Raupatu and consequences for Maori health
Raupatu – Land Confiscation
According to Ministry of Culture and Heritage (2012) the confiscated lands included most of the lower district of Waikato including some of the lands of neutral tribes and a third of the lands of Ngati Haua
Mahuta (1995:23) states that “the government took land that was the most fertile and productive, and often from the hapu most loyal to the King Movement”.
A) Loss of sources of food and building materials
– Confiscation of the land means that Maori have no rights over the land which was considered as their source of food and shelter. In maslow’s hierarchy of needs, basic living includes food and shelter and if it is not met, the health of the person suffers. The same is true with the Maori health status that if food and shelter sources are depleted/ prohibited then their health is compromised.
B) Loss in the quality of life
– Upon the confiscation, the quality of life that the Maoris considered slowly diminished. In the health perspective, this is brought about by the stress and anxiety that they underwent from the transition of controlling the land and suddenly managed by another entity. This brings a lot of confusions to them, to the extent that managing the health of the whanau is overlooked.
C) Damage and destruction of the social structure and organisation of whanau
– Having no right to manage and own the land, the basic structure of the community is forced to relocate which means that they can’t no longer stay knitly together as used to be. This explains one of the reason why Maori family members are scattered in various areas. Maori health started to deteriorate because the value of taking care of each other is impossible because of the distance apart.
Maori militancy,the waitangi tribunal and maori health outcomes
The famous Treaty of Waitangi was signed in 1840 incorporating the rights of Maori people and all other legal aspects rearding possession of the land, management, share and etc. After the Treaty was signed, the non-Maori population of New Zealand rose steadily. With this influx, and as the Treaty’s provisions were increasingly ignored, the MaÌˆori population fell dramatically due to war, loss of land, and introduced diseases. As with other law making body, there are always critics. In this case, a movement started to flourish being led by young militants in the early 1970s that fought for several major issues. After five years, the great so-called Land March of Maoris took place. This was led by older activists who started from the tip of the North Island stretching to the office of the parliament in Wellington. Protests were becoming more rampant and this triggered the birth of the Waitangi Tribunal.
According Jansen P, Jansen D (2013) the Waitangi Tribunal was established in 1975 to rectify past breaches of the Treaty by the Crown.”Claims cannot be made against private organisations or individuals”
According to Barrett, M. and Stone,K.M.(Ministry of Justice) “ the Waitangi Tribunal ruled that the phrase o ra-tou taonga katoa, all things highly prized, (from Article 2) covers both tangible and intangible –things”
It was created due to the mishaps found in the implementation of the Treaty. Many disputes regarding land and fishing rights were brought forth to the Tribunal majority of the cases were won by the Maoris. Most attention was focused on Maori’s agricultural issues rather than industrial concerns which were not acknowledged. However, a popular case in the Tribunal was the Waitara fishing reef which mostly New Zealanders supported the Maoris.
With all these going on, one of the major aspect that is evident is the health outcome of the Maori population. The settlers’ introduction of firearms and new infectious diseases had a major impact on death rates among the Maoris.
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As summarised by the Medical Council of New Zealand “ MaÌˆori make up 14.7 percent of the New Zealand population (as at 2001), with every local authority area in the nation having a MaÌˆori population of at least 4.5 percent, yet MaÌˆori have the poorest health of any New Zealand group. This places enormous costs on society – both in terms of avoidable human suffering and financial expenses of lost work days and increased healthcare expenditures.
MaÌˆori have a higher mortality rate than non-MaÌˆori,7 as well as higher rates of illness. For example, excess cancer deaths among MaÌˆori account for two thirds of the excess male cancer deaths and one quarter of the excess female cancer deaths in New Zealand, compared to Australia.
MaÌˆori infants die more frequently from SIDS and low birth weight than non-MaÌˆori children.MaÌˆori women have rates of breast, cervical, and lung cancer that are several times those of non-MaÌˆori women.
These lower standards of health do not only lead to suboptimal outcomes for individual MaÌˆori. One MaÌˆori’s negative experience may be shared with their whaÌˆnau, influencing the entire community’s perceptions and future behaviour. Negative experiences can also reinforce stereotypes within the practitioner community if a provider does not understand a MaÌˆori patient’s dissatisfaction and thus cannot prevent similar experiences with other patients.”
