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Cross Cultural Management Country Report Australia History Essay

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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016

Culture refers in the following ways of people and their activities like the language which is said as the sign of their expressions, Arts and sciences the human expressions, Thoughts of people from different parts, spirituality, social activity and the interaction style of the people. The definition of culture said by many people are “That complex of whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man person as a member of society.” 

All culture is learned, but not everything learned is culture. All culture is learned, but not everything learned is culture by Phil Bartle, PhD

Culture in case of business and marketing activities is said as the part of the external influences that impact the consumer. That is, culture represents influences that are imposed on the consumer by other individuals.

Cross culture

Cross culture is dealing with or comparing two or more cultures together and understanding all cultural peoples wants in a right way and providing them right thing

A cross cultural study involves the similarities and differences among consumers in two or more nations or societies. The cross-cultural analysis creates an understanding about values, customs, symbols, & languages of other societies.

Company Description – LAKME

The Laxme cosmetics company owned by Tata groups from India as it is named after the French opera LAKME and on the name of Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth, also renowned for her beauty in India these shows the cultural ethics and traditional value of the product. Laxme was started in 1952 in India and now the market for Laxme as been spread all over the world.

The assumption is that the LAKME Company decided to enter the Australian market and launch their products in the market so we are going to analyze the cultural issues in the market to launch the product that gives satisfaction and attracts all culture people. ( LAXME about us )

Australian Market for new Business

The flash report of Australia says that the market conditions have changed in a dramatically way over past twelve months. The markets have been volatile, interest rates have risen, there has been a continued liquidity crisis and the AUD has traded on an all time high (23 years high) against the USD.

Most of the media commentary seems to indicate that the financial reporting impact of the adverse change in market conditions where its good time for international companies to enter into the market now Domestic and international economic conditions have generally been strong since the introduction of some impairment testing requirements. As a result, for many companies to enter the Australian market.

Importance of Cross culture – country report

When a international company entering into the new market its important for them to go through the cross culture management and prepare a country report of that particular market country to address the intercultural, intracultural and transcultural management issues. Even it is useful to understand the psychology and other related fields of the varies people in the market area, it encourages managers , team workers, senior executives and consultants with an interest in cross cultural management to share their research, experience, knowledge, and practices with an international audience. Emerald EarlyCite

Now let’s analyze the information about Australia to know in detail to launch the product in Australian market:

Basic Information of Australia:

Capital – Canberra

Official language – English

Population – 21,515,754 (Approx)

Landscape – Land area: 2,941,283 sq m (7,617,931 sq km)

Major cities – Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide.

Independence – 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National Holiday – Australia Day, January 26

Government – Democratic, federal-state system recognizing the

British monarch as sovereign

Legal System – based on English common law; accepts compulsory

ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Governor-General – Quentin Bryce (2008)

Prime Minister – Julia Gillard (2010)

Languages -HYPERLINK “” English 79%, native and other languages

Ethnicity/race -HYPERLINK “” Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions -HYPERLINK “” Roman Catholic, Anglican, other Christian, Buddhist, Hindus, Islam, others

Literacy rate – 99%

Currency – Australian dollar (AUD)

Australia – The history

Australia was only discovered in 1642, as different to North and South America, and some other parts of the world. But no one wished it except the original owners, the Aborigines. Before the 1600 period, the Portuguese and Spanish sailed by passing the Australian Coast recognized the others’ presence with a wave and reached their destination. At that period both the countries lost their chance to have own branch in Oceania thus the Dutch got it for free which they called as Abel Tasman. Tasman who spotted an island in the south of the main continent and called it as Abelmania, which is now called as Tasmania full surrounded of sea water and famous for marine.

The first person to spot out the continent was William Dampier, by loosing his boat somewhere on the reefs of Australia’s West Coast, he landed in this Island were he saw everything was an parched land with not even good water to drink or to re-supply his ship. After a long struggle he felt nothing to do here and sailed to Indian ocean.

in 1768, the Capitan James Cook found Australia again. After finishing his studies at Tahiti about the transit of Venus in the skies of the South Pacific he was returning back home, due to climate he was sailing at a lower latitude than usual, he found the land which made him remember about the Portuguese and Spanish comment on some Island, he Continued sailing west, in 1770, he finally landed on Terras Australia, or Australia for the intimates. 

