Smoking, Alcohol and Obesity in New Zealand

3465 words (14 pages) Essay

11th Oct 2017 Health Reference this

Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com.

Introduction

This research project is going to deal with three kinds of Maori trends, which have been issued from 1919 to the present and this research is going to identify and demonstrate about Smoking, Alcohol and Obesity. Those trends based on Northland, New Zealand. Additionally, each trend is identified by each difference question.

Below question of bullet points demonstrate what this research project is going to do.

  • Smoking: Why do Maori women smoke during pregnant?
  • Alcohol: Why do young Maori people drink alcohol?
  • Obesity: Why do Maori people have obesity?

Those above questions are going to be shown by ethical and cultural considerations as following methodologies, which are literature review and statistical data and graph. Moreover, those trends are approached to Maori Hauora form, which is Te Whare Tapa Wha and the form consider Taha Tinana (Physical health), Taha wairua (spiritual health), Taha wanau (family health), Taha hinengaro (mental health). For three Maori health trends, this research is going to involve health services which are accessibility and Affordability. Accessibility is that many Maori have issues on transport such as own car and transportation. Affordability is significant barrier for Maori to access general practitioner due to too high cost.

Methodology

-Literature Review

Literature review has plenty of sources for this research project. The example of resources is book, Internet, journals, government publications, dissertations, theses, electronic databases and reference materials. Those resources are helpful to understand and identify 3 Maori trends that I choose in existing knowledge. By using those resources even literature review makes the research project to avoid reinventing the wheel by undertaking research for which the conclusions are already known.

-Statistical data and Graph

Statistical data and graph provide factual data which is based on true events that is occurred in the past, thereby we can identify Maori trends. Additionally, those methodologies make this research easy to gather information and analysing trends.

â-Literature Review

Smoking:

Question1. Why do Maori women smoke during pregnant?

As national hospital data from 1999-2003, 39 percent of Maori women over 15 years old smoked during pregnant. On the other hands, 12.5 percent of non-Maori women over 15 years old smoked during pregnant. Even though Maori women had higher percent of smoking rate during pregnant, they tried to cut smoking for being safe of their baby. Below table is shown how many Maori women were quit smoking for pregnant.

Maori women(Age)

Smoking prevalence in population

Smoking during

pregnancy

Estimated spontaneous

quit rate

15-24

57.5%

40%

17.5%

25-34

60.2%

38.5%

22%

35-54

61%

37%

24%

Table 1. Smoking rate broken into age of Maori women

Below bullets are shown why they keep smoking during pregnancy.

  • Nicotine is addictive; Study participants smoked on average 9 cigarette per day even 52 percent participants smoked within 30 minutes of waking.
  • The women are healthy; The Maori women have not had experience health problems regarding with smoking. So, their motivation to quit is for baby.
  • Poor knowledge of increased risk; Maori pregnant women have poor knowledge of increased risk. So, they do not know what kind of effect baby is affected by smoking. For helping explanation, below table is shown.
 

Agree

%

Disagree

%

Don’t know

%

Low birth weight

47

78

7

12

6

10

Breathing problems and sickness in infant

49

82

1

2

10

17

Premature birth

28

47

9

15

23

38

Slower physical and mental growth of baby

25

42

12

20

23

38

Miscarriage

23

38

11

18

26

43

Placental damage

23

38

10

17

27

45

Problems with breastfeeding

13

22

18

30

29

48

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

46

78

4

7

10

17

Caesarean section

9

15

15

25

36

60

Low intelligence when the baby grow up

11

18

24

40

25

42

Table2. Belief statement about smoking during pregnancy

  • There are not may support agencies to help Maori pregnant women. 82% of women recall being advised to stop smoking but few health professionals provided cessation assistance or referral.
  • The delivered information was mixed; some women also felt supported to just cut down and were told not to quit as withdrawals could stress the baby.
  • The most significant reason why women keep smoking during pregnant is because most women tried to quit with 2 weeks of finding out they were pregnant but only 2 pregnancies were planned for pregnant and on average women did not know they were pregnant until 7-8weeks even they do not make a book with Midwife until 11-13 weeks.
  • They are surrounded by smokers; 62% of Maori population smoked. 67% of partners smoked. So, pregnant women can access easily in smoking area. Below table is shown environment.

b)Work environment

   
 

N

%

Colleagues smoke

31

52%

Easy to smoke at work

27

45%

Smoke with others

30

50%

  1. Social environment
   

Friends smoke:

N

%

Most do

37

62%

50/50

21

35%

     

Socialising venues

   

Home

48

80%

Pubs/Clubs

10

17%

Marae

9

15%

Club rooms

8

13%

Work

3

5%

Schools

2

3%

Other

2

3%

     

Easy to smoke there?

