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In this world whether from developed, developing and underdeveloped countries, there is no doubt that most of the people is experiencing illness and diseases. The major leading causes of illnesses are their lifestyle and standard of living. Some people argue that individuals should be responsible for their health while others argue that the government are the one who is accountable for health. In this paragraph, it tackles the insights on who need to be a liable for health, may it be social, personal and environment. Moreover, it gives the impact of the said issue on international and national policy. Also, it will discuss the justification of each solutions or intervention to address the balance responsibility for healthcare between society and family.
The leading factors for the lifestyle diseases are as follows: first is high blood pressure. It is also known as hypertension. It does increase the risk for heart attack or stroke to most have this case. When a person has hypertension, usually it has no signs. That is why people should have a regular check-up of their blood pressure. The only way to know if a person is experiencing a high blood pressure is having it always high for a very long time like for three months. The causes for this illness are unknown but there is a study that it runs in the families or known as hereditary. Occasionally, glandular and kidney diseases are responsible for this. Second is tobacco use. It is considered to be common throughout the globe. It contains a raw material which has an addictive ingredient like nicotine. It is one of the most leading factor for lots of chronic diseases such as cancer, lung related diseases and cardiovascular too. As to this a number of countries are now restricting tobacco use, regulating people who can only buy and where can they smoke. Third is unsafe sex. It is also known as unprotected sex where describe as having sex without condom. As a result of this, HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) can occur. Globally, the number of people getting infected with this is increasing every year. That is why using condom is important and it is effective way for preventing STI, AIDS and HIV which can be passed on during sex. Fourth is alcohol use. In order for people to socialise with others, drinking with them is way to know them. However, drinking regularly in high amount can cause lots of health conditions. These alcohol related problems are liver disease, cancer, malnutrition, impotence, infertility, nerve damage, stroke, addiction and worst is death. Fifth is obesity. Obese is defined as accumulation of too much fat inside the body and it has a negative effect on one person’s health. If the person BMI is more than to its normal by 30%, it is considered to be obese. As to this, high number of health risk can be identified like osteoarthritis or bone degeneration, coronary heart disease, gall bladder disease, high blood pressure, respiratory problems, sleep apnoea, stroke and diabetes. Last is cancer. It is the abnormal cell growth inside the body. There are 100 types of different cancer. It harms the body wherein the damaged cells are dividing uncontrollably which forms masses and lumps except for leukaemia. These masses interferes system in our body like the circulatory, cardiovascular, digestive and respiratory system. Some of the tumours are benign but some of them turn out to be malignant, which is more dangerous to one person’s health. Consequently, countries are spending a lot of money on healthcare costs and expenditure. Since the lifestyle of a person is interrelated with the diseases, there is a question of should an individual be held responsible for their health related choices?
So it is been concluded that there is a relationship between the lifestyle of a person to the diseases they are suffering and also the expenditure in the healthcare. Through this, in medical and economic point of view, individuals are morally responsible for their health related choices. However, lots of people are objecting with this idea.
People are objecting with several reasons. First, there will be a conflict between individuals who are entirely responsible for their health and also the responsibility of medicine to treat people. Also, there will be a conflict between the society’s obligations to look after the vulnerable people. Second, it is not fair for individuals to be responsible for their health if they themselves cannot make a good health related choices due to addictive behaviour, ignorance, mental incapability and also peer pressure. Third, it will be extremely difficult for people to implement a system that they are totally responsible for their health to think that some people acquire disease through environmental and hereditary factors. Although, it is vital for individuals to be responsible for their health, they should not be obliged to be entirely responsible for it as it is unreachable and impossible to be done. Furthermore, the government and other healthcare providers should also be there to help the society to give full awareness of health and diseases and on how to maintain health and prevent certain illnesses.
There are several ways and method on how the government, public and private healthcare sectors on how to promote health and prevent diseases. Fist is through sanitation, which defines as the safe disposal of human waste may it be urine and faeces. Also, it is known as the maintenance of proper hygiene such as rubbish collection and water waste disposal. Second is pollution control which encompasses the air, water and land. However there is an argument on how control should be done and how much control that is needed. The pollution control or the “command and control” mechanism increases the expenditure in this strategy thus making it slow to achieve a cleaner environment. Third is food and drug safety, wherein to promote and protect health FDA or the Food and Drug Administration is responsible for this. Fourth is the health education. This is also important as it increases the awareness of the public with regards of health and safety. Fifth is disease surveillance wherein the spread of a certain disease is being monitored, observed, examined and supervise to know the patterns of its progression. Also, it observes, predicts and minimizes the harm that it may cause to the public. Sixth is urban planning which ensures the development of the communities such as in transportation, infrastructures and distribution networks. It needs thorough research, planning, analysis, management, implementation and recommendation from the government. Last one is occupational health and safety which targets the safety, health and welfare of the employees or people in the workplaces.
Since there are several different methods on how the society can address the health, unfortunately resources are undoubtedly limited. As a result, there is a question of where should the society needs to invest first? Also, which sectors need the most financial aids?
As the promotion of healthcare for the society is very important role of the government, they should consider the prioritization method which needs a greater emphasis on delivering healthcare. There are several sectors that need to prioritize first and less emphasize on access to healthcare. First is the prevention campaign. This includes the health education in public, pollution control, pesticide or chemical regulation, food and drug safety, disease surveillance and occupational health. There is a saying that “prevention is better than cure”. So it is believe that the government should invest the money on the said different prevention of the disease than treatment. Also, everyone can be benefitted from these services like clean water and air, safe food, sanitation, urban planning, control of pest and pesticides and disaster preparedness. Furthermore, the cost-effectiveness of these services is very important in consideration in healthcare and social policy.
Moreover, there are also some drawbacks on having these strategies. First is that, one of its problems with having social responsibility for health, there is a tendency that it may encourage individuals to take less responsibility of their health. People might go dependent on those services. On the other hand, some healthcare services or health promotion can empower the individuals to look after their own health. For example, sex education, which gives every individual a knowledge on how to avoid sexually transmitted diseases. Urban planning can also give them healthy choices with regards to workplace, transportation and recreation.
In conclusion, every individual and society itself has its own responsibility to take into account in which they live in. People should know how to look after their health and should also pay for their healthcare costs. People should not be also dependent on the amenities that the public services are offering. While the government and other healthcare services should not stop helping the community in health promotion and prevention for the welfare and development of the society. As to the national and international policy, these strategies are considered to be a big help as it is cost effective and easy to implement than building healthcare infrastructures which are costly and expensive.
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