IN 1779, Americans were so tired of the behavior convicts, thieves, and other bad people from England, and decided no more England’s to disturb them, and started sending them to Australia by thinking they cant come back from there. By 1787, 750 people were been sent to Australia.

The Colonization started to cut down the trees and build houses with so many skilled people and there hard works. So that the things started to grow really fast and the villages, cities and farms were settled. They also started importing the Sheep from other countries for wool and food, as there was nothing else to do, they started to explore Australia and their vast, unrecognized land is now called as the their own place or country and that’s the outback.

Some of the important facts happened in the Australian History

1851 – Gold resources were found in New South Wales and Victoria. Which gave a way for gold mining in many places? This attracted people all over the world.

1854 – The one and only war ever taken place in Australia was in this year. Miners wanted to destroy mining taxes and faced Australian military.

1901 – Australia was declared as an independent federation from England. Devotion, loyalty and friendship with the commonwealth still go on. 

1931 – Australia faced a big economic depression where one third of the population where unemployed and other 2/3 where living in poor conditions. 

1914 – 1945 – Australia also participated in world wars. During the second war, the country was attacked by the Japanese. There was a big loss of human life in both wars. 

1948 – 1968 – The currency was changed from Pound to Australian Dollar. 

1974 – Cyclone called as Tracy hit Darwin on Christmas day flattening the city. Darwin which was totally rebuilt in 3 years.

1991 – Recession hit Australia, with unemployment which increased since then 1931. 

2003 – 2004 – The unemployment rate decreased in 20 years time (5.6%).. Australia joined hands with United States and England to attack on Iraq. (Information based on the site)

Geographical location

The Total Area is 7,686,850 (sq km) with the Land Area: 7,617,930 sq. km and Water Area: 68,920 sq. km. the Irrigated Land: 24,000 sq. km. Coastline: 25,760 km.Geographic Coordinates: 27 00 S, 133 00 E Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m

lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m Natural Resources Available are  bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum. Natural Hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires. Environment Current Issues: soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources


Climate: Australia is a large, comparatively dry, and sparsely inhabited continent, almost as large as the 48 contiguous U.S. states. Australia, the only continent that consists of a single nation, is also the only inhabited continent which is isolated from all others (total coastline exceeds 22,000 miles). Average elevation is about 985 feet, which makes it the flattest continent on earth. This is among the prime reasons for sparse annual rainfall- 16.5 inches, which is less than two-thirds, the world average (26 inches). Further, the rain falls mainly on coastal regions: forty percent of the surface gets less than 10 inches per year, and annual evaporation exceeds annual rainfall on about three quarters of the land. Overall runoff is less than half that of the Mississippi basin; Australia has no navigable rivers of any commercial significance.

In general, the country is warmer than the U.S. (the northern one-third is in the Tropics, the rest in the Temperate Zone). Temperature extremes are much less pronounced. Sydney’s average daytime temperature in the coldest month (July) is 59°F; in the warmest month (January), 81°F.

Cultural Environment of Australia

The Australian culture is as large and mixed as many country people live here. Australia is said as multicultural and multiracial country and this is reflected in the country’s food, lifestyle and cultural practices and experience.

Australia has an important heritage from the Indigenous people, which plays a defining role in the cultural landscape.

This diversity of influences creates a cultural environment in Australia that is lively, energized, innovative, and outward looking.

Families and Housing in Australia

More than 80 percent of Australians live in urban areas, mostly on the east coast. Sydney and Melbourne are home to almost a two third of the total population. Further inland, there are enormous distances between the small towns. Sheep farmers may live on isolated farms, known as sheep stations, many kilometers from their nearest neighbors.   A typical Australian home is a one-story dwelling made of brick with a tile roof. A two-story home is considered a luxury. Most houses have their own plot of land with a garden. Many rural homes have a backyard dunny, or outhouse. In the warm northern area of Australia, homes are built on stilts, allowing airflow beneath the building and acting as protection against flooding.

