Public Health Policy in Australia

2509 words (10 pages) Essay

21st Sep 2017 Health Reference this

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Section 1

Healthy public policy is an denotative pertain for equity of health in all field of policy and for the benefit to impact in health. The importance of public health policy is to make a positive environment to enable people to lead healthy lives. Healthy public policy create a healthy choices possible for the citizens’ concerns. Public policy creates a physical and social environment of healthy lifestyle. As government sector pursuit of healthy public policy concerned with trade, education, agriculture, industry and communication require to take into account for the healthy consequences of their decisions in policy and these sectors should be answerable for the health consequences of their decisions in policy. The government should play an important role in healthy public policy for the economic consideration (1….).

According to the Catherine Althaus policies are theory about the world, some flourish while other shrivel up, the better designed the theory, the more tested its assumption’s, the greater the chance of success.(4..)

  • The healthiness amends
  • Quality of life,
  • Productivity of workforce,
  • Learning capacity,
  • Strengthens of family and community.

The government are responsible for making policy and allocate resources for the implemented policies, basically public policy can be defined as a system of law, course of action, regulatory measures and funding priorities regarding a given promulgated topic by a governmental representatives or entity.(3..)

What is Health in All Policies (HiAP)?

According to the definition of World Health Organization Health in All Policies (HiAp) is an approach path to public policies across sectors that consistently takes into account that the health decisions implications, synergies searches and destructive health impacts, avoidance in order to improve health and health equity of population. It also related to rights and obligations and improves accountability of impact in health policymakers at all levels of policymaking. The HiAP include a vehemence on the consequences of public policies on health systems, healthy wellbeing, and health determinants and contributes to sustainability of developments (2..).

The HiAP approach are as follows;

  • It ameliorates the public policy maker’s accountability for health impacts at all stages of policy making.
  • It admits an emphasis on the effects of public policies on health systems, determinants of health and well-being.
  • It contributes to sustainable development.

Social determinants of health (SDH)is the core concept of HiAP in which health and wellbeing of the population is shaped. According to the definition of world health Organisation SDH is a conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live and age and theses circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, local and national levels(5…). For example transport, housing, education and the environment are some of the factors which affect health and wellbeing which lies outside of the main function of health systems and these are some of the broad changing areas in which most significant improvement in health and life expectancy over the 150 years and are not directly attributed to improvement in health care (6…). Health in all policy is a way of government working across to achieve better public policy results and simultaneously improve health of population and wellbeing consequences. A healthy population has positive impacts on economy, sustainability and productivity in which it benefit all sectors and society as a whole (6….).

How public policy are formed in Australia?

In Australia the public policy is formulated not only by the influence of politicians but by contribution of many public servants and thousands of men and women who file the petition to parliament and ministers who join interest group, by media comment, union, corporation and community movements. The entire community is effected by public policy(4….). The policy procedure are generally follow a logical system and that system seeks to structure the way problems are empathized and introduced, so that the decision makers can hear about the issues, understand options, learn of informed opinion, make choices, test their decision and evaluate their actions.(4..).

Section 2

  1. Issues are multi –sectorial and involve a range of interesting group

Yes, according to the Food Security Policy it is clearly states about the multi sectorial issues which mostly affects

  • Low income households such as sole parent, students
  • English low proficiency peoples mainly newly migrants and refugees
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
  • Northern suburbs householders
  • People with mental illness or weak older adults who needed support for daily activities
  • People with stress or who were homeless.
  1. HPP involves commerce, industry, voluntary, Organisation, community and government

Yes, the Food Security Policy has been implemented with local government food security policy project which is funded by Victorian Department of Health. The main goal of this policy is to achieve to reduce the prevalence and impact of food insecurity.

HPP involves the representation of:

• Northern Area Mental Health Service

• Neami Darebin

• Austin Health

• Northern Division of General Practice

• Spectrum Migrant Resource Centre

• Department of Health

• North East Primary Care Partnership

• Planning for a Healthier North

• Women’s Health in the North

• Mental Illness Fellowship of Victoria

  • Darebin Community Health
  • Darebin Council Community Health and

Safety Officers

**Table is created according to the information of “The Food Security Policy” data.

  1. Health risks are global and not confined to regional boundaries

Yes, the Food security is a global issue which will affect the future food security due to the climate change and increasing the demand if food production resource were reduced worldwide. According to the 2014 repot around 805 million people that is one in nine of the world’s population were chronically undernourished. The vast majority of this issues in developing country. (7…)According to the city food security policy. Current global climate change will affect the global food insecurity and that will continue to grow the capacity to produce and distribute food undernourishment due to the changes in water scarcity, food producing land for production of bio fuels, degradation of lands and land lose due to urbanization due to these above factors will increase the demand for food as the grows of population. Simultaneously will impact the community and household level with increased food price, increased transportation price and utilities price as well. The above factors also will influence the food that will be available with increased local product, more depends on seasonal products and low processed product such as meat, dairy and imported food items. Thus will mostly effect the average community household to manage due to its affordability and vulnerable to food insecurity(8….).

