"An African American (also Afro-American, Black American) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. Many African Americans possess European, Native American and, to a lesser degree, Asian ancestry as well. The term refers specifically to black African ancestry, not, for example, to European colonial or Arab African ancestry, such as Arab Moroccan or white South African-European ancestry. African American means an American of black African descent" (omnipelagos). African American history lies at the foundation of United States history. The story of African Americans began in Africa, where ethnic groups such as the Ashanti, Bantu, Congolese, and Yoruba began their chaotic and protracted journey to what would become the United States The land of hope, promise that everyone thinks of when living in United States of America. Many of the African Americans moved up north to have a second chance at life with a new beginning. I was going to be a long, long road for them.
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Women were relatively vigorous in the abolitionist movement. The two most well-known black women abolitionists were Sojourner Truth and Harriet Tubman. Frances Ellen Watkins Harper and Maria Stewart were not popular than Frances and Maria, but both women were respected writers and activists. Social convention, white women tended forbade all women to have more freedom than black women to move about the white women had the income to support themselves while they were doing abolitionist work.
There are a few women from the 1865-1899 made an impact on the African American the one that is well known is Harriett Tubman one of history's best-known African Americans. For the reason, she was born a slave, in Maryland, she escaped to freedom, and later led more than 300 others slaves to North and Canada to their freedom where she work with the Underground Railroad.
Her life as she grew up and become one well-known black woman. She worked on plantation of Edward Brodas. Harriett true birth name was Araminta they called her Minty until she change it to Harriett. Her birth parents were Benjamin Ross and Harriett Green that had eleven children many of the older children was sold in Deep South.
Aramints, as known as (Harriett) that was rented to neighbors it do housework, which she was not good at housework she was beaten on a regularly base by her owners. She was not educated, which means that neither she can read nor write. Harriett was a small women but she was a strong women due to activity of the fieldwork that is what make her strong. Later on in live she had an accident she sustain a head injury which she sustain a very bad head concussion. She was ill for long time because of the head injury. With the injury, she had no other owner wanted her service.
When Aramints owner died, the son inherited her as slave. The son hired her out to a lumber merchant, which the work she did was appreciated so they allowed her to keep some money that she had earn from the extra work.
From 1844-1845 she married a free black man is named was John Tubman- they were not a good match at all. Shortly after she became Mrs. Tubman, she hired a layer to help investigate her own legal history. What she found out that her mother was freed due to the passing of the owners. The lawyer told Harriett that no court would hear the base and ask her to drop it, so she did.
In the year of 1849, there was a couple of event motive Tubman to act. She heard two of her brothers were being sold to the Deep South, and her husband threaten her go south too. She tried to convince her brother to escape with her, but she ended up leaving a long- making her way to freedom to Philadelphia. Over twelve years Harriett return to free her family, sister, and their families but instead she ended up freeing 300 slave out of slavery. Under the new law of the time Harriett was a free women. The staus changed the next year as the passing of the Fugitive Slave Act which she can be capture and return. Due to the new laws she had to be careful due she could be capture and become a slave. After the Fugitive Slave Act became understandable, Harriet Tubman began to direct her "commuter" on the Underground Railroad every part of the way to Canada, so they can be truly free.
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From 1851 through 1857 Harriett live part of her live in St. Catherine's, Canada she made a trip to Maryland a least twice a year to help slaves to escapes with her significant declamatory skills she started to openly speaking to public at the anti-slavery meeting and at women rights meeting . Harriett having a price tag put on her head no one would every betrayed her even when the price of $12,000 and the high up in the $40,000.Knowing that the money was good so was the person that was help them to be free. These trips was financed by her money which she earned by being a cook and laundress over the years.
The outcome of that wasâ€¦ that of Harriet (Aramints) Tubman's life in stages ---one her life as a slave, Two was as an abolitionist and three conductor on the Underground Railroad, fourth as a Civil War soldier. Then when on to become a nurse, spy, and scout, and as a social reformer and charitable citizen which are all very important aspects of this woman's long life of dedication to service and her people .
