Task two: Analyzing the historical response to disability and/or aging in a local context
Identify whether a regional or a national situation is being discussed
The Old Age Pensions Act 1898 was a national social security response towards aging at the end of 19th century in new Zealand. Before that, people believe that new Zealand own the large amount of lands and the government only have the responsibility to help people have a good life. The aged people are mainly supported by themselves and their family members. Obviously, the old aged care system is very limited, because only several parts of support unit such as their family members, voluntary donations, some government subsidies in new Zealand.
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Aged Maori were cared by their relatives. But many old single male, who are living in west coast, they have no family members to look after them, although some of the hospital can play some role to look after the aged people especially in the medical way, but the majority of them still need to find their own way to support their life. Because of the depression of the economy, the rich and poor area are lack of balance. In the end, aging become a very big social issues are waiting to be solved urgently.
The person who had the contribution to the individuals or the whole society for example they relieve the burden to the public and pay the tax to the government regularly, proving the useful knowledge and skills to help the technology advancement. They deserve to get the reasonable money from the government in their old age. Like the pension.
The government are willing to help people who are deserve to be helped, in order to deal with aging issues, this is the first time in new Zealand
The advanced social welfare policies was created in 1990s NZ, the number of rest homes are built up by the religious and welfare organization in 1949. The residential care grow up to kind of services for the group of aging people. 1995 the advisory committee on the care of the aged was built up, and the medical issues is the main purpose for this committee. Subsides recognized that there is still need some support in the community in 1960s. because of lots of residents moved away from charitable and lots of voluntary sections are changing to private part, so there is increasing of needed for rest homes. Due to the geriatric hospital special assistance scheme comes in, lots of public care change to private beds by hospital bounds.
The establishment of regional health authorities in 1993, the health care purchaser and provider were introduced, the acute care and disability support care are funded. And the private rest homes are increased by 460%, the new system was developed aging in place inform many government strategies, the new zealnd positive aging strategies is focusing on illness and treatment care, which encourage old people can make their own decision to determine where to live and what is kind of support they need.
The old age pensions was funded from general taxation of government.
Income: the money, valuable thing, or profits one could get in any year, from any sources or by any means, the allowance, funeral benefits, or pension received under this act were not included.
British subject: before 1949, according to British common law, everybody who born within the obedience of the English was an English or British subject.
Naturalize: though many ways to let a person who is not originally from the country where she or he live in at the moment became the citizen in this country.
Pension: it is a contracted and fixed amount of money to be paid regularly.
The young immigrants hold the opinion that the aged people still need to be independently and not the burden of others, furthermore, lots of people think that the motivation of creating the old age pension act 1898 is to release the financial burden of the hospital and charity department. And the pension department use suspicious method to cope with applicant resentfulness.
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In some extent, all of these bring some social and economic alteration in new Zealand. At first, it is a good financial support system provided ti its recipients, creating new Zealand new welfare system, at the same time, the new zealand government know that they should take the main responsibility to help the individuals to overcome some hard situations. The funding of pensions ever since became a key consideration about any session debt-burdened government of new Zealand.
Distinguish stereotypes, and explain barriers
Although the liberal claimed themselves to be social-justice. For example they gave means tested pension( although some people criticized the amount was smaller than before) to aged people with good moral character. The old age pension act 1898 had a strong emphasis on race in which Chinese were specifically excluded, no matter naturalized or not, it mainly because many his country were unabashed racists. They held a stereotype that the white was might, they tried to preserve a white man country and to restrict the growth of Chinese or other Asian. This situation continued about 40 years until the enacting of the amendment act 1936. In this period, NZ Europeans widely believed that the maori were dying out. Although they were officially native. NZ European attitude towards the maori was tempered by the treaty obligations and the respect for maori fighting ability, while maori were potentially entitled the right for the pension. Also the income and the values of land held by the maori applicants were difficult to access only because the land was communally owned by the maori extended family/whanau. It left maori old people a big disadvantage.
According to the act, people who were qualified to old age pensions must be proved full age of 65+, residing in new Zealand, pass strict means test. Had lived in new Zealand for 25 years previously, and if not British subjects( including Maori). He needed to be naturalized for 5 years. Previously (in order to exclude recent immigrants). The applicants of the pension should also supply proofs of good characters (in order to exclude drunks, criminals and wife-deserters)
Access frame works
- People who were entitled should deliver a claim to the deputy register
- Claims that satisfied the requirements would be accepted for registration by deputy register, he numbered then according to the date of register.
- Then came the stipendiary magistrate to investigate. He had total discretionary judgment on claims, which including acceptance, postpone, amendment and rejecting, all applicants should go through a public process in open count. The result were to be published in local paper.
- The stipendiary magistrate fixed the rate of pension for the first year
- Each year later on, a new pension certificate should be issued accordingly.
Tim, G (1983). Social developments an organizational history of the ministry of social development and its predecessors, 1860-2011. Wellington. Steele Roberts, Aotearoa.
Good returns,(2013). Super history, NZ super system unique. Retrieved from http://www. good returns.co.nz/article/976486047/super-history-nz-s-super-system-unique.html
New Zealand history online (2013). Old-age pension act becomes law. Retrieved from http:// www.nz history.net.nz-age-pensions-act-passes-into-law
Name: Yan Jiang student ID number: 12010808[Type text]Page 1
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