A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF BENITO MUSSOLINI
Benito Almicare Andrea Mussolini was born on July 29th, 1883 in Italy, at a place called Dovia di predappio. He was born into a poor family. His father was a blacksmith and he was a devotee to socialism. And his mother thought in an elementary school. Benito was intelligent, violent and known to have had a self-worth (ego). He attended a boarding school in Faenza, Italy. There he showed a form of violence by stabbing another student, which led to him being expelled. Benito, taught in a secondary school after he received his diploma in 1901. Then he moved to Switzerland in order to avoid military service. He returned to Italy in 1902, and ended up serving in the military. Then he involved himself in political affairs. In 1900, Benito became a member of the socialist party. As time passed, he started getting so much admiration and attraction. He was very well spoken in all his speeches and articles. Mussolini was editor and labour leader until he emerged in the 1912 socialist party congress. His writings where deep and created a lot of excitement for the socialist defenses. His intense nature was an advantage to the party. He called for revolution when revolutionary feeling where sweeping the country. Benito died on April 28, 1945.
EVENTS LEADING TO THE RISE OF BENITO MUSSOLINI
Â In December 1914 Benito Mussolini joined an Italian socialist that left of socialism and formed the first “fascistic”, to support Italian growth to its “natural frontier”( including Libya) and king Vittorio Emanuel the third who declared war against Austria. Benito Mussolini was conspired into the army in the year 1915, there he got injured by a grenade, and he was sent out of the army and went back to his newspaper in June 1917. Mussolini called for national discipline and a dictator to take over the weak government on October 24, 1917, this was due to the Italian defeat.
In 1919, march 23rd, Benito Mussolini launched his fascist movement which was known as the Italian fascist combat which is also known as (fasci Italiani di combatimentto). He formed parliamentary squads of arditi that was like that of the freikorps and used them in opposition to his political enemies. On September 12th 1919, Gabriele D'Annunzio led raid to annex Fiume, and he made a plan that Mussolini later used to march on Rome and seize the government. In 1921 Mussolini and his fascist party joined the parliamentary national coalition of Giolitti and he won 35 seats in the May 15th election and the party was now recognized as the national fascist party. Benito Mussolini ruled as dictator of Italy from 1922 to 1943. His political philosophy, which he called fascism, was based on the total control of the government in all spheres of political, social, economic, and cultural life.
When Benito was expelled by the Australians, he became the editor at Forli of a socialist newspaper, La Lotto di Classe.also known as the class stuggle.His early passion for Karl Marx was modified by a mixture of ideas from the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche, the revolutionary doctrines of Augusta Blanquette, and the syndicalism of Georges Sorel. In 1910, Mussolini became secretary of the local Socialist party at Forli.
He boasted of being an "antipatriot. When Italy declared war on Turkey in 1911, he was imprisoned for his pacifist misinformation. When he was Appointed editor of the official Socialist newspaper Avanti, he moved to Milan, where he established himself as the most forceful of all labor leaders of Italian socialism. He believed that the masses should unite "in one formidable fascio, in preparatory to seizing power. Some see this as the start of the Fascist movement.
When World War I broke out in 1914, Mussolini agreed with the other Socialists that Italy should not join it. Only a class war was acceptable to him, and he threatened to lead a popular revolution if the government decided to fight. But several months later he unexpectedly changed his position on the war, leaving the Socialist party and his editorial chair.
HOW HIS BRAND OF SOCAILSM (FASCISM)
IN November 1914 he founded a new paper called “Il Popolo d'Italia”, and the prowar group Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria. He evidently hoped the war might lead to the fall of society that would bring him to power. Called up for military service, he was wounded in grenade practice in 1917 and returned to edit his paper.
Fascism became an organized political movement in March 1919 when Mussolini founded the Fasci de Combattimento. After his flaw in the 1919 elections, Mussolini finally entered parliament in 1921 as a right-wing member. The Fascisti formed armed squads to warn Mussolini's former Socialist colleagues. The government rarely interfered. In return for the support of a group of industrialists and agrarians, Mussolini gave his approval to strikebreaking, and he abandoned revolutionary agitation. When the liberal governments of Giovanni Giolitti, Ivanoe Bonomi, and Luigi Facta failed to stop the spread of anarchy, Mussolini was invited by the king in October 1922 to form a government.
At first he was supported by the Liberals in parliament. With their help he introduced strict restriction and altered the methods of election so that in 1925-1926 he was able to assume dictatorial powers and dissolve all other political parties. He skillfully used his absolute control over the press, he gradually built up the legend of the "Duce, a man who was always right and could solve all the problems of politics and economics. Italy soon became a police state. He showed himself utterly ruthless to those who tried to resist him, for example the Socialist Giacomo Matteotti . But Mussolini's skill in propaganda was such that he had surprisingly little opposition.
