Health Care Access for Maori and non-Maori

2763 words (11 pages) Essay

26th Mar 2018 Health Reference this

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Health care access and opportunities for Maori and non-Maori 

Assessment 1 individual

INTRODUCTION

It can be said that; ‘Of all form of inequality, inequalities in health care the most inhuman of all’. This assessment is concerned with social, economic, political and historical factors which contributed to health status of Maori and non-Maori. Inequalities and disparities in health status comes are considerable. So there is a dramatic difference between Maori and non-Maori health status due to many reasons such as poor nutrition, lowest income, inappropriate education system, culture, language, loss of lands, unhygienic foods and many more. The recommendation in this assignment focus on different factors related to health of Maori and non-Maori people. In which to identify the biggest causes the poor health status and better understand the casual path linking of social, political, economic and historical factors. There is wide disparities in health exist among people in New Zealand.

Treaty of Waitangi

The treaty established a British governor of New Zealand, which recognised Maori ownership of their lands and other properties. The treaty of Waitangi is first signed in 6th February 1840 by British crown. Around 530-540 chiefs, at least 13 of them women, signed the treaty of Waitangi. The English and Maori version of treaty different, so there is no consensus .the Maori believed they ceded to the crown a right of governance for protection without giving up their authority to manage their own affair.

There is following views which contributed to inequalities and disparities in Maori and non Maori health status;

Social Review

Social status is based on occupation, education and life style of Maori and non-Maori people which is key determinant of health. There is a combination of materials like poverty in which includes poor housing, poor nutrition and stress caused by low social health status results in health inequalities. As a social factor, lifestyle is most dominant cause of inequality because the Maori has different lifestyle than non-Maori. In which cancer is single biggest cause of death in Maori due to taking of smoking and exposure to second hand smoke. Apart from this, it is noticed that the Maori women were twice as likely to smoke as women of non-Maori population. so the excessive smoking may lead to lung and breast cancer in Maori people. Moreover other associated factors are excessive alcohol consumption and more exposure to sun which contribute to bad health status. In addition nutritional habits also put great impact on health status of Maori and non-Maori. The Maori has poor nutritional take and also more obese than non-Maori. So obesity is very dangerous for health that may lead many other health problems and dangerous diseases which may even lead to death. Furthermore heart diseases and genetic components are major factors that associated their lifestyle in which Maori people has low physical activity and poor nutrition intake influence the health.

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In addition to it, the use of mental health services served in 2002 was more in Maori rather than other islanders. Maori have high admission rate to mental hospitals and the diagnose and aetiology behind the mental disorder was related to their lifestyle like alcohol and drug consumption because drugs are directly affecting on brain nerves and a person becomes mentally week which can make is mind unstable and he is a way of any understanding due to the effect of drugs.

Moreover unsafe sexual habits, gambling and participate in dangerous activity are also a case of bad health status on Maori people.

In brief social conditions are particularly important in determining health of people because when a social environment is supportive then great influence on health. At last it can be said that poor nutrition, bad lifestyle, disruption, urbanisation, inappropriate education and poor nutrition intake lead to inequalities and disparities between Maori and non-Maori population.

Economic Review

There are number of survey has been done to recognise the economic factor that contribute to the health status of Maori and non-Maori. The economic level is very different of Maori and non-Maori people that may affect the health of both populations. It has been showed that non Maori men have more income than Maori. The low income people have not sufficient money for the treatment of disease because in new island income inequalities have been increased in late 1980 and 1990. This standard of living is some degree of hardship and fall in unemployment. Beside this loss of shelter, food and land are important determinant that may lead bad health effect on Maori people. The Maori population has no access of telephone, not receiving a man texting benefits, low income, illiteracy, overcrowded housing and even not living in their own home. So in this way Maori health status is very low as compared to non-Maori. It is also suggested that inequalities in income also contribute in death rates. Furthermore, decline of Maori population in 18th and 19thcentury of colonisation. It is also believe that impact of colonisation in such a way like loss of land, houses, food, culture and language may lead to bad status on health 0of Maori people. Furthermore, racial factor is also contributed in inequalities. It can be understood by low qualification rate of Maori people because western education system was not appropriate for Maori.

Maori and the reason behind this was other cause is unemployment in which seen that Maori have high rate of unemployment than non-Maori were lived in rural and natural places.

Last but not the least cause under economic factor is poor health delivery care service to Maori people. So at the end it can be include that colonisation, loss of land, literacy, and overcrowded housing leaded negative effect on Maori health status.