  1. HPP aims should be educational and not persuasive

This is a limited rational because the report only explains about the food security policy should focus to educate the following issues such as

  • Daily intake of vegetable and fruit particularly for disadvantaged groups.
  • Lack of knowledge and skills related to healthy cooking and eating habits.
  • Lack of knowledge about the Australian food products and how to use and this effect mostly newly migrants who don’t speak English.
  • Lack of motivation and cooking healthy meals on a daily basis.
  1. Action for HPP takes many forms lobby groups, local community action.

Limited because according to the report the local government capacity is limited to address the determinants of food security which are complex and influenced by global environmental, economic and social factors that are related to skill and production of food. The state and federal leadership on this issue of food security has been minimal and slow issue. The local government are showing their leadership in the food security area slowly because of need in their local community. The HPP of the Food Security Policy has been designed to reflect areas of action where local government can play a role in addressing local food security issues through both broad systemic response and social welfare around local land use planning, environmental sustainability and transport.

  1. HPP is intrinsically a political activity.

No, the HPP of City Food Security Policy is not a political activity. The policy of food security is formed due to the city council’s community planning, partnership and performance of department are carry importance for the co-ordination of Food Security Policy. The council are responsible for the implementation of particular aspects of the policy making.

Policy Summery

The main benefit of developing such food security policy is to recognize the local government limited capacity to explain the determinants of food security which are complex and determined by global environmental changes, social factors and economic that related to production and acquisition of food. The HPP of Darebin also admitted that local government carry an important role play for responding to undernourishment of food insecurity to their municipal setting and how they can improve by implementing such HPP in which HPP contributing for making local and regional food supplies for accessibility in the future.

Section 3

Health is multiphase and no more defined in terms of disease and illness or according to the WHO definition of health “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”(…..), rather it is enlaced with social prevailing, economic, political and condition of environment where more food sustainability or access for land. According to Kaplan the major reason of disease and population suffering are rooted firmly in the social, behavioral and psychological world in which people grow, live and die are embedded in multiple factors of geographical, environmental, institutional and economic circumstances (9…). The most responsibility for health inequities is due to the social determinates of health. When viewed through social health lens, the health inequities and public health opportunity which enables community health, planning and community priority circumstance is inconsistently used (10…).

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Health inequities is due to the social determinants of health within countries are influenced by political power, economically and socially unacceptable which is avoidable and unfair. The Health public policies made in all sectors can have profound effect on health of a population and health equity. The health of world is shaped by the demographic changes, climate change, globalization and urbanization. Some of the diseases disappear due to the living conditions improvement and in developing countries many poverty diseases is still present, this all factors will improve by implementing health public policy for the benefit of community and future development. In order to improve the population health and social determinants of health, Health in All policies is relevant method of public policy approach that accounts systematically into account, the decision implication in health and avoid harmful health impacts (11…).

What are the major different between Health public policy and Health in All policy?

Health public policy(HPP)

Health in All Policy (HiAP)

The redistribution of public policy income through :

  • Pension provisions
  • unemployment insurance
  • child care (12…)
  • giving opportunity to people to adopt healthy lifestyle;
  • preventing people to adopt unhealthy lifestyle; and
  • Creating healthy physical and social environments.(13..)

The HiAP reflects the principles of

  • legitimacy,
  • accountability,
  • Transparency (2..)
  • Health implications of decisions,
  • seeks synergies,
  • Avoids harmful health impacts
  • Improve population health and health equity.
  • It access to information, participation, sustainability, and collaboration across sectors and levels of government (2..)

*** Table is created according to the reference data given above.

The benefit of Implication of Health policy is to plan, action and decision that are beneficial to achieve target society health care goals. Health policy outlines priorities and the expected roles of different groups and builds consensus and informs people (14..).For example the Food Security Policy distinguishes that local government is limited in its capacity to address all of the determinants of food security by implication of policy will improve the ongoing supply of nutritious and sustainable food available, and improving access to the available food supply, particularly for those who are most vulnerable to food insecurity (15..).The target group of this policy is

  • Low income households ( sole person, sole parent and student )
  • English low proficiency people( new migrants and refugees )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
  • Northern suburbs Households
  • People with a mental illness or disability

(15…)

The new public health approach will brings changes in environment and preventive measures with appropriate therapeutic interventions, especially to old age community and disabled persons. However the new public health will recognizes the health lifestyle problems and Underlying health lifestyle problems are concrete issues of local and national public policy and require to address issues by variety of Health Public Policies and the policies in all sectors will support the Health promotion. (16..)

