. India budget for the space increase every year as of the successful progress in this field. There are two type of systems that India has first on is the ‘IRS’ Indian Remote Sensing system that is basically for the monitoring and management. It get commission in 1998 with the launch of the ‘IRS-1A’. There are about ten IRS satellite of India in space. The second type of the system is ‘INSAT’ Indian National Satellite system that gets commission in 1983 with the establishment of the INSAT-1B.India has make up successfully launch vehicle fleet that includes LEO, SLV-3, ASLV, and GSLV.  Indian space program produces both the satellite and the launchers. The direction of the Indian space program has changed as in man and lunar program. As India program is dual use program now mean using the technology for military and peace full purpose both usages.
IMPACT OF SPACE PROGRAM ON CONVENTIONAL FORCES OF INDIA AND PAKISTAN :-
Using the space and the satellite there are lot of benefit that can be provided to the national security. It can enchase the defense of a country and it is a force multiplier for the conventional forces. If both countries India and Pakistan enchase their space program this must be have more impact on the conventional forces. The satellite can b very help in for conventional forces as for weather prediction, strategically and the technical type of communication. Both India and Pakistan has the capability to use the GPS system to synchronize timely and placement of the military operations. As there is a conventional, military imbalance between India and Pakistan. The intelligence activity and perfection is also the result of the progress of space technology. Satellite can have the positive impact on the war fighting capacity and the war fighting capability. Conventional forces can be over to each other by over lapping the adversary surveillance and communication. By blocking the communication line of the enemy it can effect on warfare ‘nation life’ of enemy.  Satellites are very effective for the Naval and Air forces and both countries using ‘GPRS’ system for the allocation of the ships and aircraft. As these type of advantages are more towards India because of going of the on progress of India. The progress of Indian military space program may have a effect on both the conventional and strategic forces of Pakistan. India has total fifty six number of satellite out of them ten are the military satellite. The whole operation of war fighting now depends upon the satellites. Pakistan is only counterpart Indian one satellite that in air surveillance and space that is 3-4 Atantique opposite to Indian 19 Dornier-228.  The quantitative conventional imbalances give India an edge over Pakistan. As Pakistan progress towards space program is very less and it is not a strengthen as of the Indian space program. As the 21st century security treats and changing of situation after 911 space command is important for coordination with the conventional forces. As overall situation in the world there are about ten countries that are Appling there space capability to military operations, India is one of them. UAV are good example of the use of technology and more in conventional warfare now. Space had militarized when first satellite went into space. The impact of satellite on the conventional forces is that it makes them strengthen. Both India and Pakistan have a special program for Imaginary of the targets and about the signal intelligence for effective communication. In military operations the signal intelligence and telecommunication system are very effective as far between the front line and the strategic command. Another impact that after communication is that of the meteorology. It is important in the conventional war fighting about the assessment of the weather. As last year the president of India addressing to Indian Air Force fleet said that “I visualize the Indian Air Force of 2025 to be based on our scientific and technological competence in the development of communications satellites, high-precision resource mapping satellites, missile systems, unmanned supersonic aerial vehicles and electronics and communication systems,”.  There is difference of opinion between the political and the military leadership of India. The military leadership setup there objective towards space system as the critical military space system where as the political leader ship are of the view of the peaceful intension of the outer space. Suparco is working on anti-satellite system. Indian Defense Research and Development is also working on the anti-satellite system and most probably it launch in coming years. Pakistan aeronautical complex is working on UAV and RPV. One of the big advantages to the conventional forces is of information. Space series are the force multiplier for the square forces. It can be help full for both countries India and Pakistan to improve the capability and performance of these forces. Space program of military nature are helpful in assessing the treats and then providing warnings. Radar and sensor are attached to the satellite system for more efficiency .As due to the large scale progress India has advantage over Pakistan. Satellite plays a very important role in both the strategy and the operations. Pakistan sensing satellite is under process India already has it. It provides data in operation field about the strength of the forces and for assessing the damage of battle by giving the target information. It can also be help in the deployment of the conventional forces and for the logistic support to the troops deployed at operational areas. The better space awareness environmental monitoring, geospatial information the enchase the capability of conventional forces. Pakistan and India both are focusing on the satellite programs for the national security and military purposes. India is investing a lot in the space program as compare to Pakistan. Due to lack of sources Pakistan program is far behind of Indian space program. As the speedy progress by India it will be in the line of the leading space power in the coming years. The space controlled is based the surveillance negation and protection it can cause more effeteness to conventional force