76

93%

Table3. Environment – a) Social and b) Work

Alcohol:

Question2. Why do young Maori drink alcohol?

Alcohol is widely used by youth of Maori. There were 1702 Maori students in the Youth’07 sample accounting for 18.7% of the total secondary school sample. 43.5% of all Maori students perceived that it was okay for people their age to drink alcohol regularly. Maori students think drinking alcohol was okay because 78% of their friends regularly drank alcohol. Additionally, 66% of students’ parents drank alcohol regularly at home. So, Maori students thought it was okay for them and below figure 1 is shown where Maori students get their alcohol from.

Figure1. Percentage of source

The most common problems associated with drinking alcohol were doing things that could have got them into serious trouble that is reported by 28% of current drinkers and getting injured after drinking alcohol (27%). 34% of all Maori students reported that within the previous month they had been a passenger in a car with a driver who had been drinking alcohol. Of those Maori students who had driven on a public road, 15% reported that they had driven a car after consuming alcohol. Additionally, drinking alcohol has affected in diverse way following bullet point will show.

  • Increased risks of motor vehicle collisions, injuries and deaths
  • Increased risks of crime
  • Increased risks of sexual risk taking
  • Mental health problems and suicidal behaviours

Below figure 2 is shown that problems associated with alcohol use among current drinkers.

Figure2. Problems associated with alcohol use among current drinkers

Three of problem associated with alcohol use are noticeable which are had unsafe sex, done things that could have got you into serious trouble and been injured after you had been drinking alcohol.

Diabetes

Question3. Why is Maori higher rate of diabetes?

There is variety reasons that make diabetes occurred and obesity is the most affected occurring obesity among diverse reasons. Below figure and table are going to show how many Maori population is obesity as dividing ethnic group.

Figure3. Proportion of the population aged 15+ who are obese, by sex& ethnic group

 

1989/1990

1997

Maori (%)

Non-Maori (%)

Maori (%)

Non- Maori (%)

Male

19.3

8.7

27.2

13.1

Female

20.0

12.2

27.9

18.1

         

Table4. Obesity prevalence rate, Maori, Non-Maori, 1998/1990, 1997

There are many Maori suffering diabetes and the population having diabetes in Maori are much higher than non-Maori. The population is nearly three times more common in Maori. Additionally, Maori being diagnosed have type 2 diabetes which are expected to significantly increase over the next 20 years with the biggest impact being on Maori, Pacific people and those living in deprived neighbourhoods. The main reason that many Maori are having type 2 diabetes is unequal access to and quality of diabetes care. Although there may be many other reasons to explain disparities of death and complications from type 2 diabetes, there is evidence that ethnic in access to and quality of care may play a role.

 

Number

Maori

Non-Maori

Total Deaths Hospitalisations

825

3,854

27%

193.4

3.6%

44.4

Females

Deaths Hospitalisations

369

1,743

22%

164.1

2.8%

37.2

Males

Deaths Hospitalisations

456

2,110

31.9%

222.8

4.5%

51.6

Table5. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, deaths (2000-2004) and hospitalizations (2003-2005) by ethnicity and sex

Maori age being diagnosed of type 2 diabetes are 47.8years, six years younger than non-Maori(54.2years) and the self-reported prevalence of diabetes was 3.5 times higher among Maori than among non-Maori and besides the risk for hospitalization because of type 2 diabetes is 4 times higher for Maori than non-Maori as above table4.

Find out how UKEssays.com can help you!

Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.

View our services

Diabetes has a tendency to bring other diseases. By doing this, diabetic complications are suffered that is renal failure, lower limb amputation, eyes problems and heart disease. Even those diabetic complications are diagnosed more for Maori than non-Maori.

Prevention of diabetes at a community level is predicated upon promotion of healthy diet, exercise and thus, weight control. However, policy and practice strongly believe behaviour change at the individual level is significant. It is unfortunately that this is going to solve diabetic epidemic and structural change at the level of taxation incentive, food regulation and advertising for healthy changes in manufacturing will be needed.

