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Thutmose III also known as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis was the sixth Pharaoh of Egypt in the Eighteenth Dynasty who was one of the greatest Egyptian military leader and rulers. Thutmose III was Thutmose II’s son and his mother was Isis who is one of wives of Thutmose II. Thutmose III’s Egyptian name Djehutymes means “Born of Thoth”, the god of writing and wisdom.
Pharaoh of Egypt
B. Why is it important to sketch his biography?
Thutmose III was Egypt’s greatest warrior pharaoh. He transformed his country into the first great empire in the Ancient World. From 1479 to 1425 BC, he was a prolific builder of temples during his reign. He captured 350 cities and won much of areas which were the Near East, from the Euphrates to Nubia during seventeen that were known military campaigns. Thus he became an active expansionist ruler. He was the first pharaoh to cross the Euphrates, during his campaign against Mitanni. Therefore, on the Asmen’s walls temple of Karnak were transcribe of his campaign.
II. Early life
A. Date and place of birth
The Egyptian king, Thutmose III, was born in Egypt in 1516 B.C. Thutmose III governed Egypt for nearly fifty-four years, and his regime was started from 24th April, 1479 BC to 11th March, 1425 BC which was also included the twenty-two years he was Hatshepsut’s co-regent whom she was his stepmother and aunt.
Thutmose III was the Thutmose II’s and Iset’s son. He was the pharaoh’s only son. Therefore, he would only the first person for the throne after Thutmose II died. When his father died, he became pharaoh, but Hatshepsut–his father’s widow, acted as regent and the dominant co-ruler and real ruler of Egypt because he was only the age of 7 at that time. She made all executive decisions through his childhood. She grew so accustomed to power that she yielded virtually no authority to Thutmose III until at least his late teen years.
During this period Hatshepsut assumed the title Egypt’s and wore male a pharaoh’s regalia and donned the traditional false beard of a pharaoh. After she died, he must have truly resented her. Thutmose III removed Hatshepsut from Ancient Egyptian historical records in order to become a great warrior king who launched successful military campaigns Canaan, Syria, Nubia and Mitanni in Mesopotamia increasing the wealth and power of Egypt.
Thutmose III married Hatshepsut whose Merytre’s youngest daughter. They had a child together named Amenhotep II. Moreover, he had other wives like Menhet, Menwi, Meritamen, Merti, Nebetu, Neferure, Sitioh and Yabet. He also had 11 daughters such as Ahmose Meritamen II, Henutan, Meryptah, Neferamen, Petkeie, Petpui, Sathora, Sitamen I, Takhete, Touai and Uiey.
Thutmose III was very young when his father died and was the co-regent of Hatshepsut-his stepmother. Thutmose III was given an education befitting his royal station. He would have been taught about everything from culture and art to military and leadership techniques. He learned all military skills, including archery and horsemanship. Thutmose played very important and active part in the Egypt’s government. Thutmose III might have been entrusted with command of the army on campaign in Nubia twice.
III. Political life
A. First Campaign
When Hatshepsut died, Thutmose III was twenty second year sixth month and ten day. According to information from the king of Kadesh where a single stela from Armant advanced his army to Megiddlo, on the twenty-fifth day of the eighth month, Thutmose III trooped his army and left Egypt, crossing to Tjaru’s border fortress (Sile). Thutmose led his musters through the coastal plain-Jamnia, then to Yehem which was a small city near Megiddo that he arrived in the same year of the middle of the ninth month. The Battle of Megiddo might be the biggest battle in any of seventeen campaigns of Thutmose. A mountains range jut from Mount Carmel stood which was between Thutmose and Megiddo, and he had three possible ways to take. Based on the accession of Thutmose III in 1479 BC, this date corresponds was 9th May, 1457 BC.
B. Tours of Canaan and Syria
The occurrence of the second, third and fourth campaigns of Thutmose III have not been any tours of Syria and Canaan to regain tax. Furthermore, the second campaign has been concerned to be the material directly of the first campaign. It collected tribute from the Egyptians, known as Retenu-roughly equivalent to Canaan, and it was known that Assyria gave a second tribute to Thutmose III at that time. Anyways, these tributes were paid until Thutmose III was forty years or later, thus the second campaign did not get anything to Thutmose III.
C. Conquest of Syria
The fifth, sixth, and seventh campaigns of Thutmose III were against directly to Phoenician cities, city of Syria and also against Kadesh which on the Orontes. Unlike previous plundering raids, nevertheless, Thutmose III often garrisoned the Djahy–perhaps referring to southern Syria. This consequently allowed him to ship foods and musters between Syria and Egypt. Even through there is no specific evidence for it, for this reason some people believe that the sixth campaign of Thutmose III in his thirtieth years of his regime, began with sending his troops directly to Byblos and entire of by-pass of Canaan. They started to get into the river valley of Jordan and also went to north from there then turned to west again after the musters reached in Syria by whatever ways. Thutmose III won Simyra and put down a revolt in Ardata. Thutmose commenced taking ruler in Syria in order to stop such rebellions.
Thutmose III smiting his enemies.
Relief on the seventh pylon in Karnak
Attack on Mitanni
Mitanni which was a Hurrian state and ruling class of Indo-Aryan was the eighth campaign of Thutmose III’s objective after Thutmose III took over the cities of Syrian. He had to cross the Euphrates River in order to reach Mitanni. Thus by, Thutmose III enacted many strategies. Obviously, a militia was increased for the purpose to fight against the attackers; however, its vehicles were very poor. Then Thutmose III returned to Syria by Niy road, where was recorded Thutmose III started to hunt elephant. Later Thutmose III received tribute from other foreign states and he went back to Egypt.
E. Tours of Syria
The Mitanni’s ruler had raised a huge army and engaged the Egyptians around Aleppo in Thutmose’s thirty-fifth year. As usual for any Egyptian king, there is a suspect statement said that Thutmose boasted a total crushing victory. Thutmose III turned back to Nukhashashe that was the area of very small campaign of Thutmose III’s thirteenth campaign. One year later, Shasu was goal of the fourteenth campaign of Thutmose III. Nevertheless, the location is indefinite to determine, since the Shasu were migrates who lived in Lebanon through Transjordan and Edom. From this point on, campaigns can only be counted by date because the numbers that were given by Thutmose’s writers to his campaigns.
F. Nubian Campaign
In nearly end of his life, Thutmose III also had the one last campaign that was his fifteenth campaign. He invaded Nubia; nevertheless, he only reached the fourth Nile’s waterfall. There was no Egypt’s ruler had ever done as he did with invaders. The former rulers’ campaigns had already extended to Egyptian culture. Actually the earliest Egyptian information was discovered at Gebel Barkal.
Thutmose III died on his 54 year of rein in 1450 B.C. His tomb is in the King’s valley (KV34). He would have made his 55th year being in control if he died one month and four days later.
In 1881 Thutmose III mummy was found in the Deir el-Bahri Cache about the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut. The mummy of him was in bad condition since tomb robbers got to it already. He was interred along with other eighteenth and nineteenth dynasty leaders such as Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX, and the twenty-first dynasty pharaohs Pinedjem I, Pinedjem II, and Siamun.
Mummified head of Thutmose III
Thutmose III was a great warrior and ruler pharaoh. His rule was one of strong battle in accent Egypt, which had over 350 cities fell under his reign. There is little doubt that his numerous campaigns were extremely successful. Actually he had enlargement of military during his reign. Hence, he has been seen as the “Napoleon of Ancient Egypt”.
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