Historical view

https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSJd9EbmLDeIWO3_vQ_D9o4vum2XP4yko3ser-8jlM34fi1z79Llw

In view of history the Maori people lived in rural areas or small town. The ancestor of Maori was illiterate and had no value of education. So in this way their children have also not went to school and unaware about value and need of education. The rate of school completion in 2001 was very low in Maori group (30.5%) as compared to non-Maori (52.4%).as a result of rate of unemployment was twice than European part.

Apart from this, from a decades and century the Maori was very prone to many ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, liver cancer and diabetes which all diseases may be seen in hereditary form also.

In addition, most of Maori was prone to physical disabilities that may put great impact on Maori health. The other reason behind inequalities of health status in Maori and non-Maori people was old education system. Before 1840s, the Maori children only learnt language, skills in fishing, mat-making, hunting, gardening, cooking and many more which only related to Maori. But after 1840s many schools were established by European missionaries and forced Maori children to attend ordinary schools. But Maori children did not reach an acceptable level of European education and consequently, Maori students leave the school early. So in this way they were illiterate and unemployed which resulted that they were not participated in health care services and self-health care that may lead to high mortality rate in Maori population than non-Maori.

In addition, bad and negative perception regarding hospital was one of reason of inequalities in Maori and non-Maori. There was hospital system proven ineffective in Maori population because nonetheless, thirteen Maoris patient were died from 1849-1851 and these deaths had negative effect on Maori perception. They concluded that ‘hospitals had a bad name among Maoris, they were thought of as places where one went to die’.

Political view

The politics has great impact on Maori and non-Maori health during the 1990s there was broad agreement between major political parties that settlement of historical claim was appropriate, in recent years it has become the subject of heightened debate.

According to have Mann (1999) in 1848 -1863 the whole land of South Island by unscrupulously purchasing land from Ngai tahu tribe’s .but consequently this leaded to invasion in Waikato and tahini tribes.

In case of question about the responsibilities of central government ,more than 80% respondent thought it should be the government role to maintain the standard of living and standard of health so in this way ,it was the government responsibility’s to provide jobs and reduce the income inequalities between Maori and non-Maori during the 1990s there was broad agreement between major political parties that settlement of historical claim was appropriate ,in recent years it has become the subject of heightened debate.

According to have Mann (1999) in 1848 -1863 the whole land of South Island by unscrupulously purchasing land from Ngai tahu tribe’s .but consequently this leaded to invasion in Waikato and tahini tribes.

In case of question about the responsibilities of central government, more than 80% respondent thought it should be the government role to maintain the standard of living and standard of health so in this way, it was the government responsibility’s to provide jobs and reduce the income inequalities between Maori and non-Maori.

Housinghttp://www.teara.govt.nz/files/hero-40340.jpg

The structure of housing is different in Maori and non-Maori population. The Maori people lived in rural areas where all facilities in home were not reached properly. so in asthma.

In 2001 air pollution from home heating was associated with almost 1100 premature deaths. so because health status is largely determined by socio economic factors the improvements are mainly influenced by housing quality.

Health care access and opportunities for Maori and non-Maori

The Maori journeyed to New Zealand via pacific approximately 1000 years and the first recorded accrued in 1769 at the time of James cook from Britain.

There is increasing evident that Maori and non-Maori differ in term primary and secondary health care services .in which the Maori less likely to preferred to surgical care and specialist services .other one is the Maori received lower level of health care than expected level of quality hospital. The Maori obtaining necessary care only from local areas as compared to non-Maori.

There is another evident from previous study which reported the barrier to assessing the diabetes among Maori and Maori got unsatisfactory care rather than non-Maori population.

Moreover, the cost involved for a treatment is also a significant barrier to Maori access to health services.

Rights of others and legitimacy of difference

This way the Maori people has not proper ventilation and exhausted fan in house which leaded respiratory problems in Maori population. The Maori houses are cold, damp and polluted which leads many problems.

The all human being in this world has their own rights according to their culture and religion. So it is important to understand the different rights of others. The first which one is absolute rights which must never be limited in any way even a state of war or emergency. Moreover the right is not to be tortured in an inhumane way. Other one is non- absolute which can be limited in certain circumstance. Under this right the all people have right to liberty can be limited include being sent to jail if commit any crime. In which non- absolute the qualified right is that to respect for private and family life, right to freedom of expression, thought, and religion.

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LEGITIMACY; is a popular acceptance of an authority. It is a value whereby something or someone is recognised and accepted as right and proper. In which include different people has their different rational values, customs and habits.Morover every person have their own ideas or charisma of leader. Apart from this, government institution establishes and enforces law and order in the public interest. The legitimacy of intergroup status differences has profound effects on attitude, emotions and behaviour.