Ngati Porou Hauora (NPH) on the East Coast is implementing a programme called Ngati and Healthy. Their purpose is reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus by promoting a lifestyle characterised by healthy eating and regular exercise and also increase awareness of diabetes and pre-diabetic conditions both amongst those at high risk of developing diabetes.

Analysis

By using those above literature review, this research was demonstrated three Hauora trends which are smoking, alcohol and diabetes based on question. In addition, the information of data in literature review is going to be analysed with bullet points.

Smoking: why do Maori women smoke during pregnant?

  • High percentage of Maori women smoke during pregnant
  • Having poor knowledge of increased risks for baby. Pregnant women have know well 3 problems that is out of ten problems, which are low birth baby, breathing problems and sickness in infant and sudden infant death syndrome.
  • Not enough support agencies to help Maori pregnant women
  • Difficult environment to cease smoking at home and working place. There are many people smoke surroundings pregnant women.
  • Being ware of pregnant late cause unplanned pregnant. Pregnant women recognise after 2 weeks.
  • The delivered information was mixed

Alcohol: why do young Maori drink alcohol?

  • Having easy environment to drink alcohol by family and friends
  • Not being ware of drink alcohol
  • Nearly half percentage of Maori students perceived that alcohol use is okay
  • 78% of Maori students friends regularly drink alcohol
  • 66% of parents of Maori student regularly drink alcohol
  • Most Maori students take alcohol by friends and parents.
  • 28% of current drinker get into them serious trouble
  • 27% of current drinker are getting injured after drinking
  • 34% of all Maori students reported that within the previous month they had been a passenger in a car with a driver who had been drinking alcohol
  • Drinking alcohol has affected in mental health problems and suicidal behaviours

Diabetes: why is Maori higher rate of diabetes?

  • Common disease in Maori population
  • Three times higher than non- Maori population for Maori
  • Type 2 diabetes expected to significantly increase over next 20 years
  • Having unequal access to Maori for quality of diabetes care
  • Diabetic complications are diagnosed more for Maori which are renal failure, lower limb amputation, eyes problems and heart disease.
  • Significant treatment is weigh control
  • NPH (Ngati Porou Hauora) is implement for promoting promoting a lifestyle characterised

Conclusion

This research dealt three Hauora trends from 1919 to this present day regarding each questions. In the smoking part, many pregnant Maori women smoke during pregnancy. So, they need to support to cease smoking by education. As the research dealt, many pregnant Maori women have poor knowledge what side effect coming when they smoke during pregnant. This is most significant issues and other important issue is unplanned pregnancy. Therefore, they smoke until they recognise they are pregnant. To prevent this kind of happening, health provider have to deliver information to Maori female even male also to make them aware of side effect of smoking surrounding pregnant women. In the Alcohol part, Most Maori students are exposure to easily get alcohol and most significant problems is Maori students is not aware of seriousness of drinking alcohol because of their surroundings. Alcohol use make problems in variety situation and it make Maori students injured even seriously. So, to prevent this kind of situation, they need to be provided education. In diabetes part, type 2 diabetes is common disease among Maori even that disease is occurred three times higher than non-Maori. The reason that diabetes is occurred is closely relative with lifestyle and the rate of obesity is higher than non-Maori. So, Maori need to improve their life style by exercise, control weight and manage diet.

References

Health Quality& Safety Commission New Zealand, University of Auckland Lessons from research with Maori Women(2006), Retrieved from

http://www.hqsc.govt.nz/assets/CYMRC/Resources/RSP-Maori-Women-Smoking.pdf

New Zealand medical Association, The New Zealand Medical Journal, Why Maori women continue to smoke while pregnant, Marewa Glover, Anette Kira(n/d), Retrieved from

http://www.whakawhetu.co.nz/sites/default/files/why%20maori%20women%20continue%20to%20smoke.pdf

Heath Promotion Agency, Alcohol Use and Maori Young People (2007), Retrieved from

http://www.alcohol.org.nz/sites/default/files/researchpublications/pdfs/AlcoholENGLISHFact_Sheett_08LoRes.pdf

The New Zealand Medical Journal, Binge drinking among Maori secondary school students in New Zealand: association with source, exposure and perception of alcohol use (2013), Retrieved from

https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/read-the-journal/all-issues/2010-2019/2013/vol-126-no-1370/article-clark

University OTAGO. (n,d) Hauora: Maori Standards of Health IV. Retrieved from: http://www.otago.ac.nz/wellington/otago067748.pdf

Introduction

This research project is going to deal with three kinds of Maori trends, which have been issued from 1919 to the present and this research is going to identify and demonstrate about Smoking, Alcohol and Obesity. Those trends based on Northland, New Zealand. Additionally, each trend is identified by each difference question.

