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In this section I have been asked to do a research about the causes and the distribution of the disease and to explain the four Factors which affecting causes and distribution of disease those are;
Malaria Lifestyle changes this indicated that malaria affects a lot of people each year and is very dangerous disease which kills nearly a million people. Besides malaria is a harmful disease that has great many people's lifestyle and also affect around the world. People can live their whole life with Malaria if they take the proper medications or treated well.
The environmental factors that influence the malaria life cycle and by that the distribution and incidence of the disease are three main climate Factors these are temperature, precipitation and relative humidity. This indicated that the minimum temperature needed for the mosquito to develop and the minimum temperature for parasite development which could be between 14+°C the optimum temperature for mosquitoes to live and breed in is 20+°C, and the highest temperature that both parasites and the mosquitoes can survive is 40°C.
Skin cancer is the mainly common cancer in women men in their twenties. This indicted sun exposure is the most important lifestyle changes identified to prevent skin cancer. This also indicated that the upholding healthy lifestyles after people have been diagnosed with skin cancer it can be essential to the success of their diagnosis.
With a diagnosis of Skin Cancer it is very important to consider that there is a causal condition causing of Skin Cancer. Because these are many other conditions that may probably cause Skin Cancer. Types of skin more likely to get cancer-sun area may not be available. Although anyone can get skin cancer because it's common and lot of people with light skin tone, but skin cancer can affect anyone this indicated that it doesn't matter whether people consider their skin light, dark, they are still at the risk of getting skin cancer and being in the sun can damage their skin.
Malaria there is no medial issues because there is not completely safe and effective but only treatment of a vaccine. This means that the best possible regimen is an attempt to balance the risk of side effects against the risk of disease. Consequently malaria can be and there is prevention methods get under control.
Skin cancer mostly starts in men and women after the age of 40+. This indicated that the sun's damaging effects begin at an early on age. Although the most common reason of skin cancer is exposure to sun and it have seen that men and women after the age of 40+ spend so much time in outdoor and not aware of the sun.
Malaria mostly effect any life ages especially children, mainly in Africa, which is in all age groups of a population; for malaria. However, in children under the age of 5, the illness tends to be uncommon and more severe. This indicated that Malaria accounts for one in five of all childhood deaths in Africa.
Besides over 40% of the world's children live in malaria-endemic countries and one of million children died for each year. The rapid spread of resistance to anti-malarials drugs, coupled with widespread poverty, weak health communications and the rate at which an illness occurs in a particular area or the population and mortality from malaria in Africa continues to rise.
Malaria is usually odd to a specific location or region, or within a specific group of people in the tropics, with extensions into the subtropics. Current distribution of indigenous malaria.
In the middle of the environmental factors that influence the malaria life cycle and by the distribution and incidence of the disease are three main climate factors: these are
Skin cancer is the most relevant environmental factor which causes sun exposure damage to the skin and not repaired can create mutation in the genes. The strength and length of the sun exposure and the age at which the sun exposure occurs and the colour of skin all affects the chances of developing skin cancer. Exposure to environmental factors is influenced by people's behaviour such as activity and spare time activities outdoors and their attitudes also how important they think it is to protect their skin and what steps we are prepared to take to do that.
The causes of my chosen diseases are; Communicable disease: (Malaria) and Non-communicable disease: (Skin cancer) my rational of chosen skin cancer is because skin cancer is causes by the sun burn and it's the main cause of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Also my rational of chosen Malaria is because malaria is causes by biting of mosquito.
How many people are affected in the UK and around the world?
Malaria affects many people in the UK and around the world; this is because malaria occur where the mosquito breeds, mainly in country hot regions. From the UK indicated that it's a threat to people travelling to areas where malaria subsists. For example in Africa, Each year many people return to the UK with malaria this shows that many people die for malaria.
Skin cancer affects many people in the UK and around the world; this is because skin cancer is one of the most common cancers around the world and UK. This indicated that Each year, more than 20 cases of skin cancer and more than 30 cases of melanoma skin cancer are diagnosed Each year approximately 1 in every 100 people in the UK will develop a new case of skin cancer. It accounts for about the many deaths yearly in the UK.
