Māori are originated and settles from a Polynesia and then arrived in New Zealand with the several waves that called the canoe voyages in between1250 and 1300 CE. Over the period of centuries in the isolation the settlers Polynesian had developed the culture which is unique which became and known as the “Maori” and with the language of their own, a mythology which is rich performing arts and distinctive crafts. The Māori groups formed tribal groups, this is the early Māori which they performed, it is based on the eastern Polynesian organization and to the social groups. They introduced of using flourished plants as their horticulture and later to that it will be the prominent warrior culture will emerged.
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But in the arrival of the Europeans in New Zealand in the start of the 17th century they brought a very large change in the Maori in way of living in their lives. The Maori begin to adopt a different many aspects of the western society and the culture. It is a very large agreeable between the relations of the Europeans and Māori, initially which in the year of 1940 the signing of the treaty of Waitangi, this two culture are coexisted and part of the new British colony. In the year 1860 there are some rise of tension over the disrupted land sales that were led to conflicts. Because of the epidemic disease that introduced in a social upheaval a decade of conflicts occur and it took a variety of toll on the Māori population which came to such time a very dramatic decline, but in the 20th century the Māori population begun to recover. The Māori people were also known as themselves by their iwi (tribal). With the tribal groups which means the smaller family or the sub-tribes hapu were properly organized, the men in Māori had a full tattoo in the face (moko), which the identity is reflected as well also the attributes such as bravery status and etc. the woman also have the tattoo but it’s in their lower lips and the chins which is represented both the lineage “whakapapa” and status. This kind of art in tattoo was very scary which is Tapu, as well as the Māori’s aspect culture such as the building, curving and everything else.
The settlements of the Māori people where it is first held were around the harbours or the river mouths were the sea birds and fishes lived abundantly. The Māori people used the both hunting and agriculture to sustain their needs, their biggest source of food was called the moa, this is a very large bird which is a flightless bird that goes how easy for them to hunt and easy target, but unfortunately because of their constant hunt with the bird, they have become extinct due to over hunting.
Settlement and Treaty of Waitangi
The treaty of Waitangi was originally made for a formal agreement for the British settlement and for the guarantee of the Māori for protection interest; there re representative who signed the agreement one of this are the Māori chiefs and the British crown, this happened back in the year 1840. That time the Māori number was estimated only to 80,000, along with the settlers population of 2000. I signing the Waitangi treaty, it was facilitated by a large scale influx of the British migrants. When the year of 1858 comes there were a decline in the population of the Māori and increase of numbers in settlers approximately 59000 in numbers.
The settlers introduced the fire arms and the new infectious disease that cause the major impacts of death among the Māori. The disruption of the Māori’s food, supplies and economic base, social networks was far widespread, this not only occurred in the their land but to the extend to the legislation in many areas including the regulation of right of the Māori and discrimination against the Māori language that used in the school. The primary mechanism of the Māori was the treaty of Waitangi this is to have their very own unique rights as an indigenous people the country of New Zealand. The treaty is intentionally tend to maintain and to protect the well-being of all the citizens and health implication relation to the good government and the notion participation and equity. The treaty of Waitangi was continued along with the growing Māori self-determination. In tie come it has been argued that the continuing of the disparities of health among the non-Māori and Māori represent that the rights of the Māori are not being protected.
Maori Health Status
In the Māori population after reaching the low point in the year 1896 approximately about 4200, in subsequent years the Māori was begun to increase. The government initiated a Māori controlled health promotion programs and public health services and also they include the appointment of the Māori health inspectors to work just within the Māori communities
There had been suggestion in the number of different explanation for the inequalities in the health between the Maori’s and non-Maoris. There is common suggestion which is the race because of the different genetic factors. However there are 85% of variations in genetic that occurs randomly and most of them are not related to race or the ethnicity. Although the genetic factors between Māori and non-Māori may contribute in different status, however in terms of public health they do not play a major role.
Between the Māori’s and non-Māori’s in the explanation of the differences in health in nongenetic can be group in 4 major areas which focus on the socioeconomic factors, lifestyle factors, and to the healthcare and lastly the discrimination.
There are number of studies that demonstrate the increase of mortality and morbidity with the increase of deprivation. Just for like an example, there are deprivation in New Zealand index that enables the level of assessment in the area of deprivation with the use of the census data.
Furthermore the lower Māori health status can be explained partially to relative socioeconomic disadvantage. It is shown that the Māori mortality rates had been high persistently even though there is the control for the social class
One of the life style in Māori that can affect their health is the smoking, and their diet is very excessive they have no control over their daily diet that’s why Māori people are very obese, this are one of the mechanism that may affect their health status, furthermore Māori also abusive in substance like alcohol they are abusive to their own health, however this kind of situation are monitored, there some surveys that shows the difference of health status between the Māori and non-Māori, it’s also shown that Tabaco smoking is one of the high rate for Māori than the non-Māori, this cause that the Māori’s are very prone to hypertension.
