Nicotine was found in tobacco in 1828, and scientists found out the tobacco contains thousands of chemicals that effects smokers' brain and body. Those components are working in brain and create a nicotine, this nicotine make the smoker became nicotine addiction. But the nicotine addiction is very strong like a heroin and cocaine that scientists found out in recently studies (U.S. Department of). Nicotine from tobacco is a substance, it carries a toxic chemical and can cause cancer, because it has many toxic chemicals in a cigarette, while smoking is a chemical reaction occurring toxicants substances should be produced, from the tobacco. According to research over 4,000 toxic compounds present in cigarette, and a lot of them go into their lungs and go to their surrounding (Ginzel, 1990).
Passive smoking is breathing in the smoke of smokers, cigars or pipes. Environmental smoke includes the smoke exhaled from the smoker and the smoke emitted from the burning cigarette. Stream smoke from the burning cigarettes tend to wander in the room longer and the concentrations of carcinogens than the smoke exhaled from the smoker. So to have people smoking in the home, whether smoking in another room, the children remain at increased risk for smoke inhalation.
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In addition, nicotine enters the body, while tobacco is burned; at the same time the nicotine enters the bloodstream through the lungs. It passes through the mucous membranes of the mouth or nose to enter the bloodstream. Nicotine could also enter the bloodstream by passing through the skin. When the nicotine go into the bloodstream, it delivered to body and brain, where it begins specific types of receptors known as cholinergic receptors" (U.S. Department of). On the other hand, while nicotine in the body "is converted to cotinine, cotinine could be used as an indirect measure of recent exposure to tobacco smoke one. Level of nicotine in hair and cotinine levels in body fluids such as saliva and urine has been proven increased with increasing nicotine levels to environmental tobacco smoke free environment reports (ETS) exposure"(Lukachko, 1999).
Therefore, environmental tobacco smokes is a complex mixture of more than 4,000 chemicals, both gases and particles, are produced by burning a cigarette. However, relatively little known chemical toxicants have the potential to cause damage in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Lukachko, 1999). On the other hand, environmental tobacco smoke is a carcinogen in human lungs, and it make about 3,000 lung cancer deaths in secondhand smoker each year (Lukachko, 1999).
Today, tobacco is the cause of 400,000 deaths each year in America, one of five people died. Medical expenses as well as documents of smoking, many people have quit smoking is difficult, and many others still become that addict about 1200 per day in the U.S. researchers are trying to very much understand the effects of nicotine on the brain and body, determine why it is so addictive, and help smokers break their organizations for the better (U.S. Department of, 2008).
The fact is these like smokers, non-smokers when inhaling secondhand smoke, absorb 4,000 chemical compounds (Cicetti, 2007). Thus, it has about 40,000 die in heart disease and 3,000 die in lung cancer in United States each year (Cicetti, 2007, Para. 3).
Actually, most people still do not realize the danger of secondhand smoke mistakenly believing it is not dangerous if they do not smoke. However, there is unquestionable evidence that when exposed to a cigarette smoke for a few decades, people get about 20 percent to have lung cancer (Cicetti, 2007, Para. 5). Thus, "secondhand smoke is not a mere annoyance. It is a serious health hazard that could lead to disease and premature death in children and nonsmoking adults" (Kaufman, 2006, p. A01).
Moreover, secondhand smoke leads to damage blood vessels and, consequently, to cardiovascular risks, also altering blood cholesterol levels, and lessening the ability to exercise. The compounds found in tobacco smoke and causing cancer are the following: arsenic, benzene, ethylene oxide, and formaldehyde. In addition, some other chemicals are responsible for irritating lungs (ammonia), hampering and breathing (carbon monoxide), interfering with respiration (hydrogen cyanide) and toxic effect if inhaled (methanol).
As you can see the secondhand smoke is made your health really bad. It affect your health directly as a smoker. A lot of people did not recognize that if they hang around with the people who is smoking was not affected your heath, but base on those information you can see the secondhand smoke is like a smoker.