It has been argued that the continuing disparities in health between Maoris and non-Maoris represent evidence that Maori health rights are not being protected as guaranteed under the treaty and that social, cultural, economic, and political factors cannot be overlooked in terms of their contribution to the health status of this group.
Current Maori healthcare services outcomes as a result of the treaty and historical process
According to the Ministry of Health, it says “As a population group, MÄori have on average the poorest health status of any ethnic group in New Zealand.”
A number of healthcare services were created as a result of history.
The following services are defined by the Ministry of Health:
1. He Korowai Oranga: Maori Health Strategy
“He Korowai Oranga: Maori Health Strategy sets the direction for MÄori health development in the health and disability sector. The strategy provides a framework for the public sector to take responsibility for the part it plays in supporting the health status of whanau. The vision of He Korowai Oranga is the achievement of whanau ora, or healthy families.”
2. DHB MÄori Health Plans and Health Needs Assessment
“MÄori Health Plans (MHPs) are fundamental planning, reporting and monitoring documents, which underpin the DHB’s efforts to improve MÄori health and reduce the disparities between MÄori and non-MÄori. As key planning and monitoring documents, it is essential that these plans are comprehensive, complete and robust.”
3. National Kaitiaki Group
“ensures MÄori control and protection of MÄori women’s cervical screening data”
4. Hauora MÄori Scholarships
“Hauora MÄori Scholarships provide financial assistance to students who are undertaking or completing a course in health and disability studies that has been accredited by the New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA).”
5. Maori Health care provider services
“MÄori health providers tend to deliver health and disability services to predominantly MÄori clients, although certainly not exclusively to MÄori clients. What do distinguish the service is the kaupapa and the delivery framework which is distinctively MÄori.”
“In addition to contracted MÄori health providers, there are also health providers who are significant providers of health and disability services to MÄori.”
Ramsden I. Cultural safety: Implementing the concept. The social force of nursing and midwifery. In: Te Whaiti P, McCarthy M, Durie A, eds. Mai i Rangiatea: Maori Wellbeing and Development. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland University Press; 1997:113–125.Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1470538
Sorrenson MPK. Land purchase methods and their effects on Maori population 1865–1901. J Polynesian Soc. 1956;65:183–199.Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1470538/
Ministry of Health (2012). Reducing inequalities in health. Wellington:,2002. Retrieved from http//wwe.health.govt.nz.
10. Carr J, Robson BH, Reid P, Purdie GL, Workman P. Heart failure: ethnic disparities in morbidity and mortality in New Zealand. NZMJ 2002 Jan 25;115(1146):15-7. Retrieved from www.mcnz.org.nz/assets/News-and-Publications/Coles/Chapter-5.pdf
13. Skegg DCG, McCredie MRE. Comparison of cancer mortality and incidence in New Zealand and Australia. NZMJ 2002 May 10;115(1153):205-8.
14. Ministry of Health. Our health, our future. Hauora pakari, koiora roa. The health of New Zealanders. Wellington: Ministry of Health, 1999.
15. Tipene-Leach David. ‘MaÌˆoris: our feelings about the medical profession’ in Primary health care and the community. 1981. Note – this article is also available at: http://www.bopdhb.govt.nz/insideout/Forms/Culture_ PreRead.pdf
16. Jansen P, Sorenson D, Jansen P, Sorenson D. Culturally competent health care. NZFP 2002 Oct;29(5):306-11 .
17. Durie M. MaÌˆori attitudes to sickness, doctors, and hospitals. NZMJ 1977;86:483–5.
Jansen P, Jansen D 2013. MÄori and health. Chapter 5 in St George IM (ed.).Cole’s medical practice in New Zealand, 12th edition. Medical Council of New Zealand, Wellington retrieved from http://www.mcnz.org.nz/assets/News-and-Publications/Coles/Chapter-5.pdf
Ministry for Culture and Heritage. (20 December 2012)Differences between the texts-read the Treaty. Retrieved from http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/politics/treaty/read-the-Treaty/differences-between-the-texts.
Joint Methodist Presbyterian Public Questions Committee. (1993). Retrieved from http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~sai/Maori_tino.htm#Meaning
Kingi, T. R. (2007). The Treaty of Waitangi: A framework for MÄori health development. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, Retrieved from http://www.nzaot.com/downloads/contribute/TheTreatyofWaitangiAFrameworkfor MaoriHealth.pdf
Barrett,M. ,Stone, K.C.(n.d.) Ministry of Justice
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