In 143 hospitals organization noticed the effects in two forms managerial and technical. Results shows that both the managerial and technical forms provided notable improvement in survival chances.

The power relationship in healthcare;

The health care providers and practitioner play a vital role in power relationship .they are the persons which provide the health care in all level of health and all category of people either poor and rich, Maori and non Maori there was a strong evidence of a dose –response relationship between Maori and non Maori and racial discrimination in health care centres. The Maori was 10 times more likely to experience multiple type of discrimination as compared to Europeans and others. These results highlight the need for racism to be considered to eliminate ethic inequalities in health care.

In health care setting the nurses identifying the power relationship between the services provider and the people who use the services. the care provider must an emphasis health gains and positive health outcome because all people has different in age, gender, sexual orientation, occupation and socioeconomic status, ethnic origin or migrant experience, religious or spiritual belief, disability. The nurse accepts and sorts alongside others after undergoing a careful process ofpower relationship .the health care provider concern about quality improvement in service delivery and consumer rights.

Moreover health care provider resolves any tension between the cultures of nursing and the people using the services. Beside this, accepting the legitimacy of difference and diversity in human behaviour and social structure. So at last but not least it must needed to understand that such power imbalances can be examined, negotiated and changed to provide equitable, effective, efficient and acceptable service delivery, which minimises risk to people who might otherwise be alienated from the service.

Conclusion

All above review has been evident for disparities and inequalities in health care between Maori and non-Maori. There is complex factor complex of factors associated with historical, social, economic, housing, and political views for access to The all above review has been evident for disparities and inequalities in health care health care that also underpinned by racism which leads ethics inequalities. Although study has reported how the uses of health care services in Maori and non Maori population at the different level and different way. So it is a combination approaches which meet the different views and cultural safety is one of the indigenous nursing approach which response to inequalities for Maori.

References

The British Institute of Human right.(2013).Human right tool kit. Different right –a balancing act? London ,U.K.Retrived from www.bihr.org.uk/human-right-in-action/chapter-3-different-rights-a balancing act.

Jansen,P.,Bacal,K.,&Crengel,S.(2008).He Ritenga Whakaaro:Maori experience of health services.Retrieved from http://www.nzdoctor.co.nz/media/6399/He-ritenga-Whakaaro.pdf.

Jansen ,P.,& Smith,K.(2006).Maori experience of Primary healthcare:Breaking down the barriers.New Zealand Family Physician,33(5),298-300.Retrieved from http://www.rnzcgp.org.nz/assests/documents/Publications/Archive-NZFP/Oct-2006-NZFP-Vol-33-No-5/JansenOct06.pdf

JaspinderkaurPage 1

Health care access and opportunities for Maori and non-Maori 

Assessment 1 individual

INTRODUCTION

It can be said that; ‘Of all form of inequality, inequalities in health care the most inhuman of all’. This assessment is concerned with social, economic, political and historical factors which contributed to health status of Maori and non-Maori. Inequalities and disparities in health status comes are considerable. So there is a dramatic difference between Maori and non-Maori health status due to many reasons such as poor nutrition, lowest income, inappropriate education system, culture, language, loss of lands, unhygienic foods and many more. The recommendation in this assignment focus on different factors related to health of Maori and non-Maori people. In which to identify the biggest causes the poor health status and better understand the casual path linking of social, political, economic and historical factors. There is wide disparities in health exist among people in New Zealand.

Treaty of Waitangi

The treaty established a British governor of New Zealand, which recognised Maori ownership of their lands and other properties. The treaty of Waitangi is first signed in 6th February 1840 by British crown. Around 530-540 chiefs, at least 13 of them women, signed the treaty of Waitangi. The English and Maori version of treaty different, so there is no consensus .the Maori believed they ceded to the crown a right of governance for protection without giving up their authority to manage their own affair.