Australia is an aging society. The number of people over 65 is expected to double during the next few decades. Elderly people, who receive government pensions after the age of 65, may live on their own or in retirement homes. Australia once had a reputation as a “macho” country, where men expected women to take a subordinate role and remain at home as wives and mothers. However, in recent years, this reputation has changed. In the 1970’s, Germaine Greer, a leading feminist thinker, and other Australian women demanded greater rights for women. Women now enjoy a larger range of career opportunities and increased political influence.

It is a common misconception that Australia’s indigenous peoples, the Aborigines and the Torres Strait Islanders, live in remote or nomadic communities. In fact, Aborigines live in every state and territory of Australia, both in highly urbanized locations and in remote rural areas. Although in the past, Aborigines were a nomadic people, few Aborigines today have a traditional tribal life style.

There are Many types of housing according to those periods





Contemporary – this is the present one ( real estate blog of Australia)

Food and eating habits in Australia

Breakfast would be generally the cereal with cold milk and Fruit Juice and slice bread toast with butter and jam. The Coffee is weak mixed with cold milk in a big cup. School Lunch Box will be like Sandwich of bread with butter and vegemite, with some fruit Adults lunch will be Usually around 12 o’clock, and the preference are the sandwiches, hamburgers. Meat Pies came second, and fried chicken pieces in third place. Dinner or Afternoon Tea – “Spaggy Bol”-  Spaghetti  Bolognese is one of the most requested kid dishes, but usually the menu is composed with some kind of meat and  vegetables, always have potatoes or mash potatoes. This means the traditional English style meal Meat + 3 Vegetables. The rice has been introduced by the Asian culture (30% of the population) but the consume is still don’t know how to do very well and the outcome is a very sticky rice. Weekends – For the families the Fish & Chips (fried fish with fried potatoes) is the most requested eaten with a lot of ketchup. To the younger generation Pizzas. The BBQ (Barbie) is very popular as well on the weekends. Some of the other famous food in Australia are Sausage roll, Meat pie,  Baked Beans ,Sticky Date Pudding,   Bee Sting. ( COUNTRY REPORT – FOOD AND HABITS)

Diet and Nutrition

Avocado smoothies is the best diet food of Australian’s though it looks like something disgusting.

 Most people don’t take Black beans, brown beans and  Freeload with their food.

Young kids wont have coffee and milk or any other drink with coffee

Australian’s love chilli though they eat less spices.

Dish washing with soap and after rinse with clean water. The way they do here is a full sink of hot water and soap, Put all dishes inside, clean with a sponge and put in the dish drainer. Few people  rinse with clean water. Dish washer machines are very popular that wont harm peoples skin.

Education in Australia

In 1800’s the education level was so down were there was no proper school. In each area there was one room schools and less then 20 students there to study. From 1990’s the took step’s to educate every one. The government Started to allocate money for education which was used in the way of renovating the school and college buildings, equip the schools and buy necessary textbooks, pay teachers. A government set up some school and gave government authorities to established school that receives money from the government to continue educating children. The majority of the church-run schools were outside this system and called as private schools.

In these days of open-plan, the classrooms are well equipped with computer and LCD screens, encouragement of interaction between teacher and pupil, availability of a wide variety of subjects, gender equality and restrictions on discipline, Nowadays there are pre-schools, primary schools, high schools and technical colleges in most towns, and universities in the bigger cities.In Australia education is compulsory from 6 to 15 years old.

Australian students who live in remote locations can be taught via high frequency radio transmitters that are sponsored by the government.

Students and teachers communicate through the radio, and homework and exams are sent by mail. (AUSTRALIAN GOVERNEMNT AND INFROAMTION FROM SITE)

Religion in Australia

There are nearly 25 to 30 religions in Australia where Christianity religions Protestant and Roman Catholic is said to be the major religion as 75 percent of the countries population is Christians, other then that there are some important religions like Anglican, Uniting Church, Presbyterian, Greek Orthodox, Baptist these are also said as major dominated religions of the country and other country religions like Sikhism, Buddhism, Baha, Islam, Chinese traditional religion are seen in Australia. ( Information, 1996 cenus)

Visual Arts

The central place of Australia’s landscape is filled with cultural imagination. Australia has provided many of visual artists with inspiration and a broad canvas for expression.