The use of the taxonomic category African American, in either public or health or other disciplines, fundamentally reflects the historic and contemporary systems of racial stratification in American society. (Answers) The term "African American," as a categorical descriptor, includes many different segments of the American population referred to as "black" or Americans of sub-Saharan African ancestry. (answers)It is also a product of the group self-definition process in which African Americans have historically engaged as an expression of identity, power, defiance, pride, and the struggle for human rights.(answers).
From the 1830s to the middle of the 1890s, Colored American and the more commonly used derivation Colored were the most popular terms. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Negro gained considerable support as a generic term, becoming by 1920 the most commonly used expression of race. Increasing dissatisfaction with the term Negro, most noted in the late 1930s, culminated with the Black power movement of the 1960s.(answers).
One reason for the attention African Americans have given to group designations is that group classifications by the white majority were highly instrumental in attempting to justify slavery, deny basic human rights, and restrain social opportunities. These oppressive practices had the effect of subordinating African Americans. Richard B. Moore in a book entitled The Name "Negro": Its Origin and Evil Use described how the skin color and other physical features of Africans who were brought into slavery "were identified in the mind of the people generally with ugliness, repulsion, and baseness." During earlier periods of the twentieth century, white media, publishers, and the scientific community largely refused to capitalize group designations such as Black, Colored, Negro, or African. This practice was in clear contrast to references in print to whites or the Caucasian "race." Moreover, scientific research and theories about so-called racial group differences (e.g., eugenics) were highly influential in promoting white supremacy (Answers).
In summary, being classified as African American is quite significant because it reflects an important social group transformation and reality in terms of group identity, political orientation, life chances or social opportunity, normative standards and lifestyles, and discriminatory behavior. These are some of the factors that strongly relate to disease susceptibility, quality of life, morbidity and mortality, and longevity. It is only when the reality of racial classification carries little social impact that the term will become obsolete. At the present time, it is unlikely that serious consideration can be given to eliminating the use of racial designations such as "African American" in public health (Answer).
By 1789, despite America's proclamation that "all men are created equal," slavery as an institution was still legal in eleven of the thirteen States. Moreover, the Atlantic slave trade, which was officially banned in 1808 but continued extra legally until the 1850s, continued to bring thousands of enslaved Africans to America. The primary destinations of black slaves were the rice plantations of low-country South Carolina and the tobacco farms of Piedmont, Virginia. Although there were, as there had always been, "free" blacks in the United States, by 1789, there were fewer than 60,000 of them out of a total black population of 700,000.(answers)
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Despite the odds, some blacks continued to gain their freedom from bondage; most of those who succeeded had to struggle to survive the transition from slavery to freedom. Like their enslaved counterparts, free black people were relegated to the bottom of the American racial hierarchy, dominated by the theory of white supremacy. Despite being the objects of white racism, "free" blacks often set themselves apart from black slaves. This class-small, sometimes prosperous, and often literate-usually considered themselves superior to their enslaved counterparts.(answers).
The end of slavery as an institution in American life can be tied to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Lincoln, a Republican, believed that the Constitution protected slavery in the states, but was opposed to its extension. He objected to the spread of slavery into Kansas and other territories. (answers). Southerners believed the Constitution protected slavery and saw Lincoln's resolve as a threat to their political standing in Congress and to their "way of life." Lincoln was elected in 1860, and following his inaugural address in March 1861, South Carolina seceded from the Union in retaliation. The year on February 1861, it was pursue by six more states that are southern the calling for healing by Lincoln was unsuccessful. Although the owner of five slaves before the Civil War, Johnson identified himself as the champion of his state's "honest yeomen" and a foe of large planters, who he described as a "bloated, corrupted aristocracy." He strongly promoted public education and free land for Western settler (digital history).
A fervent believer in states' rights, Johnson was also a strong defender of the Union. He was the only Senator from a seceding state to remain at his post in 1861, and when Union forces occupied Tennessee, Abraham Lincoln named him military governor. In 1864, he was elected vice president (digital history).
When the Great Depression struck America in 1929, African Americans were among the hardest hit. The years between 1929 and 1940 were marked by both progress and persistent problems for black people. At a time when a black leader like Mary McLeod Bethune could hold an influential appointment in the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration, African American workers had the highest unemployment rate in the nation.