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Beside smoking effects in adult health, smoking also effect in environmental tobacco smoke that children exposed to respiratory infections more often than four times higher than children who do not regularly live at the environmental tobacco smoke like in house no one is smoking. According to Strachan and Cook found the children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home were 57 percent more likely than non exposed children contract lower respiratory tract disease in three years of life, and it is also
Children with asthma appear to be more susceptible than others to affect the lungs, it acts related to the lungs of environmental tobacco smoke. The studies have provided a range from 8 percent to 33 percent of cases of middle ear effusion with environmental tobacco smoke. These studies have been controlled to a daycare attendance and other risk factors known to middle-ear disease. (Lukachko, 1999)
Passive smoking not only affects the lungs of children but also affects the brain, heart, gut ... As of respiratory diseases, numerous studies have demonstrated that passive smoking increases the risk of tuberculosis infection, the onset of asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, ... or children frequent cough, runny nose.
For example, Based on data from household interviews and health examinations of about 4,000 children (Lund, 2003), it shown the greater rate of dental caries with young children exposed to secondhand smoke in comparison with children who do not grow up around smokers: "this is the first study in the United States to associate secondhand smoking with dental caries - a public health problem that cost an estimated $4.5 billion annually. Although the occurrence of dental caries in children has declined dramatically in the United States, little headway has been made in reducing it between children living in poverty, who generally have less access to dental care and appear to be more vulnerable to caries" (Lund, 2003, p. 826). The evidence on secondhand smoke also show the risk of lower respiratory tract infections, middle ear infections and worsening asthma symptoms too (Lukachko, 1999).
Experts estimate that each year about 150,000 to 300,000 children under 18 months of age with acute bronchitis or pneumonia related to the Smoke Free Environment. Children under 1 year old are the children of smokers with acute bronchitis or pneumonia more than double those of nonsmokers.
In fact, the growth of the bacteria that can cause caries is promoted by nicotine so the mothers kissing their children are likely to pass on these bacteria. Having examined about 4,000 children aged 4 to 11 years (Lund, 2003), the study has shown that if children had high levels of a byproduct of nicotine, cotinine, they had greater risk of developing caries. The other studies have shown that passive smoking is harmful for children's health and children should grow up in a smoke-free environment (Collaco 2008). Therefore, secondhand smoke from another smoker is just an as harmful to your children, and need to avoid breathing any smoke that is burring off the end of cigarette or cigar. It contains the poisons like tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide. We know smoking itself causes problems with the placenta, reduces the children's weight, and affects his IQ. Whether secondhand smoke puts you and your children at risk for the same things is unknown. However, since we're sure that first smoke is harmful, it's a good idea to be cautious about secondhand smoke too. In addition smoke could causes the children die after born in 1 month to 1 years(Lukachko, 1999). Nevertheless, there is controversy over harms of secondhand smoking. For example, in 1998, the International Agency for Research on Cancer on environmental tobacco smoke reported that risk of lung cancer was weakly linked to exposure to passive smoking (Philanthropies, 2008).
Children in families with smokers are at risk to asthma increased more than 2 times daily, the number of hospitalizations for asthma treatment is much more than children whose family members do not smoke drugs. These children are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke or sore throat, inflammation of nasal congestion, hoarseness, and flu than non-exposed children. Children who are exposed to secondhand smoke also scraping the tonsils VA and cut more.
However, in their press release the World Health Organization (WHO) affirmed the harms of passive smoking. It turned out to be the attempts to discredit scientific studies by such tobacco companies as British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and others. This controversy was aimed at discrediting the WHO as an institution and cutting its budget. The World Health Organization reported that in the 20th century tobacco "smoking killed 100 million people throughout the world and in the current century that it could kill one billion people". (Philanthropies, 2008).
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Beside the secondhand smoke effect the children, the environmental tobacco smoke could affect lung cancer who never smokes because of the environmental tobacco smoke. The risk of the lung cancer from 1.2 to 1.3 time than the other that mean it's about 20 to 30 percent risk of lung cancer in secondhand smoke (Lukachko, 1999) .
It is worth noting that occasional exposure to secondhand smoking is considered to be a small but a cancer risk for nonsmokers . The risk depends on the dose received during some period of time. The evidence proved that the risk is greater in workplaces, that is, where non-smokers spend many hours and where cigarette smoke is prevalent with the patrons and employees smoking throughout the working day (Philanthropies, 2008).
On the other hand, they found the toxicants like nitrogen oxides, ammonia, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, methyl isocyanate, nicotine, and 43 compounds are classified by the EPA as know or suspected human substance cancer, in the environmental tobacco smoke(Lukachko, 1999). That's why the person was not smoke, but they inhalation smoke of tobacco will get lung cancer. Each year has 3,000 people die, because lung cancer that get from the secondhand smoke. On the other hand the Surgeon General said "the person who live with a smoker has a chance to get a risk of cancer in breast cancer, nasal sinus cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer and in adults, and leukemia, lymphoma, and brain tumors in children". They are also said living with a smoker will be get a chance to get a lung cancer from 20 to 30 percent ("Secondhand smoke: questions," 2007).