Section 1

Healthy public policy is an denotative pertain for equity of health in all field of policy and for the benefit to impact in health. The importance of public health policy is to make a positive environment to enable people to lead healthy lives. Healthy public policy create a healthy choices possible for the citizens’ concerns. Public policy creates a physical and social environment of healthy lifestyle. As government sector pursuit of healthy public policy concerned with trade, education, agriculture, industry and communication require to take into account for the healthy consequences of their decisions in policy and these sectors should be answerable for the health consequences of their decisions in policy. The government should play an important role in healthy public policy for the economic consideration (1….).

According to the Catherine Althaus policies are theory about the world, some flourish while other shrivel up, the better designed the theory, the more tested its assumption’s, the greater the chance of success.(4..)

  • The healthiness amends
  • Quality of life,
  • Productivity of workforce,
  • Learning capacity,
  • Strengthens of family and community.

The government are responsible for making policy and allocate resources for the implemented policies, basically public policy can be defined as a system of law, course of action, regulatory measures and funding priorities regarding a given promulgated topic by a governmental representatives or entity.(3..)

What is Health in All Policies (HiAP)?

According to the definition of World Health Organization Health in All Policies (HiAp) is an approach path to public policies across sectors that consistently takes into account that the health decisions implications, synergies searches and destructive health impacts, avoidance in order to improve health and health equity of population. It also related to rights and obligations and improves accountability of impact in health policymakers at all levels of policymaking. The HiAP include a vehemence on the consequences of public policies on health systems, healthy wellbeing, and health determinants and contributes to sustainability of developments (2..).

The HiAP approach are as follows;

  • It ameliorates the public policy maker’s accountability for health impacts at all stages of policy making.
  • It admits an emphasis on the effects of public policies on health systems, determinants of health and well-being.
  • It contributes to sustainable development.

Social determinants of health (SDH)is the core concept of HiAP in which health and wellbeing of the population is shaped. According to the definition of world health Organisation SDH is a conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live and age and theses circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, local and national levels(5…). For example transport, housing, education and the environment are some of the factors which affect health and wellbeing which lies outside of the main function of health systems and these are some of the broad changing areas in which most significant improvement in health and life expectancy over the 150 years and are not directly attributed to improvement in health care (6…). Health in all policy is a way of government working across to achieve better public policy results and simultaneously improve health of population and wellbeing consequences. A healthy population has positive impacts on economy, sustainability and productivity in which it benefit all sectors and society as a whole (6….).

How public policy are formed in Australia?

In Australia the public policy is formulated not only by the influence of politicians but by contribution of many public servants and thousands of men and women who file the petition to parliament and ministers who join interest group, by media comment, union, corporation and community movements. The entire community is effected by public policy(4….). The policy procedure are generally follow a logical system and that system seeks to structure the way problems are empathized and introduced, so that the decision makers can hear about the issues, understand options, learn of informed opinion, make choices, test their decision and evaluate their actions.(4..).

Section 2

  1. Issues are multi –sectorial and involve a range of interesting group

Yes, according to the Food Security Policy it is clearly states about the multi sectorial issues which mostly affects

  • Low income households such as sole parent, students
  • English low proficiency peoples mainly newly migrants and refugees
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
  • Northern suburbs householders
  • People with mental illness or weak older adults who needed support for daily activities
  • People with stress or who were homeless.
  1. HPP involves commerce, industry, voluntary, Organisation, community and government

Yes, the Food Security Policy has been implemented with local government food security policy project which is funded by Victorian Department of Health. The main goal of this policy is to achieve to reduce the prevalence and impact of food insecurity.

HPP involves the representation of:

• Northern Area Mental Health Service

• Neami Darebin

• Austin Health

• Northern Division of General Practice

• Spectrum Migrant Resource Centre

• Department of Health

• North East Primary Care Partnership

• Planning for a Healthier North

• Women’s Health in the North

• Mental Illness Fellowship of Victoria

  • Darebin Community Health
  • Darebin Council Community Health and

Safety Officers

**Table is created according to the information of “The Food Security Policy” data.

  1. Health risks are global and not confined to regional boundaries

Yes, the Food security is a global issue which will affect the future food security due to the climate change and increasing the demand if food production resource were reduced worldwide. According to the 2014 repot around 805 million people that is one in nine of the world’s population were chronically undernourished. The vast majority of this issues in developing country. (7…)According to the city food security policy. Current global climate change will affect the global food insecurity and that will continue to grow the capacity to produce and distribute food undernourishment due to the changes in water scarcity, food producing land for production of bio fuels, degradation of lands and land lose due to urbanization due to these above factors will increase the demand for food as the grows of population. Simultaneously will impact the community and household level with increased food price, increased transportation price and utilities price as well. The above factors also will influence the food that will be available with increased local product, more depends on seasonal products and low processed product such as meat, dairy and imported food items. Thus will mostly effect the average community household to manage due to its affordability and vulnerable to food insecurity(8….).