Below question of bullet points demonstrate what this research project is going to do.

  • Smoking: Why do Maori women smoke during pregnant?
  • Alcohol: Why do young Maori people drink alcohol?
  • Obesity: Why do Maori people have obesity?

Those above questions are going to be shown by ethical and cultural considerations as following methodologies, which are literature review and statistical data and graph. Moreover, those trends are approached to Maori Hauora form, which is Te Whare Tapa Wha and the form consider Taha Tinana (Physical health), Taha wairua (spiritual health), Taha wanau (family health), Taha hinengaro (mental health). For three Maori health trends, this research is going to involve health services which are accessibility and Affordability. Accessibility is that many Maori have issues on transport such as own car and transportation. Affordability is significant barrier for Maori to access general practitioner due to too high cost.

Methodology

-Literature Review

Literature review has plenty of sources for this research project. The example of resources is book, Internet, journals, government publications, dissertations, theses, electronic databases and reference materials. Those resources are helpful to understand and identify 3 Maori trends that I choose in existing knowledge. By using those resources even literature review makes the research project to avoid reinventing the wheel by undertaking research for which the conclusions are already known.

-Statistical data and Graph

Statistical data and graph provide factual data which is based on true events that is occurred in the past, thereby we can identify Maori trends. Additionally, those methodologies make this research easy to gather information and analysing trends.

â-Literature Review

Smoking:

Question1. Why do Maori women smoke during pregnant?

As national hospital data from 1999-2003, 39 percent of Maori women over 15 years old smoked during pregnant. On the other hands, 12.5 percent of non-Maori women over 15 years old smoked during pregnant. Even though Maori women had higher percent of smoking rate during pregnant, they tried to cut smoking for being safe of their baby. Below table is shown how many Maori women were quit smoking for pregnant.

Maori women(Age)

Smoking prevalence in population

Smoking during

pregnancy

Estimated spontaneous

quit rate

15-24

57.5%

40%

17.5%

25-34

60.2%

38.5%

22%

35-54

61%

37%

24%

Table 1. Smoking rate broken into age of Maori women

Below bullets are shown why they keep smoking during pregnancy.

  • Nicotine is addictive; Study participants smoked on average 9 cigarette per day even 52 percent participants smoked within 30 minutes of waking.
  • The women are healthy; The Maori women have not had experience health problems regarding with smoking. So, their motivation to quit is for baby.
  • Poor knowledge of increased risk; Maori pregnant women have poor knowledge of increased risk. So, they do not know what kind of effect baby is affected by smoking. For helping explanation, below table is shown.
 

Agree

%

Disagree

%

Don’t know

%

Low birth weight

47

78

7

12

6

10

Breathing problems and sickness in infant

49

82

1

2

10

17

Premature birth

28

47

9

15

23

38

Slower physical and mental growth of baby

25

42

12

20

23

38

Miscarriage

23

38

11

18

26

43

Placental damage

23

38

10

17

27

45

Problems with breastfeeding

13

22

18

30

29

48

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

46

78

4

7

10

17

Caesarean section

9

15

15

25

36

60

Low intelligence when the baby grow up

11

18

24

40

25

42

Table2. Belief statement about smoking during pregnancy

  • There are not may support agencies to help Maori pregnant women. 82% of women recall being advised to stop smoking but few health professionals provided cessation assistance or referral.
  • The delivered information was mixed; some women also felt supported to just cut down and were told not to quit as withdrawals could stress the baby.
  • The most significant reason why women keep smoking during pregnant is because most women tried to quit with 2 weeks of finding out they were pregnant but only 2 pregnancies were planned for pregnant and on average women did not know they were pregnant until 7-8weeks even they do not make a book with Midwife until 11-13 weeks.
  • They are surrounded by smokers; 62% of Maori population smoked. 67% of partners smoked. So, pregnant women can access easily in smoking area. Below table is shown environment.

b)Work environment

   
 

N

%

Colleagues smoke

31

52%

Easy to smoke at work

27

45%

Smoke with others

30

50%

  1. Social environment
   

Friends smoke:

N

%

Most do

37

62%

50/50

21

35%

     

Socialising venues

   

Home

48

80%

Pubs/Clubs

10

17%

Marae

9

15%

Club rooms

8

13%

Work

3

5%

Schools

2

3%

Other

2

3%

     

Easy to smoke there?