Access to Health Care
In accessing the healthcare between the Māori and non-Māori are tend to have a disadvantages because in accessing to health care, Māori and non-Māori tend to be differ in terms of accessing the health needs both the primary and secondary health care services, and most likely the Maori’s are less referred to a surgical care and other special services, and given the disparities in the mortality. Māori’s are less given the priority and levels in hospital care as well as the quality than the non-Māori.
For the discrimination, there are certain roles which Māori are also not being advocate by the health care provider. In just for example Māori have asthma and they come to the hospital for treatment in case of entertaining them they are not properly cared and treated unless the asthma is absolutely necessary to be treated. The doctors towards the Māori patients shows that there is a less advocate towards the Māori patients for the preventive measures than the non-Māori patients, unlike for the non-Māori patients they are easily advice for any surgical treatment in terms of their certain disease.
In the year of 1930’s the healthcare system in New Zealand was created nationally, the medical attention at this year is free and its delivered by the salaried medical practitioners, but in time had passed, the system had been modified to be paid by as a government fee services in subsidy in secondary to care, the primary care is funded largely but also controlled by the individual doctors. Until the year of 1980s the situation remained unchanged. By the year of 1991 there are were a new major series health services were newly initiated including the public hospital which have a particular changes as well as their health services delivered and how the new funding were organized in the provision of the health care that enable the health practitioners to work. Primarily with the Māori’s about their improving access to the health care services were undertaken both of the Māori development of the cultural safety education and for the establishment to the Māori in their health care provider services.
Maori Health Care Providers
In health care provider which is a Māori made a very large role in way of advancing their health promotion and the disease controlled with the Māori communities. This kind of scenario initiates only in the outside mainstream services which was being provided at that time and for this the government and also the funding availability was very vulnerable to change however this kind of matter led to the widening of gap in the inequality, mostly in the determination of health as income, employment, housing and education.
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There are differences in providing a health care and services from a Māori and non-Māori. Because in Māori health care is they use of their own race to model the health and the promotion of a positive development of a Māori as a primary health services. Maori health care provider also will make the basis on their findings through a cultural process in delivering a contemporary health services that able to support self sufficiency. The Māori health care provider had increase in 1993 to 2004 and this number of Māori health care provider faces a great number of difficulties, just for example a Māori healthcare provider is caring for a patient but there is a lack of obtaining a primary health data, they are limited potential when it comes to provide a care and for some reason the Māori health work force which is a very small organization had been quickly absorbed into a large growing Māori provider organization.
The treaty of Waitangi in Māori are observe, there are certain rights of the Māori that are missing, especially in their health services and to their health care provider, even though the children have the same rights with the non-Māori people when it come to school benefits recognition of equity of bought party are not alike.
Cultural Safety Education
The cultural safety and education provide the history in New Zealand, this provide the information of the treaty of the Waitangi. It is also involve the framework of Māori people and their culture. The nurses and midwifes and doctors as well as the midwives are taught to understand how Maori people are being understand, especially for the students which is in secondary of school are very prone in depression. This is because the Māori’s have very small amount of self-esteem even if they are bullied its shows that they are easily being affected.
Genetics and Disease
For the genetics the Māori people are originally big people or we could say the term obese and these are one problem that may cause their health and disease, because of excessive weight Māori are prone to hypertension. Genetically Māori’s are tending to have the life expectancy by 60-65; they don’t age to old in numbers because they are prone for depression even in their adolescence life. Study also shows that the indigenous people have the highest mortality rate than the non-indigenous people mostly this is indicated by the disease of end renal stage. Maori people during their mid age in their life are experiencing this disease and there were study shows that there is also an excess comorbidity most particularly in diabetes.
I therefore to conclude that the indigenous people in New Zealand and they have been evidence the very poor health status. The cultural and safety and for the Māori provider organization for the education have been emerged that is not in isolation but rather than within the level of the government policies and it is shown whether it will be greatly promoted the health status of the indigenous people.
I conclude that the Māori people have the less priority when it becomes to the health needs of than the non-Māori. Explanations shows that the lifestyle of Māori are connected to their life expectancy because of their diet pattern which affect their health adding the substance on their lifestyle associated for being alcoholic and smokes tobacco.
I here to conclude that the disparities’ in the health between the Māori’s and the non-Māori’s also been evident for all of the colonies in New Zealand, although there are some improvements I the past years which is past 140 years ago, this indicates that the gap in the life expectancy with the group is widened rather than narrowing. This also conclude that the treaty of Waitangi that not all Māori requested to treat as an equity to both Māori and non-Māori are not totally recognized and implemented.
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