According to U.S. Surgeon General Richard H. Carmona declared that secondhand smoke is more harmful for a person's health than it was previously thought (bor, Fritze , & Beasley, 2006). Thus, the 2006 study of the United States Centers for Disease Control has reported that if a person works or lives in a place where there is free smoking, "the risk of developing heart disease increases for non-smokers by 25-30% and lung cancer by 20-30%". (Kaufman, 2006). In addition, secondhand smoking leads to respiratory problems, asthma attacks, ear infections, and sudden infant death syndrome in children.
Nevertheless, a 2007 Gallup poll showed the results as the following: 10% of respondents do not feel secondhand smoke to be too harmful and 5% answered that it was not at all harmful (Saad, 2007). As we see, there are people who adhere to the opinion that secondhand smoke is not harmful. People may smoke from time to time for pleasure; some of them used to smoking and following a habit to satisfy an addiction to the nicotine in tobacco or to the very act of smoking. Certainly, it is hard to argue with these people as smoking has become their habit and they do not concern about other people's health. On the other side, people who are indifferent to their own health believing that secondhand smoke is not harmful for them.
"According to National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimates, 161,840 people - smokers, former smokers and non-smokers - will die of lung cancer in the U.S. in 2008. That is more people than the combined total of the next four biggest cancer killers: colon cancer (49,960 deaths), breast cancer (40,930 deaths), pancreatic cancer (34, 290 deaths) and prostate cancer (28,660)." ("Lung cancer in," 2008)
Now a day, a lot of company doesn't allow employee smoking in the smoking room. They let the employee smoke outside the building. This is really helping for non smoking employee and fair for them, because they are not smoking and they are not supposing to take a risk of their health.
Nevertheless, passive smoking is dangerous for our health and "on the national level, several laws restricting and smoking in public places have been passed. Smoking is also banned on all domestic airline flights and nearly all flights between the United States and foreign destinations. All interstate bus travels is, smoke free. Smoking is also prohibited or restricted to specially designated areas on trains traveling within the United States" (Cicetti 2007).
To protect young children, experts recommend parents as follows:
- Keep children away from smoking.
- Use a coat to wear outside each smoker.
- Wash your hands after smoking.
- Use other measures to stop smoking support
To cope with the increasing restriction of smoking, big tobacco manufacturers in Japan has launched a product which the company claims is the first smokeless tobacco in the world.
Mint looks Zerostyle regular cigarettes, but contains a tube containing a removable medication afraid. This tube is inserted into the filter and the smoker can enjoy a taste of the drug, plus the pleasant fragrance of mint flavor. The most special thing is these drugs do not release the smoke
According to a study published by the Journal of the American Medical Association one of the reason to protect nonsmokers in restaurant and bar that the waitresses have a effect smoke more than the others with high risk of lung and heart disease than the other who is not work in bar or restaurant. In addition according to University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, "one of the same work shifts in a smoky bar is equivalent to smoking 16 cigarettes a day. Two hours in a smoky bar is like smoking four cigarettes" ("Smoking in public places," 2010)
Obama Signs Legislation to Restrict Internet trading of tobacco products March 31, the president signed into law legislation that will severely restrict the illegal sale of cigarettes and other tobacco products through the Internet. This law was overwhelmingly approved U.S. House of Representatives and the Senate earlier in March. The Prevent All Cigarette trading (PACT) Act will require payment of all tobacco taxes are applied before delivery of the sales are not face to face, that the age of the tasks buy check when buying and selling such distribution and completely prohibit the distribution of tobacco products through the U.S. mail in the other provisions. Most parts of the law takes effect in 90 days. ("Tobacco control tribune," 2010)
Because the smoking is bad for health and impact to children that why's a lot of state and federal has offer many way to help smokers quite smoke. One of them is a website that has many program help quit smoking, some of the website will show the smokers how to quit smoking a cigarette with the step by step one of them is www.ffsonline.org . This website could provide the advisor and support smokers to quit smokers. Smokers could also registered nurses and respiratory therapists through our Lung HelpLine at 1-800-LUNG-USA. ("Lights out for," 2010). In addition if you live in Washington State you could call a toll free at (800) quit-now or you could visit the website www.quitline.com or you could call the Tobacco Prevention and Education program at each state, they will help and show you how to quit smoking..