76

93%

Table3. Environment – a) Social and b) Work

Alcohol:

Question2. Why do young Maori drink alcohol?

Alcohol is widely used by youth of Maori. There were 1702 Maori students in the Youth’07 sample accounting for 18.7% of the total secondary school sample. 43.5% of all Maori students perceived that it was okay for people their age to drink alcohol regularly. Maori students think drinking alcohol was okay because 78% of their friends regularly drank alcohol. Additionally, 66% of students’ parents drank alcohol regularly at home. So, Maori students thought it was okay for them and below figure 1 is shown where Maori students get their alcohol from.

Figure1. Percentage of source

The most common problems associated with drinking alcohol were doing things that could have got them into serious trouble that is reported by 28% of current drinkers and getting injured after drinking alcohol (27%). 34% of all Maori students reported that within the previous month they had been a passenger in a car with a driver who had been drinking alcohol. Of those Maori students who had driven on a public road, 15% reported that they had driven a car after consuming alcohol. Additionally, drinking alcohol has affected in diverse way following bullet point will show.

  • Increased risks of motor vehicle collisions, injuries and deaths
  • Increased risks of crime
  • Increased risks of sexual risk taking
  • Mental health problems and suicidal behaviours

Below figure 2 is shown that problems associated with alcohol use among current drinkers.

Figure2. Problems associated with alcohol use among current drinkers

Three of problem associated with alcohol use are noticeable which are had unsafe sex, done things that could have got you into serious trouble and been injured after you had been drinking alcohol.

Diabetes

Question3. Why is Maori higher rate of diabetes?

There is variety reasons that make diabetes occurred and obesity is the most affected occurring obesity among diverse reasons. Below figure and table are going to show how many Maori population is obesity as dividing ethnic group.

Figure3. Proportion of the population aged 15+ who are obese, by sex& ethnic group

 

1989/1990

1997

Maori (%)

Non-Maori (%)

Maori (%)

Non- Maori (%)

Male

19.3

8.7

27.2

13.1

Female

20.0

12.2

27.9

18.1

         

Table4. Obesity prevalence rate, Maori, Non-Maori, 1998/1990, 1997

There are many Maori suffering diabetes and the population having diabetes in Maori are much higher than non-Maori. The population is nearly three times more common in Maori. Additionally, Maori being diagnosed have type 2 diabetes which are expected to significantly increase over the next 20 years with the biggest impact being on Maori, Pacific people and those living in deprived neighbourhoods. The main reason that many Maori are having type 2 diabetes is unequal access to and quality of diabetes care. Although there may be many other reasons to explain disparities of death and complications from type 2 diabetes, there is evidence that ethnic in access to and quality of care may play a role.

 

Number

Maori

Non-Maori

Total Deaths Hospitalisations

825

3,854

27%

193.4

3.6%

44.4

Females

Deaths Hospitalisations

369

1,743

22%

164.1

2.8%

37.2

Males

Deaths Hospitalisations

456

2,110

31.9%

222.8

4.5%

51.6

Table5. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, deaths (2000-2004) and hospitalizations (2003-2005) by ethnicity and sex

Maori age being diagnosed of type 2 diabetes are 47.8years, six years younger than non-Maori(54.2years) and the self-reported prevalence of diabetes was 3.5 times higher among Maori than among non-Maori and besides the risk for hospitalization because of type 2 diabetes is 4 times higher for Maori than non-Maori as above table4.

Diabetes has a tendency to bring other diseases. By doing this, diabetic complications are suffered that is renal failure, lower limb amputation, eyes problems and heart disease. Even those diabetic complications are diagnosed more for Maori than non-Maori.

Prevention of diabetes at a community level is predicated upon promotion of healthy diet, exercise and thus, weight control. However, policy and practice strongly believe behaviour change at the individual level is significant. It is unfortunately that this is going to solve diabetic epidemic and structural change at the level of taxation incentive, food regulation and advertising for healthy changes in manufacturing will be needed.