However, discrimination and racial violence, unemployment, and housing shortages remained complicated and dispiriting issues for African Americans. (Whitaker).As the United States entered World War II in 1941, blacks seized this opportunity to demand full inclusion in American society. African Americans were critical of the United States for fighting for democracy overseas while blacks lived in a segregated and unjust society in America. Black people fought fascism in Europe and white supremacy in the United States, which they christened the "Double-V": victory abroad and victory at home (Whitaker).Â
History of African Americans in the Civil War these words spoken by Frederick Douglass moved many African Americans to enlist in the Union Army and fight for their freedom. With President Abraham Lincoln's issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, the Civil War became a war to save the union and to abolish slavery. (itd.nps)
"Once let the black man get upon his person the brass letters, U.S., let him get an eagle on his button, and a musket on his shoulder and bullets in his pockets, and there is no power on earth which can deny that he has earned the right to citizenship in the United States." - - Frederick Douglass
Around 180,000 African Americans contain 163 units was serving in the Union Army during the Civil War, and numerous of other African Americans had served in the Union Navy. The free and the runaway slaves united to fight the war. On July 17, 1862, Congress passed two acts allowing the enlistment of African Americans, ( itd.nps.) "General Blunt wrote after the battle, "I never saw such fighting as was done by the Negro regiment....The question that negroes will fight is settled; besides they make better solders in every respect than any troops I have ever had under my command." ( itd.nps.)
Although black soldiers proved themselves as reputable soldiers, discrimination in pay and other areas remained widespread. According to the Militia Act of 1862, soldiers of African descent were to receive $10.00 a month, plus a clothing allowance of $3.50. Many regiments struggled for equal pay, some refusing any money until June 15, 1864, when Congress granted equal pay for all black soldiers ( itd.nps). African American soldiers comprised 10% of the entire Union Army. Losses among African Americans were high, and from all reported casualties, approximately one-third of all African Americans enrolled in the military lost their lives during the Civil War. ( itd.nps).The African American had came a long way and look how things have change for them and us.
Then I came around an article from People Magazine where we were stepping back in time thinking that slavery ended a long time ago well I was wrong. " Some 50 years ago, Miller says she and her parents, Cain and Lela Wall, and her six siblings were held like slaves on this land and surrounding farms. "We been though pure-D hell," she says today. "I mean hell right here on earth" (people). The story that Miller, 63, and her relatives tell is a sepia-toned nightmare straight out of the Old South (people). Miller was telling that they had to pick cotton, milk cows, and clean house, and they had to do all this without any paid. If they did not do what they were told, they were threaten to be whipped and raped or even death for them. "Beatings with whips or even chains were common, they say, for slacking off or talking back. "The whip would wrap around your body and knock you down," says Mae's sister Annie, 67. Mae remembers her father once being beaten so badly that she and her siblings climbed on his fallen body to protect him."(people)
What makes this sad is that they were handed from one white family to another and their condition never gotten in better. "The Walls were victims of "peonage," an illegal practice that flourished in the rural South after slavery was abolished in 1865 and lasted, in isolated cases like theirs, until as recently as the 1960s. Under peonage, blacks were forced to work off debts, real or imagined, with free labor under the same types of violent coercion as slavery. In contrast with the more common arrangement known as sharecropping, peons were not paid and could not move from the land without permission. "White people had the power to hold blacks down, and they weren't afraid to use it-and they were brutal," says Pete Daniel, a historian at the Smithsonian Institution and an expert on peonage." (people)
The Wall family was living in drafty shacks which they used grass pallets for their beds which they had no electricity, phone, nor any type of radio. They eat what they catch such as fish, birds, rabbit and what was giving the left over from the white family.
After all the raping of the women and all the bad thing that happen to the Wall family for so many years they were finally was free for the first time the year was 1961. The family did not know what to do they was scared thinking that there owner would kill them for not doing anything anymore. Mae was one of the siblings she got her first job and thought the owner of the restaurant would be mean to her but ended up being very nice to her. She end up meeting a man and marriage him and she wanting to start a family but could not due to the scaring of the raping happen to her when she was young she ended up adopted four children. In the year of 2001, she broke her silence of being held a slave for so many years, she was tired of it being a big dark secret no more; she told her story in church and public speaking for black history. To me she was just as brave as Harriett Tubman was.