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Genetic inheritance, access to health care, personal behaviour and the general external environment (air, water, cleanliness, pollution) affects a person’s health to a great deal. In addition to that, research has proven there to be some relationship between health and social factors and cultural factors. Effects of social networks, job stress excreta on health have increased in the recent years and are still on the rise.
Based on the given case study, this paper discusses the various communication roles of health and social care services. It analyses how the society plays a role in this context and the various ways these care is provided in various societies because of their culture and beliefs.
LO1: Understanding approaches & strategies utilized to measure monitor and control the incidence of disease in communities
Different communities use different approaches to monitor and control incidence on diseases. Their culture, beliefs make them take different decisions at different situations.
Each society affects the way its residents live their lives. How they value life and everything related to it, is how they treat illness and diseases. There are societies where common cold is nothing new. It is a common phenomenon and is not given much thought or consideration at all. Just take a cup of tea and sleep, you will feel better, is their policy. Then there are societies where common cold is taken most seriously, the infected person is isolated and kept in closed room, given medicines, soups and what not.
Society’s custom, norm, experiences are the agencies that determine the level of health and social care a person would receive while suffering from different levels of diseases. Economy is another factor. A rich society would take care of smaller illness with grater seriousness while a poorer society would choose to ignore them being short in financial terms.
One major infectious disease in Bangladesh is typhoid. It is a bacterial disease which is spread through contact though water and food contaminated by sewerage or faecal matter. The victims of this disease exhibit high fever. If it is left untreated, mortality rate can increase up to 20%. The bacteria Salmonella enterica is the bearer of this disease. The course untreated typhoid is divided into four stages, in four weeks.
One major non-infectious disease in Bangladesh is cardio vascular disease. An analysis of the INTERHEART control showed further that, Bangladeshis had the highest and surprising prevalence of risk factors related to CVD among other countries participating. Former and current smoking (59.9%) self-reported history of hypertension (14.3%), abdomen obesity (43.3%) Depression (43%) and high ApoB100/Apo-I ratio (59.6%).
Different health care communities use different approaches to solve the same health issues. Their effectiveness is obviously different. The various approaches used by various communities come from their varied backgrounds. The way they are brought up, their cultural beliefs are what matter and what changes their approaches towards everything including health care.
Needless to say, all the approaches do not provide the same result. For example, family planning education in United States of America is not as effective as it is in Denmark. It is due to the different approaches taken by both the countries and Denmark’s has proven to be much better.
But there is no one perfect approach to any health problem and no wrong approach either. All the approaches, no matter how much or less effective they are, are correct.
According to kingsfund.org.uk the methods of health and social care has evolved a lot in the past decades. But they still aren’t enough for all the health and social treatment and support a person needs. The traditional lines between hospital based specialists and GP’s, community based and hospital services, and physical and mental health services shows and proves that care is fragmented quite often and integrated care, which should be a rule is an option now.
Moreover, as it happened in the past, with the development of technology, current modes of care is already becoming out dated as technologies and security are updating and changing so rapidly, changing the way patients interact with their service providers. Although care still refers and relies a great deal to the service providers, on their individual expertise and their expensive professional input, it current methods need to be evolved to a great extent.
Health and social care service are completely interrelated. But they are rarely provided together hence creating various problems for the patients. For example, when people are sent to the hospital or a clinic, or they stay there for a long period of time, they do not get proper care service; hence do not get as better as they would at home under proper care service. Sometimes, they are given the same service twice, or an important part of care is missing. Meaning, the patients have not gotten the service they deserve or need, leaving them at a risk of a greater harm. The service providers, as in the health care staff may fail to or miss the opportunities which might have made things better for the patients and service receivers resulting in a degradation of the patient’s health.
So it goes without saying that health and social care are completely interrelated.
LO 2: Investigating the implications of illness and disease in communities for the provision for health and social care services
Various communities have always provided various forms of healthcare and social care services based on their own cultures and practises. These reasons and implications have been explained in the report
Mrs. Senna is a 34 years old woman diagnosed with obesity; she has been administered to the hospital by a paramedic team from the emergency medical services as she has suffered a heart attack at home. Mrs Sienna was advised by her doctor that she has developed high blood pressure as it is one of the risks of obesity. She was advised that she will be given various treatment options such as Gastric Bypass Surge, and provided with remedial care. Mrs Sienna was given medicine to reduce her cholesterols levels in her blood and blood pressure; she was also advised by her dietician that she will have to change her diet to a healthier alternative to help her maintain a healthy weight.
Question 6: Analyzing the future needs of health and social care influenced by current lifestyle choices
Health and social care is necessary whenever our health degrades. If every person decides to life a healthy life and takes up healthier life style choices, the society is bound to be healthier, hence not face serious health issues resulting in reduced amount of need for health and social care. Hence, the future needs of health and social care will be influenced by current lifestyle choices. The healthier the choices now, the less will be the need in the future.
Mrs. Senna is obese, which can cause a various number of diseases and complications in the future. And if her weight isn’t brought under control, she will face the risk of a second heart attack leaving her at a very compromising situation. Including various physical health problems, she also faces risks of several mental problems. Research shows that 58% of obese people have risk of developing depression she needs to change her lifestyle and eating habits along with taking proper medication. Gastric Bypass Surge being one of the solutions already provided by the hospital is one of the options.
Question 8: The effectiveness of strategies and policies and evaluation of an activity implemented to encourage behavioural change
The strategies taken up by the hospital are perfect for Mrs Senna. She might need a surgery along with proper food habit and medication. A person cannot get rid of obesity magically, it is a tough challenge and these are the most common steps to get rid of it.
Some steps to increase physical activity can be taken up or intervened by the hospital. Steps like simply taking the stairs instead of the lift while going up a building will help her. She will have to be realised the demerits of her situation, which will help her realise the seriousness of her situation and the extreme necessity for her to lose weight.
Whole grain foods should be eaten along with a big serving of vegetables. Foods high in energy density should be avoided as they will just help increase the weight all over again. Five to six fruits and vegetable servings should be taken daily. Highly processed food high in sugar should be avoided. Food should be measured perfectly before intake as too much food will do no good to the health. Super-sized food must be avoided in restaurants if it is necessary to eat outside. A food check book can be balanced, as, eating more calories than she burns will result in weight gain. At least 30 minute of regular exercise must be a part of her daily routine.
Raising proper awareness on the various influential factors of the overall health and wellbeing of people in both individual level and greater societal level is extremely important to ensure the effectiveness of various strategies and policies regarding public health.
Public health is considered to be the art and also the science of promoting health and prolonging life through informed choices public and private communities, society, organizations and through organized efforts. Now-a-days public health practises requires to have teams of professionals with multidisciplinary members including physicians, specializing in public health, public health nurses, bio-statisticians and a lot more.
- Berkman and Kawachi (2000). Marmot and Wilkinson (2006)
- BMC public health research article
- Henry P. David, Jane M. Morgall, Mogens Olser, Niels K. Rasmussen and Brigitte Jensen (1990) Studies in Family Planning
- Health and wellbeing of adults, 2010/11.<http://www.enfield.gov.uk/healthandwellbeing/info/17/the_health_and_wellbeing_of_adults/75/obesity>
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