Nanocrystal (Nanoparticles) Drug Delivery in Oncology

2606 words (10 pages) Essay

7th Sep 2017 Health Reference this

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Introduction

The aim of this literature review is to expand the boundaries of our knowledge by exploring some relevant literature related to the role of nano-particle in cancer treatment and toxicology. In this paper, the author will discuss the importance of nanocrystals in treating and managing cancers. For this, the author will refer to three different scholarly articles. Heidel & Davis, (2011) accentuated that the treatment of cancer is complicated by the exact nature of the cancer cells, the tissue they originate from, and the tissue or tissues they hibernate and colonize in [1]. Many cancers, such as those affecting the colon or liver, remain tucked away in the darker recesses of the body, where they are challenging to detect and even more challenging to treat. Other cancers, such as melanoma or retinoblastoma, are at or near the surface of the body, and thus are more accessible to observation and treatment. All cancer therapies try to target characteristics that are peculiar to cancer cells so as not to damage normal cells. This could be a mutated protein, a peculiar behaviour pattern, such as an increased rate of cell division, or an elevated demand for oxygen to support high metabolic activity by the cancer cells [2].

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Discussion & Analysis

Over 8,767 Australians were expected to die of cancer in 2020 [3]. Over 12 million new cases worldwide were diagnosed in 2007. Sixty percent of cancer cases occur in developing countries. Cancer is on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, cancer is the number one cause of death in China. According to Phan et al., (2009), chemically attached nanocrystals to a viral envelope allowed the scientists to eradicate cancer cells using laser radiation [4]. Binding nanoparticles to an antibody specific for cancer cells can make easier the detection of advanced stage cancer cells. According to Colin, (2008), the ability to quantitatively and noninvasively detect targeted nanoparticles in vivo could provide a promising cancer diagnostic tool. Using nanoparticle to heat up tumors is a main focus in therapeutic oncology applications of nanoscale sciences and technologies [5].

Nanosized Cancer drug

Nanocrystal helps in the advancement of creative chemotherapeutic medications particularly in the territory of harmful deteriorating treatment or solution for neurological issue or cancerous growth. It delivers nanosized medications that are just marginally bigger in size than proteins and are subsequently little to such a degree as to move crosswise over ion-control channels(e.g., the blood–brain barriers), scattered all through the entire body including entering the focal sensory system, the vasculature and enter cells specifically [6]. Nanosized pharmaceuticals, due to their greater surface territory and organic undertaking likewise allow lower centralizations of pharmaceuticals to be utilized; accordingly diminish the potential danger of unfavorable responses [7]. The propelled outside area of nanosized pharmaceuticals might likewise help to upgrade dissolvability and support rate of disintegration, in this manner increase oral bioavailability and allow all the more quick onset of remedial activity [8]. A showing of this future is the adaptation of naproxen that have been used to support the expand time in the blood of the patients to empower a great deal more quick issue and help than the acknowledged presentation of naproxen for their cancer treatment [9].

 

Nano consignment schemes for therapeutics and toxicology

Numerous advances have been created to utilize nanoparticles as a part of the treatment regimen of biomedical imaging, toxicological analysis and pharmaceutical conveyance. Applications for these plans will supply materials for controlled medication committal by directing bearers to a particular area with attractive fields or fluorescence biological markers. The transporter will then be initiated on interest in a limited area. The anticipated and extended length of activity in this way help to abatement hindrance of basic redosing, advance patient consistence and keep away from the side effects that so regularly result from intense medications [10].

Use of Nanocrystal in Oncology

The interstitial heating using nanoparticles was feasible in patients with cancer with local recurrence and had been previously irradiated. The treatment related toxicity was moderate and the quality of life affected only temporarily. The limiting factors of this technique at present are discomfort caused by high magnetic field strengths and suboptimal intratumoral distribution. Moreover, deposits in the prostates nanoparticles are very durable. At present there is no magnetic imaging and chemotherapy available or neither for direct injection of fluid under visual control real-time nor for a reliable picture of the tumor within the cancer cells. Therefore, the selective ablation of cancer separating normal tissue is not possible at this time, but may become an interesting future with improved diagnostic techniques image subject.