  1. HPP aims should be educational and not persuasive

This is a limited rational because the report only explains about the food security policy should focus to educate the following issues such as

  • Daily intake of vegetable and fruit particularly for disadvantaged groups.
  • Lack of knowledge and skills related to healthy cooking and eating habits.
  • Lack of knowledge about the Australian food products and how to use and this effect mostly newly migrants who don’t speak English.
  • Lack of motivation and cooking healthy meals on a daily basis.
  1. Action for HPP takes many forms lobby groups, local community action.

Limited because according to the report the local government capacity is limited to address the determinants of food security which are complex and influenced by global environmental, economic and social factors that are related to skill and production of food. The state and federal leadership on this issue of food security has been minimal and slow issue. The local government are showing their leadership in the food security area slowly because of need in their local community. The HPP of the Food Security Policy has been designed to reflect areas of action where local government can play a role in addressing local food security issues through both broad systemic response and social welfare around local land use planning, environmental sustainability and transport.

  1. HPP is intrinsically a political activity.

No, the HPP of City Food Security Policy is not a political activity. The policy of food security is formed due to the city council’s community planning, partnership and performance of department are carry importance for the co-ordination of Food Security Policy. The council are responsible for the implementation of particular aspects of the policy making.

Policy Summery

The main benefit of developing such food security policy is to recognize the local government limited capacity to explain the determinants of food security which are complex and determined by global environmental changes, social factors and economic that related to production and acquisition of food. The HPP of Darebin also admitted that local government carry an important role play for responding to undernourishment of food insecurity to their municipal setting and how they can improve by implementing such HPP in which HPP contributing for making local and regional food supplies for accessibility in the future.

Section 3

Health is multiphase and no more defined in terms of disease and illness or according to the WHO definition of health “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”(…..), rather it is enlaced with social prevailing, economic, political and condition of environment where more food sustainability or access for land. According to Kaplan the major reason of disease and population suffering are rooted firmly in the social, behavioral and psychological world in which people grow, live and die are embedded in multiple factors of geographical, environmental, institutional and economic circumstances (9…). The most responsibility for health inequities is due to the social determinates of health. When viewed through social health lens, the health inequities and public health opportunity which enables community health, planning and community priority circumstance is inconsistently used (10…).

Health inequities is due to the social determinants of health within countries are influenced by political power, economically and socially unacceptable which is avoidable and unfair. The Health public policies made in all sectors can have profound effect on health of a population and health equity. The health of world is shaped by the demographic changes, climate change, globalization and urbanization. Some of the diseases disappear due to the living conditions improvement and in developing countries many poverty diseases is still present, this all factors will improve by implementing health public policy for the benefit of community and future development. In order to improve the population health and social determinants of health, Health in All policies is relevant method of public policy approach that accounts systematically into account, the decision implication in health and avoid harmful health impacts (11…).

What are the major different between Health public policy and Health in All policy?

Health public policy(HPP)

Health in All Policy (HiAP)

The redistribution of public policy income through :

  • Pension provisions
  • unemployment insurance
  • child care (12…)
  • giving opportunity to people to adopt healthy lifestyle;
  • preventing people to adopt unhealthy lifestyle; and
  • Creating healthy physical and social environments.(13..)

The HiAP reflects the principles of

  • legitimacy,
  • accountability,
  • Transparency (2..)
  • Health implications of decisions,
  • seeks synergies,
  • Avoids harmful health impacts
  • Improve population health and health equity.
  • It access to information, participation, sustainability, and collaboration across sectors and levels of government (2..)

*** Table is created according to the reference data given above.

The benefit of Implication of Health policy is to plan, action and decision that are beneficial to achieve target society health care goals. Health policy outlines priorities and the expected roles of different groups and builds consensus and informs people (14..).For example the Food Security Policy distinguishes that local government is limited in its capacity to address all of the determinants of food security by implication of policy will improve the ongoing supply of nutritious and sustainable food available, and improving access to the available food supply, particularly for those who are most vulnerable to food insecurity (15..).The target group of this policy is

  • Low income households ( sole person, sole parent and student )
  • English low proficiency people( new migrants and refugees )
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
  • Northern suburbs Households
  • People with a mental illness or disability

(15…)

The new public health approach will brings changes in environment and preventive measures with appropriate therapeutic interventions, especially to old age community and disabled persons. However the new public health will recognizes the health lifestyle problems and Underlying health lifestyle problems are concrete issues of local and national public policy and require to address issues by variety of Health Public Policies and the policies in all sectors will support the Health promotion. (16..)

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