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When British became the rulers of India in 1856, Muslims got Shattered in pieces. In 1857, Muslims took part in Independence War in their hope of reviving the Mughal empire. As a matter of fact, it could not be avoided that it was a mutiny not a war in which Muslims took part.
As a result, British held Muslims responsible for this mutiny and they adopt cruel policy against Muslims. They confiscated Muslims properties and Withdrawn their jobs. Muslims were suppressed by British and Hindus. Those were the dark days for Muslims. They were suffering by the hands of British and Hindus.
Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan's Role:
Sir Sayyed awakened the Muslims. Muslims were in deep slumber at that time. He awakened them from their slumber. He guided Muslims. He struggled for them.
Sir Sayyed was from a noble family and was born on 17 Oct 1817 in Delhi. He got his early education from his maternal grandfather Khawaja Farid ud Din. He was educated in holy Quran, Arabic and Persian literature.
After his father death in 1833, he had to join government service. By 1857, Sir Sayyed Ahmed khan had spent nearly twenty years in judicial service. He was known for his justice.
In 1857, sir Sayyed was posted at Bijnaur when the war of 1857 broke out. It perturbed local European officers and their families. He saved many British Officers even at the risk of his own life. He also saved British women and children from being killed. He refused to accept the offered estate for his services which he rendered to the British.
The Beginning of the Aligarh Movement:
The British had held the Muslims responsible for the war of Independence and, therefore adopted a cruel policy to punish them for their role in the war of Independence. On the other hand Hindus were let off though they were also equally responsible for the war.
Due to policy adopted by British, Muslims remain suppressed. They lost their distinction as a nation. Their properties were confiscated and their jobs were withdrawn. To further increase pressure or situation, the British replaced Persian with English as Official Language. The Muslims didn't learn English. They thought it is against their religion. On the other hand Hindus quickly superseded the Muslims in the educational field by adopting English.
Sir Sayyed Always desired to see Muslims at a respectable position in society and decided to guide them in their struggle for the revival of their past position of glory. The services which Sir Sayyed rendered for the Muslims are known as "The Aligarh Movement".
The Indian Muslims had always saw British as their enemies and they always avoided social interaction with them, which created a great deal of misunderstanding among the British about the Muslims. Sir Sayyed knew that this condition of Muslims shall not be improved unless the Muslims change their behavior. He wanted Muslims should adopt a more lenient attitude towards British and extend necessary loyalties to rulers of the country. Muslim's policy of hatred for the British was only beneficial for Hindus who were getting close to British. He advised to change that policy.
Muslims were also lagging behind in the education because of their conservative approach toward the English and Modern Knowledge. Sir Sayyed began his movement by diluting suspicion and misunderstanding between the Muslims and Hindus.
THE EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF ALI GARH MOVEMENT:-
The Aligarh movement was established on the basis of two main reasons one which included modern education and the other is good relations among the britishes one the basis of the good relations among the muslims and the britishes the conservative peoples criticized sir syed. To moralized the muslims he thought Muslims must acquire modern education to get right place in the society. By implementing his thoughts of educational uplift of muslims sir syed took many practical steps .In Muradabad sir syed set up a school in 1859 in which English and Persian was taught . Afterwards sir syed made another school in Ghazipur. With the success of his school in ghazipur and muradabad sir syed introduced the scientific society the reason to establish this society was to translate the books written in English into Urdu . To improve the education of muslims sir syed set up different institutions in the country.
MAO COLLEGE AT ALIGARH:-
With the success different schools and societies established in different areas of India sir syed established MAO (MUHAMMADAN ANGLO _ORIENTAL COLLEGE) AT ALIGARH in 1877 which was the greatest achievement of sir syed after his long struggle. while sir syed was in England he was much impressed from the modern pattern of education of oxford and Cambridge university . so sir syed deciede to introduced a modern educational pattern for the peoples of India.
When sir syed came back from England he set up anjuman-taraqi-Muslimnane Hind . the aim of the up anjuman-taraqi-Muslimnane Hind was to introduce modern education among the Muslims.
Sir syed made committees which raised funds for MAO college .Government also give financial support on the request of sir syed.
First of MAO high school was established on 24th may,1874 at Aligarh .
Sir syed struggled hard to raise MAO high school to uplift on the level of a college finally in 1877 MAO high school was given the grade of a college .
IN MAO college sir syed introduced modern education system so that Muslims competing with Hindus in every field of life.
In MAO college there are no restrictions upon Hindu students to get modern education.MAO college progress day by day and finally after the death of sir syed MAO college reached the level of university.
Now MAO college become Aligarh Muslim university. IN 1920 MAO Aligarh muslim university was given the status of central university .
Now Aligarh Muslim university offers 250 different courses in different fields/ branches of modern education. Raja Mohammad ali Mohammad khan of mahmudabad was the first vice chancler of the university.(wikipidia)
Muhammadan educational conference :-
To convey his message to the muslims of sub continent. Sir syed introduced muslim educational conference in 1866. Through this conference Sir Syed in different areas of country set up public meetings. By the successof the comitee in different areas of india.This committee Sir Syed made sub-comittes in different areas of india. This comitee through this conference produce self respect and self confidence to muslims. The purpose of this conference is to discuss different modern techniques for the development of educational aspects of muslims and so that educational standard of muslims can uplift. The leaders who was included in Muhammadan educational conference and who with their brilliant success produced hope among the Muslims that was Nawab Mohsin- ul- Mulk, mulana Shibli and maulana Hali.
Political aspect of the Aligarh moment:-
After the war of independence 1857 Sir Syed advised the Muslims not to take part in politics unless they prepare themselves with modern education. Sir Syed advised Muslims that due to education Hindus are superior to Muslims in political field . So to compete Hindus in political field Muslims must get modern education first of all, So that Muslims can demand their due rights. And in this way Aligarh movement prepared the Muslims to safeguard their political interests.
The most powerful political party: the Indian National Congress was established so that the peoples of sub-continent told the government about their faulty and good works. It was established so that it safeguard the rights of all the peoples of India but Sir Syed know that it is the party of Hindus and it safeguard the rights of Hindus not the Muslims.
To competing Hindus in the political field Sir Syed felt that the Muslims should concentrate for education and economic rehabilitation. Sir Syed strongly believed that political activities of Muslims may divert their attentions from modern education.