Australia is said to be the home of vibrant community of artist, painters, photographers, potters, printmakers, glassblowers, sculptors, weavers, and digital and multimedia artists working on wide range of Varieties and designs. There are many art galleries, museums and libraries in Australia that holds more than 60 million items made out by 20 000 working artists, who have been graduated from the academic institutions offering degrees in art and craft. The history of Art says Australian visual arts under the names of Indigenous, early colonial, the Heidelberg School and the modernists of the 20th century arts. (Australian Government)

Recreation and sports

Football is the national game of Australia, they are also famous for cricket.The Australian’s are said to be the hard competitor, considered one of the most competitive people in the world in any area, and also in relation to work. Example like surfing they broke the long year’s hegemony of Hawaiian and Californian surfers and they brought several world titles to Australia. Many types of sports are played and practiced in Australia, as the climate is favourable for outdoor sports. Fishing is said to be one off the most famous activity in Australia. Other sports and activities like rugby, soccer, golf, cycling, swimming , rowing, sailing, martial arts and others are practised and played in Australia.


There is no particular or single national dressing for Australia, Actually then Australian national dress styles are based on specific local dress styles, has emerged in response to climate, lifestyle and identity. For business activates men’s wear a traditional dark formal business suit and tie and women’s may wear a dress like skirt and blouse for business this is the modern design of dressed for formal activities. Apart from this normal clothing is will be Casual pants and t shirts which are fine for both men and women, where women’s wear party wear, mini skirts and many other varieties of clothing. ( Australian government 2007/2008)


Languages and Communications 

English is the primary language used in Australia. Yet their colorful vocabulary, accent, phonetics system and slang can take a lot of getting used to. In 1788, there were more then 250 Aboriginal languages spoken in Australia, plus dialects. Today, only two thirds of these languages survive and only 20 of them (eight per cent of the original 250) are still strong enough to have chance of surviving well into the next century. In addition to these there are also the languages of immigrants from Europe, the Middle East and Asia.

The most communities is made in English, the spoken language.  Shake hands with each other when met and while leaving. Greeting the people with good words like good morning, afternoon and evening. Asking how do you do? How was your day and sharing the things with others. Some women mostly the old aged may greet each other with a kiss on the cheek though it’s uncommon.  Business people exchanging their business cards which is very common. People like direct answers and brevity where they take it in friendly and open way. Everyone here are active listeners and like to raise questions if they don’t understand.

.Basic Behavior and Time Management

Australian’s are very punctual in time and have good time management; they work and act according to the time slot. They don’t like wasting even a single minute. The behaving ways are also appreciable like maintain good eye contact during meetings and conversations. A single male passenger using a taxi should sit in the front seat. Asking sorry and greeting thanks according the issues is one of the good attitude with the people here. Exchanging small gifts like chocolate, wine or flowers if invited to someone’s home or meeting for the first time is common habit. Awaiting in a line or queue, go to the end or back and waiting for the turn. Not littering in public places and public properties. (Yes Australia web based Info).


Australian Etiquette & Customs

Meeting Etiquette

Australians are actually not very formal so greetings are casual and relaxed with a handshake and smile suffices.. Australian always prefer to use first name of the person.

Gift Giving Etiquette

.Some small gifts are exchanged with family members, close friends, and neighbors on birthdays and Christmas. When invited to someone’s home for dinner, taking a box of chocolates or flowers to the hostess is in practice. A good quality bottle of wine is always gifted. Gifts are opened when received. Business people wont exchange any gifts with one another it is a uncommon practices in Australia.

Social security

Australia as a whole is felt to be very secure place for travel, studies and living. People can roam out at anytime without any. Most busy places in Australian cities are monitored by surveillance cameras. The only danger in rural areas is not from thieves or any person but only because of dangerous animals that live in Australia. The night clubs are also considered to be a safe place. The Australian rules are very strict regarding the social security to the people.

Health care

Australians are always carefully in security issues and as a consequence, the number of people who have insurance is more in number. Australians make insurance for everything from homes and cars, to health and death, and anything else you can imagine. One of the most important insurances in Australia you must have is heath and liability, including one that covers Lawyers’ expenses.


As we have discussed all the information about the Australia which as a cross culture and many religions it is useful for the company to decide its business decision to lauch the product or not in this country.

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