Figure 1.1., the distribution of all deaths among children under five, by cause The World Health Organization and its estimates that approximately million malaria episodes Occurred in 2008 leading to approximately million of people and children deaths each year .
Malaria is described in Figures 1.1 and 1.2 in terms of geographical distribution as well as in terms of relationship to other causes of child and adult death.
This pie chart estimates that million cases of malaria occur annually around the world and more than one million victims are killed each year. About 90% of these deaths are from Africa, occurring mostly in children under the age of million deaths occur in around the world.
Malaria is a high risk to half of the world's population and more than half of million people die for malaria each year. However this map below shows where it is prevalent malaria and where it has been reduced considerably over the years, but the disease has defied removal in areas of concentrated transmission.
This Map shows that the light colour low intensity and the darker colour shows the highest intensity of malaria transmission (grey no malaria transmission).
This graph shows the difference between 2004 -2009 and how the malaria increases year to year as this shows that 2009 malaria increase more than other years.
The distribution of malaria is very much from different country and within the countries it's all recorded cases external of Africa were concerted in nine countries these are showing below in the list.Malaria map
This image shows that the estimated that the lifetime risk of developing skin cancer is 1 in 100 for men and women in the UK and the around the world. This shows that many women and money die for skin cancer over the years.
Therefore skin cancer can occur anywhere on the body and is more dangerous. It's related to the common mole and changes in the appearance of moles on people's body should be checked by their GP.
Figure 1.1 shows the percentage distribution of skin cancer on parts of the body. Although the percentages may not put in owing to rounding.
Figure 1.1: Percentage distribution of malignant melanoma on parts of the body
Data below shows that lot of cases of skin cancer were diagnosed in women and male in the UK in 2007 and the numbers and rates for the element countries of the UK are shown in Table.Numbers and rates of new cases for malignant melanoma in the UK
This table shows that skin cancer is more common in women than men with an M: F ratio of 4:5. In 2007, it was the most common cancer in females and males: for both sexes joint. The distribution of cases on the body also varies by sex by looking at the table 1.1 it explains the male cases arise on the trunk of the body.
The incidence rates of adults are rise steadily with age (Figure 1.2). Figure 2.1: Numbers of deaths and age-specific mortality rates by sex, malignant melanoma, UK, 2007
The chart graph shows the numbers of deaths and the age rates are shown in Figure 2.1. The death rates increase more and more with age but as the chart shows, large numbers of deaths occur in younger people. In 2008 people at the aged less than 40 died from skin cancer and half of all deaths were in people aged less than 70.
Trends by age at death - The death rate in aged 50 and over are dying from skin cancer in the around the world and the figures showed that the rate of people aged 50 and over dying from skin cancer in the UK increased to a million of deaths in 1983 to 2007.
This indicated that the age causes the death rates in the UK (Figure 2.2) show that the number of death increased as any males dead in the early 1982s to 2007. Also the females rate were slightly higher than the males because in the early 1980s mans don't aware of the sun, but this shows the level from the 1980s onwards and now many people die in the 2000s.Figure 2.2: European age-standardised incidence and mortality rates, malignant melanoma, by sex, UK
This chart graph shows the increases in death reflect rate since the 1980s. This compared women and men, without being affected by the higher female rate, and this is a reflection of the better female survival rates.
The chart graph below shows the increasing skin cancer incidence rates, with the high rate of increase for men than women; this indicated the feature of many populations.
Figure 2.3:Age-specific mortality rates, malignant melanoma, males, UK, 1971-2007
The charts graph shows the death rates of women over 65 have more than 3.0 rates of death and over the same period (Figure 2.4). This indicated the younger age is indication that female rates are levelling high.
