The food insecurity determined many components in the system of food, as well as individuals and factors regarding to social – economic. When discussing about the individual food insecurity they are based on knowledge on nutritional benefit, source of preparing food, skills required to prepare food, period of time to have it and in fact of all availability of healthy food source. Famishment and hunger is caused due to lack of food and enough food is require to be well nourished. During recent years there are many experienced significant modifications has been made to food policies in many developing countries in order to sustain food availability and constancy. According to Food and Agriculture organization of the United States nations report states that one in every nine people in the world have still faced food insufficient for a healthy lifestyle or health living ().The main meaning of food security is availability of food at all times, access of to it and nutritional benefit that in variety of product, quality of product and cultural satisfactory (4).
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During 2012-2014 there are about 805 million people were estimated to be chronically undernourished and will be down by more than 100 million people over the last decades and since 1990-1990 by 209 million peoples. () The social determinants of food insecurity among the developing world is caused due to the climate change, population growth, war between countries, diseases caused to livestock, pests and loss of agricultural fields due to urbanization. In this paper I would like to discuss about social determinants of food insecurity in India and social determinants of health due to insecurity in food.
The present situation of Insecurity of Food in India shows a gloomy picture when it compare with other developing countries among the world .Due to the Current data of Food Insecurity India has the largest number of people in the world who are unable to get a healthy food lifestyle and Food insecurity is caused due to orthodox concept of belief like food inaccessibility and inadequate buying capability , sociological and demographic characteristics such as unemployment, Illiteracy rate ,urbanization ,unsustainable environmental conditions such as negative influence of political power in the coordination among the departments or sectors who handles the food insecurity and poor handling of food distribution department among the states or rural areas . As a solution to the above situation, it have to begin from multi department of health and food supply chains and must give importance in agriculture by giving adequate knowledge and farming equipment’s ,development in rural area were the food insecurity is more , promoting women empowerment in all sectors give them free education and work rights ,job opportunity in the government sectors ,giving good environmental condition such as water quality and supply ,providing proper sanitation and proper domestic waste management so to increase the quality of nature for sustainable production of agriculture products (1).
The childhood malnutrition is another issues related food insecurity. According to the UN report, there are 2.1 million Indian children die before reaching the age of 5 per year that is 4 children every year. Among the death about half of it is caused due to infectious diseases such as respiratory illness, malaria, diarrhea that are treated with low of cost approach(2).Malnutrition and anemia are the two medical conditions which caused during the childhood development and food insecurity is the main reason for both causes. According to the mother and child nutrition organization about 38.4 % of children under 3 are too short for their age and 46% child are underweight that is too thin for their age and abnormally low weight child height affects 19% of children under 3 years of age. If we take the anemic among the child is about 79.2% is more .This caused due to the lake of unemployment and lack of uneducated mother or parenting among the rural place of India .This can be improved by giving sufficient training to the parents during the child hood development. As the high rate of anemia among the child of rural India is caused due to the poor diet, unhygienic conditions and due to the limit to supply like iron tablets during pregnancy stage. This have to the supplied to the people of local community of women’s by health service centers .In India Health service centers are lack of doctors this due to the people hesitate to work in remote area due to insufficient resources like proper center, proper sanitation for living and proper house for the workers of health service or health centers.
One of the common disease among the rural children is diarrhoea and often caused due to the insufficient clean water supply and improper hand sanitation like Hand wash when baby feeding etc. The ground water quality is low due to the industrial irrigation plant and industrial waste dumping to the nearby river. This water cannot be supplied to rural Indian .Due to the extreme weather conditions in India most of river which are dry during summer season and rural people have to carry water from long distance. According to the World Health Organization that about 50 percent of children with malnutrition is related to diarrhoea and caused due to poor quality of water sanitations(3).
The rural poverty and food insecurity effect the people to migrate from the rural place to city for the better life and in search of better healthy condition .But this leads to massive increase of slums among the cities of India .The people who were living in the slum have even bad way of health life style .This is due to the over population and unavailability of supply among the slum .The main health needs such as sanitation is not provided and drinking water is also not provided in the slums. The politician are not active in the case of slum, they will never be able to produce or introduce and policy to improve the health condition of people who were living in below poverty line in India. According to 2012 WHO Food Insecurity report states that India is home to more than 217 million undernourished people(5),So that is who were living in slum especially in major cities like New Delhi and Mumbai .
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Social determinants of Food insecurity also depending on household it means that food insecurity is upon the status of each member of that particular household and availability of food ,sharing between them ,sufficient food Varity ,food quality and hygienic standards of food ,a part of all the health status of family member is to be good to deliver a good health status .This criteria will help to protect the food insecurity among the family thus can achieve a healthy community among the rural place.According to the report of Food and Agricultural organization states that well-nourished people are successful outcome of social-economic development and it carry important role in process of community developments(6). Recent study which conduct in the united also states that household food insecurity analysis is used to method of adaptation of approach to prevent food insecurity among the community people(7).
Agricultural growth also carry an important role in Food security that is increase in economic status of a country by more employments ,availability of food ,exporting of agricultural product thus can achieve economic growth and can improve the living status of community or improve in food insecurity. One of the main issues regarding the agriculture growth is due to the climatic change during the past days .The farmers are not able to achieve their goal for example to be include is banning of Indian Mango to European Union and other country, due to findings of fruit flies in most of the mango boxes .This effect most of rural people who were involved in a big loss in economic growth .This issue is due to the improper checking or supply of pesticide through the department of agriculture in to the hands of farmers(8).
The Food insecurity in India is caused due to the lack of accessibility of resources to the rural people ,high product price mostly in buying medicine and nutritious products(vegetables, milk, egg ,etc.), high transportation cost and lack of road to reach all the place of rural India, inadequate supply of water to the required place, urbanization in major city without sufficient waste management and quality water supply ,Industrial facility and pollution to the atmosphere and water ,due to the result of pollution sudden climatic change which mostly effect the agricultural production, lack of Health centers in rural area ,Limited accessibility of quality of water in rural area, Health education during the pregnancy stage, lack of supply of medication which are free from government health service .
As a solution of Insecurity of food the government have to create a community based approach to the requirement and supply of needs .They should concentrate on promoting the rural women about the basic education In case of breastfeeding and hygienic care required during the breastfeeding time and supplying required amount of vitamin ,iron tablets during their period of pregnancy .The government should have to promote the health worker and supply with their requirement .Adequate water supply to the rural place. The politician have to include rural health policy to maintain an adequate health to the rural community. One of the additional fundamental importance in economic growth is to increase in agricultural products thus meeting the global demand for food .According to the World Health Organization (10) repot the agricultural production can be expected to increase 60 percentage by the end of 2050.The social detriments of health due to the food insecurity have to be ended by improving or motivating the people toward agriculture and many other can find opportunity outside the circle of agriculture to small businesses into profitable. The government have to take an action to include policy which supports the local community and nature by this transformation can help the people below poverty to overcome (9). Implementing yearly surveys to rural people regarding the issues like supply and demand ,it also effect to improve the health condition of local community .Use of new technology like video conferencing with the rural community to educate regarding the basic things ,mobile health centers on a monthly basis to check the health condition of the people, irrigation projects and rain water storage project to improve the water quality thus it help to improve the ground water for drinking purpose, adequate supply of water filters and storage tanks .During recent news report the people of rural community especially children are suffering from lack of access to safe water and sanitation .This have to be ended by improving the quality of life style ,give them education ,give them necessary requirements and thus can improve or build a healthy community around India and from our achievement the other people around the world will follow our steps of success.
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