Until our heating method is more refined and can be safely applied forces higher photo thermal therapy to achieve higher performance alone, this treatment modality is being evaluated in combination with radiation in patients with localized cancer. Quantum spots, one of the most well revised, are nanocrystals that fluoresce in distinct hues depending on their dimensions (e.g., Cadmium selenide) [11;12]. In the event that the target molecule is an early marker of cancerous detection, discovery of that molecule may show a higher inclination for illness. An illustration is to utilize nanoparticles to join to blood clumps and to help make clusters more clear by ultrasound [13].

Nanoshells, an alternate nanodelivery plan that is made out of copolymers, are used in mix with precise wavelengths of lights and hotness mastery for harmful ailment treatment. These nanodevices can be tuned precisely to drench up or scramble infrared beams. At the point when encased in with gold, they can adjust these types of light into high temperature and either issues the pharmaceutical into the encompassing tissue or specifically blazed/murder tumor units that is tie to these nanoshells [14]. Likewise, attractive fields could be used to center pharmaceutical particles at the tumor area and balancing the territories would discharge the pharmaceutical from the external layer to strike tumor units.

 

Chemotherapeutic Drugs and Cancer Diagnosis

Infusion of genetic characteristics into nanocapsules is being tried out. One of the quality being enquired is the tumor necrosis factor, a protein that is fatal to cancer cells as well as besides to wholesome units when infused in substantial measurements [15]. To sidestep impedance to ordinary tissue, the nanocapsule is covered with sensors that objective just on tumor cells. A persevering would then be uncovered to low-dose radiation or medications that launch the quality to make putrefaction part. Other nanodrug bearers, for example, quality firearm with gold particles, fullerenes (made completely out of carbon, as an empty circle (C60 Bucky balls or chamber (nanotubes) and dendrimers (round polymeric molecules) are likewise being inspected. An alternate mean of pharmaceutical conveyance is to settle pharmaceutical with nanoparticles, for instance albumin proteins.

It uses the natural carrier albumin rather than synthetic solvents to consign paclitaxel and furthermore for protected management of high paclitaxel doses without premedication, producing in important antitumour undertaking in patients with metastatic breast cancerous disease.

 

Nanodelivery schemes for gene therapy

Nanomedical research could outcome in an array of new medical apparatuss. Interesting study projects include use of nano-electromechanical apparatus or nanowire field-effect transistor to detect insect baculovirus and lone influenza viruses respectively were undertook. It is wanted that development of these nanodevices can help doctor to find the difficulty areas in the body more precisely (Lam et al., 2004, p. 5). Other study works engage the use of biochips and microfluidic devices to computer display tissues for genetic dissimilarities and to design genetically target drugs. Cell/Tissue technology and the nanorobot

Artificial nanoscale building blocks may one day be utilised to help repair, sustain, or replacement of the body’s tissue and body parts. Uvocalise nanotechnology, researcher may be adept to make better artificial veins, arteries and heart valves; evolve a scaffold for growing patches of heart tissue to repair impairment from heart attacks; and grow artificial lung tissue. The use of simple carbon single-wall nanotube sheets to develop artificial muscle is in the soonest stages [16]. One of the more significant matters is that the foreign components might be strike by the body’s immune units, therefore means of reducing the risk of immune answer continues the major dispute for nanotechnology research in the area of tissue technology.

Some researchers are attempting to assemble convoluted nanorobots that can journey throughout the human body utilising molecular engines and computers, shop and transport substances, perform procedures and communicate with physicians. Respirocytes, a spherical carbon nanorobot, is an demonstration that mimic the activity of the natural hemoglobin-filled red blood cells and is being revised [17]. However, despite the stride at which study is progressing and the exhilaration generated by the outlook of nanorobots, it could be numerous years before nanorobots are checked in humans.

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Conclusion

Cancer is a worldwide problem. Nanocrystal plays an increasing role in battling cancer worldwide and in achieving the goal of eliminating suffering and death from cancer by 2015. Moreover, the use of multifactorial Nanocrystal in detecting and diagnosing carcinomas and sarcomas at earlier stages can be beneficial but needs further studies and investigation before implementing it in clinical practice. The general is for government to assume a main part, at the same time with the educated community and business relationship, in adding to the empowering foundation for perceiving and considering nanomaterial’ potential dangers, including (1) ID of “delegate or structure’ nanomaterial, in connection to the structure, measurements, property and undertaking; (2) creating poisonous quality testing convention, covering inward breath, dermal, ingestion, and infusion presentation courses, for ID of full gimmick of the nanomaterial in connection to material property, the proposed use by the conceivably inclined, helpless patient and a definitive clinical applications; (3) strengthening the building methodologies under Good developing perform (GMP) for nanomedicine in particularly in the zone of creation, pontoons, taking care of and stockpiling to twofold watch that relentlessness and nature of the last stock is supported; (4) recognizing and administering the introduction level in working environment, air/waterborne discharges, people and different life forms and ecological media; and (5) surveying the impact of nanocyrstal items on the indigenous habitat as a proactive danger administration. Early theoretical and experimental studies of the biocompatibility of nanomaterials and sophisticated nanodevices have begun.

References

1. Heidel, J. D., & Davis, M. E. (2011). Clinical developments in nanotechnology for cancer therapy.Pharmaceutical research,28(2), 187-199.

2. Misra, R., Acharya, S., & Sahoo, S. K. (2010). Cancer nanotechnology: application of nanotechnology in cancer therapy.Drug Discovery Today,15(19), 842-850.

3. Staples, M. P., Elwood, M., Burton, R. C., Williams, J. L., Marks, R., & Giles, G. G. (2006). Non-melanoma skin cancer in Australia: the 2002 national survey and trends since 1985.Med J Aust,184(1), 6-10.

4. Phan, J. H., Moffitt, R. A., Stokes, T. H., Liu, J., Young, A. N., Nie, S., & Wang, M. D. (2009). Convergence of biomarkers, bioinformatics and nanotechnology for individualized cancer treatment.Trends in biotechnology,27(6), 350-358.

5. Colin D. Medley, Joshua E. Smith, Zhiwen Tang, Yanrong Wu, Suwussa Bamrungsap, and Weihong Tan* (2008), Gold Nanoparticle-Based Colorimetric Assay for the Direct Detection of Cancerous Cells, Anal. Chem, 80, pp. 1067-1072

6. Chen et al., 2006 Z. Chen, H. Meng, G. Xing, C. Chen, Y. hao, G. Jia, T. Wang, H. Yuan, C. Ye, F. Zhao, Z. Chai, C. Zhu, X. Fang, B. Ma and L. Wan, Acute toxicological effects of copper nanoparticles in vivo, Toxicol. Lett. 163 (2006), pp. 109–120.

7. Bucolo et al., 2002 C. Bucolo, A. Maltese, G. Puglisi and R. Pignatello, Enhanced ocular anti-inflammatory activity of Ibuprofen carried by an Eudragit RS100 nanoparticle suspension, Ophthal. Res. 34 (2002), pp. 319–323.

8. Alexis, F., Rhee, J. W., Richie, J. P., Radovic-Moreno, A. F., Langer, R., & Farokhzad, O. C. (2008). New frontiers in nanotechnology for cancer treatment. InUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations(Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 74-85). Elsevier.

9. Aliosmanoglu, A., & Basaran, I. (2012). Nanotechnology in cancer treatment.J Nanomedicine Biotherapeutic Discov,2, 107.

10. Donaldson et al., 2004 K. Donaldson, V. Stone, C.L. Tran, W. Kreyling and P.J.A. Borm, Nanotoxicology, Occup. Environ. Med. 61 (2004), pp. 727–728. Full Text via CrossRef (144)

11. Ferrari, M. (2005). Cancer nanotechnology: opportunities and challenges.Nature Reviews Cancer,5(3), 161-171.

12. Barlow et al., 2005 P.G. Barlow, K. Donaldson, J. Maccallum, A. Clouter and V. Stone, Serum exposed to nanoparticle carbon black displays increased potential to induce macrophage migration, Toxicol. Lett. 155 (2005), pp. 397–401.

13. Gmeiner, W. H., & Ghosh, S. (2014). Nanotechnology for cancer treatment. Nanotechnology Reviews,3(2), 111-122.

14. Bulte, J.W, (2009), Nanoparticles in Biomedical Imaging: Emerging Technologies and Applications. New York, Springer, pp. 2.

15. Wang, X., Yang, L., Chen, Z. G., & Shin, D. M. (2008). Application of nanotechnology in cancer therapy and imaging.CA: a cancer journal for clinicians,58(2), 97-110.

16. Gmeiner, W. H., & Ghosh, S. (2014). Nanotechnology for cancer treatment. Nanotechnology Reviews,3(2), 111-122.

17. Bucolo et al., 2002 C. Bucolo, A. Maltese, G. Puglisi and R. Pignatello, Enhanced ocular anti-inflammatory activity of Ibuprofen carried by an Eudragit RS100 nanoparticle suspension, Ophthal. Res. 34 (2002), pp. 319–323.

Introduction

The aim of this literature review is to expand the boundaries of our knowledge by exploring some relevant literature related to the role of nano-particle in cancer treatment and toxicology. In this paper, the author will discuss the importance of nanocrystals in treating and managing cancers. For this, the author will refer to three different scholarly articles. Heidel & Davis, (2011) accentuated that the treatment of cancer is complicated by the exact nature of the cancer cells, the tissue they originate from, and the tissue or tissues they hibernate and colonize in [1]. Many cancers, such as those affecting the colon or liver, remain tucked away in the darker recesses of the body, where they are challenging to detect and even more challenging to treat. Other cancers, such as melanoma or retinoblastoma, are at or near the surface of the body, and thus are more accessible to observation and treatment. All cancer therapies try to target characteristics that are peculiar to cancer cells so as not to damage normal cells. This could be a mutated protein, a peculiar behaviour pattern, such as an increased rate of cell division, or an elevated demand for oxygen to support high metabolic activity by the cancer cells [2].

Discussion & Analysis

Over 8,767 Australians were expected to die of cancer in 2020 [3]. Over 12 million new cases worldwide were diagnosed in 2007. Sixty percent of cancer cases occur in developing countries. Cancer is on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, cancer is the number one cause of death in China. According to Phan et al., (2009), chemically attached nanocrystals to a viral envelope allowed the scientists to eradicate cancer cells using laser radiation [4]. Binding nanoparticles to an antibody specific for cancer cells can make easier the detection of advanced stage cancer cells. According to Colin, (2008), the ability to quantitatively and noninvasively detect targeted nanoparticles in vivo could provide a promising cancer diagnostic tool. Using nanoparticle to heat up tumors is a main focus in therapeutic oncology applications of nanoscale sciences and technologies [5].

Nanosized Cancer drug

Nanocrystal helps in the advancement of creative chemotherapeutic medications particularly in the territory of harmful deteriorating treatment or solution for neurological issue or cancerous growth. It delivers nanosized medications that are just marginally bigger in size than proteins and are subsequently little to such a degree as to move crosswise over ion-control channels(e.g., the blood–brain barriers), scattered all through the entire body including entering the focal sensory system, the vasculature and enter cells specifically [6]. Nanosized pharmaceuticals, due to their greater surface territory and organic undertaking likewise allow lower centralizations of pharmaceuticals to be utilized; accordingly diminish the potential danger of unfavorable responses [7]. The propelled outside area of nanosized pharmaceuticals might likewise help to upgrade dissolvability and support rate of disintegration, in this manner increase oral bioavailability and allow all the more quick onset of remedial activity [8]. A showing of this future is the adaptation of naproxen that have been used to support the expand time in the blood of the patients to empower a great deal more quick issue and help than the acknowledged presentation of naproxen for their cancer treatment [9].

 

Nano consignment schemes for therapeutics and toxicology

Numerous advances have been created to utilize nanoparticles as a part of the treatment regimen of biomedical imaging, toxicological analysis and pharmaceutical conveyance. Applications for these plans will supply materials for controlled medication committal by directing bearers to a particular area with attractive fields or fluorescence biological markers. The transporter will then be initiated on interest in a limited area. The anticipated and extended length of activity in this way help to abatement hindrance of basic redosing, advance patient consistence and keep away from the side effects that so regularly result from intense medications [10].

Use of Nanocrystal in Oncology

The interstitial heating using nanoparticles was feasible in patients with cancer with local recurrence and had been previously irradiated. The treatment related toxicity was moderate and the quality of life affected only temporarily. The limiting factors of this technique at present are discomfort caused by high magnetic field strengths and suboptimal intratumoral distribution. Moreover, deposits in the prostates nanoparticles are very durable. At present there is no magnetic imaging and chemotherapy available or neither for direct injection of fluid under visual control real-time nor for a reliable picture of the tumor within the cancer cells. Therefore, the selective ablation of cancer separating normal tissue is not possible at this time, but may become an interesting future with improved diagnostic techniques image subject.

Until our heating method is more refined and can be safely applied forces higher photo thermal therapy to achieve higher performance alone, this treatment modality is being evaluated in combination with radiation in patients with localized cancer. Quantum spots, one of the most well revised, are nanocrystals that fluoresce in distinct hues depending on their dimensions (e.g., Cadmium selenide) [11;12]. In the event that the target molecule is an early marker of cancerous detection, discovery of that molecule may show a higher inclination for illness. An illustration is to utilize nanoparticles to join to blood clumps and to help make clusters more clear by ultrasound [13].

Nanoshells, an alternate nanodelivery plan that is made out of copolymers, are used in mix with precise wavelengths of lights and hotness mastery for harmful ailment treatment. These nanodevices can be tuned precisely to drench up or scramble infrared beams. At the point when encased in with gold, they can adjust these types of light into high temperature and either issues the pharmaceutical into the encompassing tissue or specifically blazed/murder tumor units that is tie to these nanoshells [14]. Likewise, attractive fields could be used to center pharmaceutical particles at the tumor area and balancing the territories would discharge the pharmaceutical from the external layer to strike tumor units.

 

Chemotherapeutic Drugs and Cancer Diagnosis

Infusion of genetic characteristics into nanocapsules is being tried out. One of the quality being enquired is the tumor necrosis factor, a protein that is fatal to cancer cells as well as besides to wholesome units when infused in substantial measurements [15]. To sidestep impedance to ordinary tissue, the nanocapsule is covered with sensors that objective just on tumor cells. A persevering would then be uncovered to low-dose radiation or medications that launch the quality to make putrefaction part. Other nanodrug bearers, for example, quality firearm with gold particles, fullerenes (made completely out of carbon, as an empty circle (C60 Bucky balls or chamber (nanotubes) and dendrimers (round polymeric molecules) are likewise being inspected. An alternate mean of pharmaceutical conveyance is to settle pharmaceutical with nanoparticles, for instance albumin proteins.

It uses the natural carrier albumin rather than synthetic solvents to consign paclitaxel and furthermore for protected management of high paclitaxel doses without premedication, producing in important antitumour undertaking in patients with metastatic breast cancerous disease.

 

Nanodelivery schemes for gene therapy

Nanomedical research could outcome in an array of new medical apparatuss. Interesting study projects include use of nano-electromechanical apparatus or nanowire field-effect transistor to detect insect baculovirus and lone influenza viruses respectively were undertook. It is wanted that development of these nanodevices can help doctor to find the difficulty areas in the body more precisely (Lam et al., 2004, p. 5). Other study works engage the use of biochips and microfluidic devices to computer display tissues for genetic dissimilarities and to design genetically target drugs. Cell/Tissue technology and the nanorobot

Artificial nanoscale building blocks may one day be utilised to help repair, sustain, or replacement of the body’s tissue and body parts. Uvocalise nanotechnology, researcher may be adept to make better artificial veins, arteries and heart valves; evolve a scaffold for growing patches of heart tissue to repair impairment from heart attacks; and grow artificial lung tissue. The use of simple carbon single-wall nanotube sheets to develop artificial muscle is in the soonest stages [16]. One of the more significant matters is that the foreign components might be strike by the body’s immune units, therefore means of reducing the risk of immune answer continues the major dispute for nanotechnology research in the area of tissue technology.

Some researchers are attempting to assemble convoluted nanorobots that can journey throughout the human body utilising molecular engines and computers, shop and transport substances, perform procedures and communicate with physicians. Respirocytes, a spherical carbon nanorobot, is an demonstration that mimic the activity of the natural hemoglobin-filled red blood cells and is being revised [17]. However, despite the stride at which study is progressing and the exhilaration generated by the outlook of nanorobots, it could be numerous years before nanorobots are checked in humans.

Conclusion

Cancer is a worldwide problem. Nanocrystal plays an increasing role in battling cancer worldwide and in achieving the goal of eliminating suffering and death from cancer by 2015. Moreover, the use of multifactorial Nanocrystal in detecting and diagnosing carcinomas and sarcomas at earlier stages can be beneficial but needs further studies and investigation before implementing it in clinical practice. The general is for government to assume a main part, at the same time with the educated community and business relationship, in adding to the empowering foundation for perceiving and considering nanomaterial’ potential dangers, including (1) ID of “delegate or structure’ nanomaterial, in connection to the structure, measurements, property and undertaking; (2) creating poisonous quality testing convention, covering inward breath, dermal, ingestion, and infusion presentation courses, for ID of full gimmick of the nanomaterial in connection to material property, the proposed use by the conceivably inclined, helpless patient and a definitive clinical applications; (3) strengthening the building methodologies under Good developing perform (GMP) for nanomedicine in particularly in the zone of creation, pontoons, taking care of and stockpiling to twofold watch that relentlessness and nature of the last stock is supported; (4) recognizing and administering the introduction level in working environment, air/waterborne discharges, people and different life forms and ecological media; and (5) surveying the impact of nanocyrstal items on the indigenous habitat as a proactive danger administration. Early theoretical and experimental studies of the biocompatibility of nanomaterials and sophisticated nanodevices have begun.

References

1. Heidel, J. D., & Davis, M. E. (2011). Clinical developments in nanotechnology for cancer therapy.Pharmaceutical research,28(2), 187-199.

2. Misra, R., Acharya, S., & Sahoo, S. K. (2010). Cancer nanotechnology: application of nanotechnology in cancer therapy.Drug Discovery Today,15(19), 842-850.

3. Staples, M. P., Elwood, M., Burton, R. C., Williams, J. L., Marks, R., & Giles, G. G. (2006). Non-melanoma skin cancer in Australia: the 2002 national survey and trends since 1985.Med J Aust,184(1), 6-10.

4. Phan, J. H., Moffitt, R. A., Stokes, T. H., Liu, J., Young, A. N., Nie, S., & Wang, M. D. (2009). Convergence of biomarkers, bioinformatics and nanotechnology for individualized cancer treatment.Trends in biotechnology,27(6), 350-358.

5. Colin D. Medley, Joshua E. Smith, Zhiwen Tang, Yanrong Wu, Suwussa Bamrungsap, and Weihong Tan* (2008), Gold Nanoparticle-Based Colorimetric Assay for the Direct Detection of Cancerous Cells, Anal. Chem, 80, pp. 1067-1072

6. Chen et al., 2006 Z. Chen, H. Meng, G. Xing, C. Chen, Y. hao, G. Jia, T. Wang, H. Yuan, C. Ye, F. Zhao, Z. Chai, C. Zhu, X. Fang, B. Ma and L. Wan, Acute toxicological effects of copper nanoparticles in vivo, Toxicol. Lett. 163 (2006), pp. 109–120.

7. Bucolo et al., 2002 C. Bucolo, A. Maltese, G. Puglisi and R. Pignatello, Enhanced ocular anti-inflammatory activity of Ibuprofen carried by an Eudragit RS100 nanoparticle suspension, Ophthal. Res. 34 (2002), pp. 319–323.

8. Alexis, F., Rhee, J. W., Richie, J. P., Radovic-Moreno, A. F., Langer, R., & Farokhzad, O. C. (2008). New frontiers in nanotechnology for cancer treatment. InUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations(Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 74-85). Elsevier.

9. Aliosmanoglu, A., & Basaran, I. (2012). Nanotechnology in cancer treatment.J Nanomedicine Biotherapeutic Discov,2, 107.

10. Donaldson et al., 2004 K. Donaldson, V. Stone, C.L. Tran, W. Kreyling and P.J.A. Borm, Nanotoxicology, Occup. Environ. Med. 61 (2004), pp. 727–728. Full Text via CrossRef (144)

11. Ferrari, M. (2005). Cancer nanotechnology: opportunities and challenges.Nature Reviews Cancer,5(3), 161-171.

12. Barlow et al., 2005 P.G. Barlow, K. Donaldson, J. Maccallum, A. Clouter and V. Stone, Serum exposed to nanoparticle carbon black displays increased potential to induce macrophage migration, Toxicol. Lett. 155 (2005), pp. 397–401.

13. Gmeiner, W. H., & Ghosh, S. (2014). Nanotechnology for cancer treatment. Nanotechnology Reviews,3(2), 111-122.

14. Bulte, J.W, (2009), Nanoparticles in Biomedical Imaging: Emerging Technologies and Applications. New York, Springer, pp. 2.

15. Wang, X., Yang, L., Chen, Z. G., & Shin, D. M. (2008). Application of nanotechnology in cancer therapy and imaging.CA: a cancer journal for clinicians,58(2), 97-110.

16. Gmeiner, W. H., & Ghosh, S. (2014). Nanotechnology for cancer treatment. Nanotechnology Reviews,3(2), 111-122.

17. Bucolo et al., 2002 C. Bucolo, A. Maltese, G. Puglisi and R. Pignatello, Enhanced ocular anti-inflammatory activity of Ibuprofen carried by an Eudragit RS100 nanoparticle suspension, Ophthal. Res. 34 (2002), pp. 319–323.

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