Figure 2.4:Age-specific mortality rates, malignant melanoma, females, UK
More men than women are affected malaria and skin cancer
Malaria affects both men and women this is because malaria access to treatment often different for women and men and it is very much influenced by gender roles and issues. For example
The bullet point below explains that malaria in pregnancy is the branch of medicine that deals with the care of women during pregnancy and childbirth, social and medical problem requiring of having solution during the pregnant constitute the main risk group for malaria and lot of deaths due to malaria in Africa occur in pregnant women and children.
Women, particularly pregnant women and children are high risk of constricting malaria in both high and low malaria prevalent areas for both biological and social reasons. In this point the rate of malaria infection is higher in pregnant women because of their decreased protection. This indicated that infection the rates are highest in first and second parity women with lower rates in later pregnancies.
Most of pregnant women suffer from malaria on account of their change in body bodily processes making them at smallest amount of twice as attractive to mosquitoes compared to non-pregnant women.
The uneven balance of influence between men and women and inequitable access to health care and financial resources as a result of gender and other social inequalities covers the way for women's vulnerability to malaria and other infectious diseases, as well as affecting their ability to respond suitably and access prevention and treatment efforts where available.
Malaria - In some societies, men have a greater work-related risk of contracting malaria than women; this indicated that if male works in mines to areas of high endemicity for work. While women who get up before dawn to perform household tasks may also be exposed to mosquitoes and as a result to malaria infection. In other societies, the activities of men and women during the biting times may result in equal risks of infection. For example sleeping arrangements may also affect malaria transmission. In some societies, men tend to sleep outdoors and this may increase their risk of exposure to mosquitoes.
Skin cancer - Death rates of male suffering from the most deadly form of skin cancer have doubled in the previous years. This also got to do with gender roles and types of jobs male do. In this point there are lot of males leave it up to their partners or mothers to remind them to use sunscreen. Sex and gender interact to produce skin cancer as male and women tend to gets skin cancer anywhere in the body.
Statistics of race, age, gender Skin cancer
Incidence rates have been increasing for the least years and it's the most recent time that skin cancer increased the occurred to young people especially white women at age 15 to 39 and older people at age 65 years and above.
Skin cancer is the most common shape of cancer for young people at age 25-29 years old and its shape cancer for adolescents and young people at the age of 15-29 years old.
Skin cancer is increasing in females at the age of 15-29 and males in the same age group. Also the upper body is the most common place for developing of skin cancer which may be the result of high risk tanning behaviours.
One in 100 male and women will be diagnosed with skin cancer during their lifetime. This also linked to male at age 50 are at a higher risk of developing skin cancer than the general population.
Statistics of race, age, gender of Malaria
In areas with intense malaria conduction people can develop protection after repeated infections without at the appointed time and effective treatment which malaria can develop into a severe cerebral form followed by death.
Malaria is in the middle of the five leading causes of death in children and pregnant women and it's the main disease that kills more than 90% in world, which estimated annual number of deaths over million.
Malaria is the quiet urgent situation that kills people in 30 seconds. Although over million people die from malaria each year, this indicated that mostly are children, with lot of malaria cases occurring in around the world.
Malaria weigh downs children's education and social development as many children who survive the serious illness of malaria develops, physical and mental harm; also pregnant women and their unborn babies are also mainly vulnerable to malaria, consequently of low birth weight.
The Comparison of malaria and skin cancer and the number of people with disease also the ethnic grouping, age, death and the highest transmission groups; are white people mostly because the graphs below shows that white people had the highest occurrence rate of skin cancer and people from different counties had the second highest rate of getting skin cancer. This indicated that many people dead from the disease each year and the graph below shows how many people out of 10% got skin cancer each year during the years 1999-2007.
As the chart graph shows the year of 2007 the result increases because 2000s until now some people don't aware of the sun burn and the mosquito bite Although any race is in a risk for it, but the chart graph shows that whites people have it worse than any other race this is because white people have the lightest skin. The lightest Skin is resolute by the amount of melanin in their skin. The less melanin they have, the lighter their skin. The melanin helps block out damaging of the sun rays, so white people are more possible to have skin damage from the sun than a black person.