THE IMPACT OF SPACE PROGRAM ON STRATEGIC FORCES OF
INDIA AND PAKISTAN
The impact of the space program on strategic forces is at large scale. Different country is using the satellites for the monitoring of the launch of ballistic missile from the adversary. Early warning system infrared satellite sensor can detect the missile launches. In case of India and Pakistan both the countries strategic forces has the capability to distorted target outside the country by means of nuclear weapons, ballistic missiles and air craft’s. India has 30 to 35 nuclear yield most of the Indian nuclear weapons are confined as the aerial bombs.  India has Agni II that has range up to 3000 to 3500 km. while not in weapon or delivery system India has frequently improve it satellite contribution to its strategic capability. Indian system of satellite network of communication has the capacity of the one meter can provide India with strategic early warning capability that could help and ensure the survivability of its nuclear forces. Satellite can be useful in the command and control improvement also.  On the other hand Pakistan posed about 24 to 48 nuclear weapons that include both the aerial and the missile war heads. Shaheen II or Hataf 6 has range up to 3000 km.  The implication of the satellite on the strategic forces is to guide the missile exact pin point the target. India and Pakistan are developing two type of ASAT. Both countries are modified defense system to intercept satellite. This technology examine for both countries and able to intercept satellite by making effecting missile defense interceptor. As compare to India Pakistan has much smaller space industry base but Pakistan has long attempted to balance and match the Indian deployments. Pakistan is likely to emulate Indian ASAT effort and given the entity between India and Pakistan and the advantages that India drives from the use of the space for military operations. As India is among the major space actor in Asia with China Japan and Russia. India is planning toward anti satellite testing as done by china in 2007. The strategic forces can get faster victory then the conventional forces as airborne over the enemy armies destroying the economic hubs, communication channels weapons factories the way of transport can bring victory very fast. India is making aero space weapons can influence the war on earth heavily. By using a satellite both countries India and Pakistan can be make perfection in their targets, it can provide more accuracy results. As from strategic point of view India is focusing on the two things. Firstly to integrate aerospace defense command and second is to improve the satellite reconnasise ability. India has launched the three stage rocket that has capability to convert into intermediate range ballistic missile.
The technology progress of atomic energy and space program is very important concerned for both the countries India and Pakistan as it has important aspect in the regional strategic balance. India has bought a satellite that has day and night capability it is called as the ‘spy satellite’.  Pakistan shaheen missile has a 1 warhead stage that have antenna that is to projected to service very accurate satellite navigation system. however these type of system provide efficiency in target system and gives data about objective and target to missile commander. Pakistan showing great interest in its own ATBM capability ant tactical ballistic missile, A future missile capable version of china FT2000-A In the strategic forces India has a clear superiority in the development of the indigenous electro optical and future radar satellite that can be help in aiding missile satellite. If acquiring of the HQ-9/FT-2000A ATBMÂ it will be help against the short range Indian like Dhanush and Prithvi. India is purchasing Awacs radar system from Israel it can upset the balance of power in south Asia.  Pakistan also have the offer for Awacs system but United States retraced the offer that time in 1980 India raised the question that by introducing this type of strategic technology it can change the strategic arm balance between India and Pakistan. The space surveillance system is important for the strategic forces of both countries; India is investing a lot on this technology. It includes the system for analyzing and the detecting of the object in space and a special feature with the warning system that that detect and warns about the ballistic and outer space launchers. The making of the anti satellite devices by India also have the impact on the balance between India and Pakistan strategic forces. Pakistan should have to make progress towards space program so as to have counter space capability against India. Space related research and defense is of high budget thing and Pakistan is lacking behind to India in this field. As Pakistan is facing the worst time situation of the security and economical graph of Pakistan has come down. So investing a lot in this type of situation is a difficult task. The new advent in technology automatically make as misbalance between the strategic forces of both the countries. India has also built up a missile shield defense system that can counter any ballistic missile defense in four mints. Both the countries focal point towards the program is that for the desperate strategic technology. The missile program is similar to the Pakistani missile program but advantage India get in the advancement in the space program. That India is using for the dual purpose peaceful and achieving the military objectives. Strategic forces of both countries are focusing also on the development.