After decades of research, scientists have demonstrated the benefits of eliminating tobacco smoke, prevent environmental pollution. This is a work necessary to protect the health of everyone, especially when that did not want to breathe the air pollution there.
Service or learn to observe, the risk of causing illness that may prevent passive smoking, the balance of the third, aftScientific evidence for or: there is no safe level for any cancer-causing agents. So environmental tobacco smoke as much or even less, should be eliminated at their workplaces, private homes and public places. As a reminder that smoke and odors can be reduced by ventilation systems, but some chemicals are still hanging around the house several hours after smoking.
Public places as enclosed spaces frequented by the public, activities such as offices, hospitals, schools, professional or public places, banks, restaurants, entertainment, sports performance, training fitness training, waiting room, reception room ... people living in this environment should be protected, sheltered before the dangers of toxic substances in tobacco smoke.
The agency safety and health workers are encouraging each facility must have a plan on smoking. Primary purpose is to protect those who do not smoke, avoid breathing secondhand smoke in an unwanted environment.
Here are a few methods can be applied:
a-Banning smoking in the premises or restrict smoking in designated locations;
b-air in smoking rooms are allowed to exit directly out outdoors with ventilation, not flow into other rooms. This room must be placed separately from the work to non-smokers from the back and forth. Those who do not smoke should not use this room for any demand, any service.
If you set up outdoor smoking area shall prohibit smoking right outside the doors for non-smokers can use that path. Should be consistent with outdoor ashtrays to break ground population, smoking;
e-There should be programs to help people who want to quit. Sometimes working in the smoking ban is encouraging people addicted motivation goodbye "yellow smoke", because many people are unaware that their habit was harmful to others.
Do not smoke or let guests smoke in the house;
b-If for reasons of force majeure that a family member smoking indoors, they should increase the ventilation system in rooms where people smoke it, expand the window, use extra fans to smoke out the milk;
c-No smoking around children, especially infants because they are highly susceptible to cigarette smoke;
e-Not to keep the baby, who helped the smoke in the house or near them;
Select e-home child care has a clear plan for smoking ban.
Do not smoke, but want to avoid the risk of environmental tobacco smoke pollution, they may protect themselves by:
a. Tell everyone they have contact with cigarette smoke is offensive to her. To sign "Please do not smoke" in the house, car, office work.
b-When the restaurant, so pick the smoking areas as far as possible;
c. Require government measures to protect against secondhand smoke in public places;
e-Support the establishment plans to ban smoking;
e-When meeting people, where the proposal is specifically for people addicted to smoking;
g-on professional or public, to sit as far from smokers as possible;
h-If anyone smoke near her, then gently tell them that you are allergic to smoke. Or away from where people smoke.
As you can see the second smoke can cause many health risks. For instance, smoke can harm the heart. Anyone who lives with a smoker is at risk for developing lung cancer or even having a heart attack. In addition, inhaling secondhand smoke is especially dangerous for babies and young children. Their lungs are delicate and still developing. The smoke makes their lungs less able completely to will with air. To protect people who are not smoking, most of the state now has a lot of rules to protect them. One rule that smoker could not smoke in public like airport or school. In addition, federal and many states have a law that prohibiting and smoking in public facilities as hospitals, schools, airports, and bus terminals.
In many countries, the problem is excess smoke inhalation is a special public attention. The reason is there much evidence of adverse effects caused by this pollution to health.
All are caused by residual smoke. Not to mention that many cases of lung cancer, heart disease, the risk of uterine cancer. So the problem of passive smoking should be more public agencies and institutions of each country abetting satisfactorily resolved, to eliminate the acceptance of this reluctance to tobacco smoke pollution.
And so people are comfortable living life in peace.
Lung cancer in non-smokers is sixth biggest cancer
killer. (2008, septenber 15). Retrieved from http://www.lungcanceralliance.org/non_smokers_lungcancer_9_15_08.html
Tobacco control tribune. (2010). American Lung
Association, Retrieved from http://slati.lungusa.org/reports/TobaccoTribune_March2010.pdf
Lights out for light cigarettes . (2010). American Lung
Association, Retrieved from http://www.lungusa.org/about-us/our-impact/top-stories/lights-out.html
("Lights out for," 2010)
Smoking in public places law. (2010). Clark County Public Health, Retrieved from
("Smoking in public," 2010)