At different times after 1922, Mussolini personally took over the ministries of the interior, of foreign affairs, of the colonies, of the corporations, of the army and the other armed services, and of public works. Sometimes he held as many as seven departments at the same time, as well as the premiership. He was also head of the all-powerful Fascist party (formed in 1921) and the armed Fascist militia. In this way he succeeded in keeping power in his own hands and preventing the appearance of any rival. But it was at the price of creating a regime that was too central, inefficient, and corrupt.
Most of his time was spent on propaganda, whether at home or abroad, and here his training as a journalist was very useful. Press, radio, education, films--all were carefully supervised to manufacture the illusion that fascism was "the doctrine of the 20th century that was replacing liberalism and democracy. The principles of this doctrine were laid down in the article on fascism, allegedly written by himself, that appeared in 1932 in the Enciclopedia Italiana. In 1929 a treaty with the Vatican was signed, by which the Italian state was at last recognized by the Roman Catholic Church.
Under the dictatorship ,the parliamentary system was virtually abolished. The law codes were rewritten. All teachers in schools and universities had to swear an oath to defend the Fascist regime. Newspaper editors were all personally chosen by Mussolini himself, and no one could practice journalism if they did not possess a certificate of approval from the Fascist party. The trade unions were also deprived of any independence and were integrated into what was called the "corporative system. The aim (never completely achieved) was to place all Italians in various professional organizations or "corporations, all of them under governmental control.
Mussolini played up to his financial backers at first by transferring a number of industries from public to private ownership. But by the 1930's he began moving back to the opposite extreme of firm governmental control of industry. A lot of money was spent on public works. But the economy suffered from his attempts to make Italy self-sufficient. There was too much focus on heavy industry, for which Italy lacked the resources.
In foreign policy, Mussolini soon shifted from antiwar, anti-imperialism to an extreme form of aggressive nationalism. An early example of this was his bombardment of Corfu in 1923. Soon after this he succeeded in setting up a regime in Albania and in reconquering Libya. It was his dream to make the Mediterranean "mare nostrum . In 1935, at the Stresa Conference, he helped create an anti-Hitler front in order to defend the independence of Austria. But his successful war against Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 1935-1936 was opposed by the League of Nations, and he was forced to seek an agreement with Nazi Germany, which had withdrawn from the League in 1933. His active involvement in 1936-1939 on the side of Gen. Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War ended any possibility of settlement with France and Britain. As a result, he had to accept the German takeover of Austria in 1938 and the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia in 1939. At the Munich Conference in September 1938 he posed as a moderate working for European peace. But his "axis with Germany was confirmed when he made the Pact of Steel with a man named Adolf Hitler in May 1939. Clearly the subordinate partner, Mussolini followed the Nazis in adopting a racial policy that led to persecution of the Jews and the creation of apartheid in the Italian empire.
As World War II approached, Mussolini announced his intention of annexing Malta, Corsica, and Tunis. In April 1939, after a brief war, he occupied Albania. Failing to realize that he had more to gain by trying to hold the balance of power in Europe, he favored to rely on a policy of bluff and bluster to induce the Western democracies to give way to his increasing territorial demands. Although he had preached for 15 years about the virtues of war and the military readiness of Italy to fight, his armed forces were completely unprepared when Hitler's invasion of Poland led to World War II. He decided to remain non supportive of any until he was quite certain which side would win. Only after the fall of France did he declare war in June 1940, hoping that the war had only a few weeks more to run. His attack on Greece in October revealed to everyone that he put in no effort to prepare an effective military machine. He had no option but to follow Hitler in declaring war on Russia in June 1941 and on the United States in December 1941.
Following Italian defeats on all fronts and the Anglo-American landing in Sicily in 1943, most of Mussolini's colleagues turned against him at a meeting of the Fascist Grand Council on July 25, 1943. This enabled the king to dismiss and arrest him.
THE DEATH OF BENITO MUSSOLINI
Benito was rescued by the Germans several months after his arrest. Mussolini set up a Republican Fascist state in northern Italy. But he was little more under the protection of the German Army. In this "Republic of Salo, Mussolini returned to his earlier ideas of socialism. He also executed some of the Fascist leaders who had deserted him, including his son-in-law, Galeazzo Ciano. Increasingly he tried to shift the blame for defeat onto the Italian people, who had not been great enough to appreciate his imperial dream. In April 1945, just before the united armies reached Milan, Mussolini, along with his mistress Clara Petacci, were caught by Italian partisans as he tried to take refuge in Switzerland. And then they were executed, shot and hung upside down.