The chart graph also shows how many people out of 100 got skin cancer each year during the years 1999-2007. Line charts showing the changes in melanoma of the skin incidence rates for males and females of various races and ethnicities.
Death Rates by Race and Ethnicity and gender - This chart graph above shows that from 1999-2007 the rate of people dying from skin cancer has diverse and depending on their race and ethnicity. This indicated that any race and ethnicity are high risk of skin cancer, but in this chart graph shows that the main people who are high risk is white people, because white people are high risk than any other group. This is because white people had the highest rate of deaths from skin cancer, followed by black people.
This chart graph shows the group which are the high risk, and by looking at the chart graph it shows males are higher risk than females. This is because males don't aware like it use to in the 1990s. But in 2000s males don't aware of the sun burn and don't use sun cream, while women's are awarding of using sun cream.
Line charts showing the changes in melanoma of the skin death rates for males and females of various races and ethnicities.
Malaria -Many ethnic groups are affected by Malaria this is because the common ethnic groups that are infected malaria are mostly the people who living in poor areas. This indicated that man and women are evenly infected by malaria also the young adults from malaria-no endemic countries, whites and Asians were more likely than blacks to develop severe falciparum malaria. For example
compared with black patients,
Asians had an higher risk of developing severe falciparum malaria;
Whites had a higher risk of developing malaria.
Blacks also were the higher risk of developing malaria
Malaria-common areas of the world, black patients may be more resistant to severe falciparum malaria. Asian and white patients show higher rates of vulnerability. Higher levels of falciparum forecasted severe falciparum malaria in the population. Although malaria areas are threatening international travellers to many areas of the developing world. This means that lot of people who goes travelling to counties or areas where malaria spread may become infected during trips, and resulting in a small number of deaths.
Ethnicity of international travellers should be considered in developing malaria prevention strategies for persons entering malaria endemic areas during their trip. Also Malaria prevention methods currently rely on mosquito avoidance and anti-malaria the prevention of disease using chemical drugs.
Trends in malaria cases and deaths with respect to intervention attempts. Taken from WHO World Malaria Report 2008.
This chart graph shows the data from 2001 to 2005, an estimated lot of people dead malaria. Consequently malaria is serious illness that affects many people around the world and it's the cause of between 1 to 10 million deaths every year and results of this chart graph shows many people are suffering and human misery around the world. In more than 40 countries across the continent, malaria takes its every day cost lot of young children die each day from a disease which is preventable, controllable and treatable. For example during this disease the pregnancy can result in maternal death and can lead to adverse birth outcomes such as Abortion, low-birth-weight infants and poor infant survival and development.
Trends in malaria cases and deaths with respect to intervention attempts. Taken from WHO World Malaria Report 2008.
This chart graphs shows that the contribute of malaria and the different Impact that malaria has on women and men and that both gender are suffering from the disease , also the gender perspective is essential for substantial reduction and elimination of malaria.
Malaria is a life threatening disease transmitted by mosquitoes and it was previously disease that came's from fetid marshes and bad atmosphere. Besides today about 40% of the world's population mainly those living in the world's poorest countries are high risk of malaria. This means that malaria is found the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world and causes more than million severe illnesses and at least one million deaths every year. Although many children who survive an incident of severe malaria may suffer from learning impairments or brain damage also the pregnant women and their unborn children are also mainly vulnerable to malaria, which is a major cause of present before birth mortality, low birth weight.
Skin cancer is the most common cancer in around the world and UK. Besides Skin cancer usually enters the whole body but mainly the head, face, neck, hands and arms. Although anyone race or gender can get skin cancer, but it is more common in people who
Spend a lot of time in the sun
Have light-colored skin,
Are over age 50
Although the skin cancer is highest rates in the age of 70s, there are a substantial number of cases at younger adult age. Almost a 3% of all cases occur in people at age of 15 to 43 and the age of 50. This pattern of increasing skin cancer incidence rates, with a faster rate of increase for men than women.