Ngati Porou Hauora (NPH) on the East Coast is implementing a programme called Ngati and Healthy. Their purpose is reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus by promoting a lifestyle characterised by healthy eating and regular exercise and also increase awareness of diabetes and pre-diabetic conditions both amongst those at high risk of developing diabetes.

Analysis

By using those above literature review, this research was demonstrated three Hauora trends which are smoking, alcohol and diabetes based on question. In addition, the information of data in literature review is going to be analysed with bullet points.

Smoking: why do Maori women smoke during pregnant?

  • High percentage of Maori women smoke during pregnant
  • Having poor knowledge of increased risks for baby. Pregnant women have know well 3 problems that is out of ten problems, which are low birth baby, breathing problems and sickness in infant and sudden infant death syndrome.
  • Not enough support agencies to help Maori pregnant women
  • Difficult environment to cease smoking at home and working place. There are many people smoke surroundings pregnant women.
  • Being ware of pregnant late cause unplanned pregnant. Pregnant women recognise after 2 weeks.
  • The delivered information was mixed

Alcohol: why do young Maori drink alcohol?

  • Having easy environment to drink alcohol by family and friends
  • Not being ware of drink alcohol
  • Nearly half percentage of Maori students perceived that alcohol use is okay
  • 78% of Maori students friends regularly drink alcohol
  • 66% of parents of Maori student regularly drink alcohol
  • Most Maori students take alcohol by friends and parents.
  • 28% of current drinker get into them serious trouble
  • 27% of current drinker are getting injured after drinking
  • 34% of all Maori students reported that within the previous month they had been a passenger in a car with a driver who had been drinking alcohol
  • Drinking alcohol has affected in mental health problems and suicidal behaviours

Diabetes: why is Maori higher rate of diabetes?

  • Common disease in Maori population
  • Three times higher than non- Maori population for Maori
  • Type 2 diabetes expected to significantly increase over next 20 years
  • Having unequal access to Maori for quality of diabetes care
  • Diabetic complications are diagnosed more for Maori which are renal failure, lower limb amputation, eyes problems and heart disease.
  • Significant treatment is weigh control
  • NPH (Ngati Porou Hauora) is implement for promoting promoting a lifestyle characterised

Conclusion

This research dealt three Hauora trends from 1919 to this present day regarding each questions. In the smoking part, many pregnant Maori women smoke during pregnancy. So, they need to support to cease smoking by education. As the research dealt, many pregnant Maori women have poor knowledge what side effect coming when they smoke during pregnant. This is most significant issues and other important issue is unplanned pregnancy. Therefore, they smoke until they recognise they are pregnant. To prevent this kind of happening, health provider have to deliver information to Maori female even male also to make them aware of side effect of smoking surrounding pregnant women. In the Alcohol part, Most Maori students are exposure to easily get alcohol and most significant problems is Maori students is not aware of seriousness of drinking alcohol because of their surroundings. Alcohol use make problems in variety situation and it make Maori students injured even seriously. So, to prevent this kind of situation, they need to be provided education. In diabetes part, type 2 diabetes is common disease among Maori even that disease is occurred three times higher than non-Maori. The reason that diabetes is occurred is closely relative with lifestyle and the rate of obesity is higher than non-Maori. So, Maori need to improve their life style by exercise, control weight and manage diet.

References

Health Quality& Safety Commission New Zealand, University of Auckland Lessons from research with Maori Women(2006), Retrieved from

http://www.hqsc.govt.nz/assets/CYMRC/Resources/RSP-Maori-Women-Smoking.pdf

New Zealand medical Association, The New Zealand Medical Journal, Why Maori women continue to smoke while pregnant, Marewa Glover, Anette Kira(n/d), Retrieved from

http://www.whakawhetu.co.nz/sites/default/files/why%20maori%20women%20continue%20to%20smoke.pdf

Heath Promotion Agency, Alcohol Use and Maori Young People (2007), Retrieved from

http://www.alcohol.org.nz/sites/default/files/researchpublications/pdfs/AlcoholENGLISHFact_Sheett_08LoRes.pdf

The New Zealand Medical Journal, Binge drinking among Maori secondary school students in New Zealand: association with source, exposure and perception of alcohol use (2013), Retrieved from

https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/read-the-journal/all-issues/2010-2019/2013/vol-126-no-1370/article-clark

University OTAGO. (n,d) Hauora: Maori Standards of Health IV. Retrieved from: http://www.otago.ac.nz/wellington/otago067748.pdf

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: