Management Strategies in Healthcare

2920 words (12 pages) Essay

16th Oct 2017 Health Reference this

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1.1 List factors under the control of healthcare managers that contribute to the decrease in the number of people applying to health professions schools. Describe the steps that healthcare organizations can take to improve this situation.

The factors that contribute to the decrease in the number of people applying to health professions schools can be identified through making use of an environmental assessment. Environmental assessment is a vital element of strategic human resources management. Factors affecting the healthcare environment are as follows: increasing workforce diversity, aging workforce, shortages, different changes in terms of the values and attitudes of the workers, and advancement of technology (Fried & Fottler, 2011).

Managers are expected to have the knowledge both on the present and future operating environments. He or she must assess the internal strengths and weaknesses for him or her to formulate plans based from the results of the assessment. They responded to these factors through the different internal structural change, which includes the following: development of network structure, collaborating with healthcare systems, participating in mergers and acquisition, developing work teams, developing quality improvement, making use of telecommunication, leasing the employees, outsourcing work, making use of additional temporary or contingent workers, and forming medical tourism (Fried & Fottler, 2011).

The strategic approach to human resource management that can be used to improve this situation are as follows: assessment on both the organization’s environment and mission, formulating a business strategy, identifying the different HR requirements needed to implement business strategy, comparing the current HR inventory to future strategic requirements in terms of numbers and required skills, developing HR strategy to close the gap on both the current inventory and future requirements, and implementing appropriate HR practices to strengthen the business strategy (Fried & Fottler, 2011).

The seven HR managements can also be used to intervene the given situation. These includes the following: providing employment security, using different criteria during the selection of personnel, making use of self-managed teams and taking decentralization to be the basic elements of organizational design, offering a high compensation, training extensively, reducing status distinction and barriers, and sharing performance and financial information (Fried & Fottler, 2011).

References

Fried, B., Fottler, M. (2011). Fundamentals of Human Resources in Healthcare. Health Administration Press, Chicago, IL. AUPHA Press, Washington D.C.

1.2 What are the organizational advantages of integrating strategic management and human resources management? What are the steps involved in such an integration?

The advantages of integrating strategic management and human recourse management are as follows (Fried & Fottler, 2011):

  1. Proactive behavior is encouraged rather than reactive behavior.
  2. Company goals are communicated explicitly.
  3. Gaps between the current situation and a vision of the future are focused on.
  4. Line managers are involved in the human resource planning process.
  5. Human resource opportunities and constraints are identified in implementing strategic plans.

In addition to that, it also improves clinical outcomes, enhances service quality, increases market share, and improve financial returns (Fried & Fottler, 2011).

The strategic approach to human resource management steps are as follows: assessment on both the organization’s environment and mission, formulating a business strategy, identifying the different HR requirements needed to implement business strategy, comparing the current HR inventory to future strategic requirements in terms of numbers and required skills, developing HR strategy to close the gap on both the current inventory and future requirements, and implementing appropriate HR practices to strengthen the business strategy (Fried & Fottler, 2011).

References

Fried, B., Fottler, M. (2011). Fundamentals of Human Resources in Healthcare. Health Administration Press, Chicago, IL. AUPHA Press, Washington D.C.

2.1 Describe the process of professionalization. What is the difference between a profession and an occupation? Use what you do as an example.

Professionalization is considered as a social process by which there is a transformation of any trade or occupation into a real profession. The process includes developing acceptable qualifications, a professional body, or even an association that will oversee the conduct of members of the profession. This process tends to develop the group norms of conduct and insists that the members of the profession must follow with the developed procedures and of any agreed code of conduct (Crossman, 2014). The difference between these two terms is important because healthcare continues to evolve.

The terms occupation and profession are usually used interchangeably; however, these terms can be differentiated. Occupation is one’s principal activity and means of support. High skilled specialization is not required. It is usually supervised, follows to a defined work schedule, and earns an hourly wage. A person in an occupation is usually trained for a particular job or function, and because of this, they are less able to transfer from one organization to another (Fried & Fottler, 2011).

In profession, knowledge and training are required. They have more authority and responsibility compared with non-professionals. They follow a code of ethics. In addition to that, they have more autonomy in determining the content of service he or she provides as well as in monitoring his or her workload. Furthermore, a professional earns a salary, obtains a higher education, and works in independence and mobility compared with a nonprofessionals (Fried & Fottler, 2011).

In my own personal experience, I am a professional nurse. I was able to finish 4years of Bachelor of Science in Nursing. As a professional nurse, I underwent trainings, follow a code of ethics, and passed a state licensure examination to practice my profession.

References

Crossman, A. (2014). Professionalization. Retrieved from http://sociology.about.com/od/P_Index/g/Professionalization.htm

Fried, B., Fottler, M. (2011). Fundamentals of Human Resources in Healthcare. Health Administration Press, Chicago, IL. AUPHA Press, Washington D.C.

2.2 Describe the major types of healthcare professionals (excluding physicians and dentists) and their roles, training, licensure requirements, and practice settings.

The industry of healthcare is considered as the largest and most powerful industry in the United States. Healthcare professionals include the following:

  1. Nurses

The focus of nurses is not only on a specific health problem but also on the totality of a patient and his response to treatment. The roles and function of a nurse are as follows: caregiver, communicator, teacher, client advocate, counselor, leader, manager, and so on. The nursing field comprises many specialties and subspecialties such as critical care, infection control, emergency nursing, surgical nursing, and obstetric nursing; certification in these areas require specialty education, practical experience, and successful completion of a national examination nonprofessionals (Fried & Fottler, 2011).

  1. Registered nurses must complete an associate degree in nursing, a diploma program, or a bachelor’s degree in nursing to qualify for the licensure examination. The Associate Degree in Nursing Program takes 2years to complete and is offered usually by community and junior colleges. The Hospital Diploma Program can be completed approximately 3years. The bachelor’s degree can be completed in 4years and is usually offered by colleges and universities.
  1. Licensed practical nurses are state-licensed caregivers who have been trained to care for the sick. They must complete a state-approved program in the practical nursing and must achieve a passing score on the national examination.
  1. Advanced practice nurses have education and experience beyond the basic training and licensing required of all RNs. This includes nurse practitioners and the following:
  • Clinical nurse specialists have training in a field such as cardiac, psychiatric, or community health.
  • Certified nurse midwives have training in women’s healthcare needs, including prenatal care, labor and delivery, and care of a woman who has given birth.
  • Certified registered nurse anesthetists have training in the field of anesthesia (National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists, 2014).
  1. Pharmacists

Pharmacists dispense prescription medications to patients and offer expertise in the safe use of prescriptions. They also may provide advice on how to lead a healthy lifestyle, conduct health and wellness screenings, provide immunizations, and oversee the medications given to patients. To have the eligibility for licensure, they must graduate from an accredited bachelor’s degree program in pharmacy, successfully complete a state board examination, and obtain a practical experience or complete a supervised internship. The trend of pharmacy has broadened education to include the terminal degree doctor of pharmacy. Many pharmacy schools offer this program to those who have the interest in teaching, research, and administrative responsibilities and to those willing to be part of the patient care team This educational preparation also requires one to have a successful completion of the state board of examination and even other practical experience as needed by state laws nonprofessionals (Fried & Fottler, 2011).

  1. Allied Health Professionals

The allied health professions are a huge group that consists of therapists, medical and radiologic technologists, social workers, health educators, and other ancillary personnel. These professionals may work in the areas such as disease prevention, dietary and nutrition services, rehabilitation, or therapy. Educational and training programs for the allied health profession are sponsored by a variety of organizations in different academic and clinical settings. Their practice settings include hospitals, clinics, community health, homecare, and so on. The National Commission on Allied Health divides allied health professionals into two categories: therapists/technologists and technicians/assistants. The former represents those with higher-level professional training and who are responsible for supervising those in the technician/assistant category nonprofessionals (Fried & Fottler, 2011).

  1. Healthcare Administrators

Health administrators are leaders. They are usually assigned in the hospitals, physician group practices, nursing homes, and home health agencies. They direct the operation of hospitals, health systems, and other types of organizations. Healthcare administrators also take responsibility for facilities, services, programs, staff, budgets, relations with other organizations, and other management functions, depending on the type and size of the organization. They also have an opportunity to work in the public sector and private sectors. They do not deal directly with patients on a day-to-day basis. Rather, they help to shape policy, make needed changes, and lead our nation’s health-related organizations in a way that serves individual patients by helping to improve the healthcare system. To be eligible, many higher-level healthcare administration executives have a master’s degree in a field such as public health or business, hospital, or nursing administration. A bachelor’s degree is often sufficient for entry-level positions or for employment with smaller facilities when coupled with relevant healthcare experience.

Certification and Licensing: Healthcare administrators who work as nursing home administrators must also pass the National Association of Long Term Care Administrator Boards Exam and obtain state licensure. Healthcare administrators in other sectors are not required to be licensed; however, voluntary certification is available through the American College of Healthcare Administrators (American College of Healthcare Executives, 2014).

References

American College of Healthcare Executives. (2014). Early careerist question. Retrieved from http://www.ache.org/carsvcs/CareerFAQ/early.cfm

Fried, B.J., & Fottler, M.D. (Eds.). (2011). Fundamentals of Human Resources in Healthcare. Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press.

National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists. (2014). CNS FAQs. Retrieved from http://www.nacns.org/html/cns-faqs.php

3.1 Why is sexual harassment so prevalent in the healthcare environment? What can be done to break this pattern?

Sexual harassment is prevalent in the healthcare environment as a result of feminism, the women’s movement, increasing societal attention, and equal accommodation in the workplace. In addition to that, the growth of women in the workplace is also one of the factors. Several factors also explain why it is prevalent in healthcare organizations. First, sexual harassment always includes an element of power and control. Most hospital employees are women, but those in the authoritative position are men. Second, intimacy among healthcare providers has been the nature of healthcare work—having a strong collegial relationship established under a high-stress environment of healthcare and having sexual jokes and off-color humors that will later on lead to an abusive, suggestive language (Fried & Fottler, 2011).

To break this pattern, putting in place a sexual harassment policy must be implemented; this includes the following (Fried & Fottler, 2011):

  • Having a strong definition of what is sexual harassment and developing a strong statement that it will not be tolerated.
  • Conducting an extensive training among all employees on the policy, focusing on employees with management and supervisory authority.
  • Giving instructions on how to report complaints, including procedures to bypass a supervisor if there is the involvement of a supervisor.
  • Providing an assurance on confidentiality, protecting against retaliation, and having a guarantee of prompt investigation.
  • Forming a statement that disciplinary action will be taken against harassers up to and including termination.

References

Fried, B.J., & Fottler, M.D. (Eds.). (2011). Fundamentals of Human Resources in Healthcare. Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press.

3.2 Under what circumstances would you use a progressive discipline process? When would you choose not to use such a procedure?

Progressive discipline is a process that deals with job-related behavior that does not meet an expected standard. Assisting the employee in understanding that a performance problem or opportunity for improvement is the primary purpose (Heathfield, 2014). It is most successful when a person is able to perform effectively in an organization.

Steps in a progressive discipline include the following (Heathfield, 2014).

  • Counseling the employee about performance and ascertain his or her understanding of requirements.
  • Verbally reprimanding the employee for poor performance.
  • Providing a written verbal warning in the employee’s file, in an effort to improve employee performance.
  • Providing an escalating number of days in which the employee is suspended from work. Starts with 1day and escalate to 5days.

A healthcare administrator would not use this process when he or she sees that there is already a serious unlawful involvement such as theft, alcohol or drug intoxication at work, misconduct behavior, and any acts of violence that are ground for immediate termination.

References

Heathfield, S. (2014). Progressive discipline. Retrieved from http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryd/a/discipline.htm

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