EFFECT OF ARMS RACE IN SPACE BETWEEN INDIA AND PAKISTAN ON
Both the countries India and Pakistan focusing on commercial and military satellite, the dual purpose satellite. As the advancement in the technology and enchasing the space program after the nuclear explosion in 1998 start up a arms race between India and Pakistan. Asia there are five major space actors in which there are US, Russia, China, Japan and India. But Pakistan is of important concern as because of the nuclear weapon state in the region. Korea is also coming in the space race with cooperation with Russia. India space program is well establish program and have a assemble range of the military space capability. Pakistan progress is low as compare to India. Pakistan is in corporation with china on ATBM and china is very helpful for Pakistan in assisting it. As India launch Anti satellite after 2007 of china. India is facing challenges from the higher technology advancement by China so it investing a lot on its program. It effect directly on Pakistan. The international environment linked with the advancement made by one country to counter other. In this way the arms race increase, China is of the way that to progress in the space program to peer United States and Russia. As India moves to internationalized its space explosion. So the United States continue to isolate in International traffic in arms reduction. The ongoing corporation with United States and Russia on space explosion will have effect on over the entire international environment. Especially in concerned to the Asia and especially for Pakistan and china.
The ration behind arms race to make the defense of a country more strong and to have an edge over the adversary. Using of new method and techies in the warfare is old concept. The percentage of GDP of India on it space program is second in the world just after United Sates. Stability in south and south west Asia lays between India and Pakistan the two major power of the region. Space Arms race and the military advancement of both the countries have impact on other countries of the region and also the neighboring countries. India is capturing the international market also by making the low cost launch services. As parity of the nations changes as in the start both India and Pakistan are for peace full purpose that changes with change in the international environment. Country military advancement can effect on the balance of power of the other country so other country also try to accrue that technology. The balance of power the region depends upon one country to counter other and sustain and mentain the strategic balance in the region. Space warfare is the fourth way of war after land air and sea. Many countries are focusing of enhasment of their program. India is getting help In there program from countries like Israel, US, Russia and on the other had Pakistan is getting its support from china. India developing it program as to counter china, as china and India share the border and the strategic consequence of India in future concerned about becoming a economic and military power. Most important concerned for Pakistan is to counter the Indian technology that is increasing day by day. As space has became the fourth medium of military operation so both countries are making effectors towards enchasing there programs to get the strategic advantage out of this. The region of South Asia has been greatly influenced by these two nuclear power states.
Space has become the fourth mode of warfare as the rapid growth in technology made it so. Pakistan and India space program has almost start at same time but India has a much advance space program that of Pakistan. As India has been investing a lot on it space program and day by day it enchasing it space program. Pakistan progress towards the space program is slow but it is effective and qualitative. As a new medium has it implications both on the strategic and on the conventional forces a well. After the Iraq war and us using the satellite technology it alert other countries of the world also to center their focus on the space program for the military use. Indian forces as compare to Pakistani are superior in both the context of the strategic and the conventional. The strategic forces can get faster victory then the conventional forces as flying over the enemy armies destroying the factories, communication channels and there way of transport can bring victory very fast. It increase the efficiency make the operation speedy. As Pakistan is facing the worst time situation of the security and economical graph of Pakistan has come down. So investing a lot in this type of situation is a difficult task. The new advent in technology automatically make as misbalance between the strategic forces of both the countries. The anti satellite technology laser weapon and missiles has great effect on the strategic forces of both the countries. Technological advance whether in weapon or in technology can influenced upon directly the balance of power in the region. Asia there are five major space actors in which there are US, Russia, China, Japan and India, except Japan others are the nuclear weapon states. India is getting help in it program from unites states, Russia and Israel and on the other hand Pakistan is getting help from china. By using a satellite both countries India and Pakistan can be make perfection in their targets, it can provide more accuracy in targeting consequences. Pakistan have to increase it budget in this field as if it want to counter china, rapid and effect progress is needed in this field. IST (Institute of Space technology) is important foundation towards the vocational education and making man power from space program. More institution of that type should be built so as they can play an effective role in strengthening the space program of Pakistan. As fourth medium of warfare there is possibility that next wars would be fought in outer space. The militarization of space has become more reflective. As now India has edge over Pakistan but Pakistan has been availing all possible measures to counter Indian technology. Indian and Pakistani balance of space technology important for balance of power in the region mainly in South Asia. Pakistan has to work on serious notes if it wants to counter India space program as it is lot of gap in the two countries program.
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