There is following views which contributed to inequalities and disparities in Maori and non Maori health status;

Social Review

Social status is based on occupation, education and life style of Maori and non-Maori people which is key determinant of health. There is a combination of materials like poverty in which includes poor housing, poor nutrition and stress caused by low social health status results in health inequalities. As a social factor, lifestyle is most dominant cause of inequality because the Maori has different lifestyle than non-Maori. In which cancer is single biggest cause of death in Maori due to taking of smoking and exposure to second hand smoke. Apart from this, it is noticed that the Maori women were twice as likely to smoke as women of non-Maori population. so the excessive smoking may lead to lung and breast cancer in Maori people. Moreover other associated factors are excessive alcohol consumption and more exposure to sun which contribute to bad health status. In addition nutritional habits also put great impact on health status of Maori and non-Maori. The Maori has poor nutritional take and also more obese than non-Maori. So obesity is very dangerous for health that may lead many other health problems and dangerous diseases which may even lead to death. Furthermore heart diseases and genetic components are major factors that associated their lifestyle in which Maori people has low physical activity and poor nutrition intake influence the health.

In addition to it, the use of mental health services served in 2002 was more in Maori rather than other islanders. Maori have high admission rate to mental hospitals and the diagnose and aetiology behind the mental disorder was related to their lifestyle like alcohol and drug consumption because drugs are directly affecting on brain nerves and a person becomes mentally week which can make is mind unstable and he is a way of any understanding due to the effect of drugs.

Moreover unsafe sexual habits, gambling and participate in dangerous activity are also a case of bad health status on Maori people.

In brief social conditions are particularly important in determining health of people because when a social environment is supportive then great influence on health. At last it can be said that poor nutrition, bad lifestyle, disruption, urbanisation, inappropriate education and poor nutrition intake lead to inequalities and disparities between Maori and non-Maori population.

Economic Review

There are number of survey has been done to recognise the economic factor that contribute to the health status of Maori and non-Maori. The economic level is very different of Maori and non-Maori people that may affect the health of both populations. It has been showed that non Maori men have more income than Maori. The low income people have not sufficient money for the treatment of disease because in new island income inequalities have been increased in late 1980 and 1990. This standard of living is some degree of hardship and fall in unemployment. Beside this loss of shelter, food and land are important determinant that may lead bad health effect on Maori people. The Maori population has no access of telephone, not receiving a man texting benefits, low income, illiteracy, overcrowded housing and even not living in their own home. So in this way Maori health status is very low as compared to non-Maori. It is also suggested that inequalities in income also contribute in death rates. Furthermore, decline of Maori population in 18th and 19thcentury of colonisation. It is also believe that impact of colonisation in such a way like loss of land, houses, food, culture and language may lead to bad status on health 0of Maori people. Furthermore, racial factor is also contributed in inequalities. It can be understood by low qualification rate of Maori people because western education system was not appropriate for Maori.

Maori and the reason behind this was other cause is unemployment in which seen that Maori have high rate of unemployment than non-Maori were lived in rural and natural places.

Last but not the least cause under economic factor is poor health delivery care service to Maori people. So at the end it can be include that colonisation, loss of land, literacy, and overcrowded housing leaded negative effect on Maori health status.

Historical view

https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSJd9EbmLDeIWO3_vQ_D9o4vum2XP4yko3ser-8jlM34fi1z79Llw

In view of history the Maori people lived in rural areas or small town. The ancestor of Maori was illiterate and had no value of education. So in this way their children have also not went to school and unaware about value and need of education. The rate of school completion in 2001 was very low in Maori group (30.5%) as compared to non-Maori (52.4%).as a result of rate of unemployment was twice than European part.

Apart from this, from a decades and century the Maori was very prone to many ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, liver cancer and diabetes which all diseases may be seen in hereditary form also.

In addition, most of Maori was prone to physical disabilities that may put great impact on Maori health. The other reason behind inequalities of health status in Maori and non-Maori people was old education system. Before 1840s, the Maori children only learnt language, skills in fishing, mat-making, hunting, gardening, cooking and many more which only related to Maori. But after 1840s many schools were established by European missionaries and forced Maori children to attend ordinary schools. But Maori children did not reach an acceptable level of European education and consequently, Maori students leave the school early. So in this way they were illiterate and unemployed which resulted that they were not participated in health care services and self-health care that may lead to high mortality rate in Maori population than non-Maori.

In addition, bad and negative perception regarding hospital was one of reason of inequalities in Maori and non-Maori. There was hospital system proven ineffective in Maori population because nonetheless, thirteen Maoris patient were died from 1849-1851 and these deaths had negative effect on Maori perception. They concluded that ‘hospitals had a bad name among Maoris, they were thought of as places where one went to die’.

Political view

The politics has great impact on Maori and non-Maori health during the 1990s there was broad agreement between major political parties that settlement of historical claim was appropriate, in recent years it has become the subject of heightened debate.

According to have Mann (1999) in 1848 -1863 the whole land of South Island by unscrupulously purchasing land from Ngai tahu tribe’s .but consequently this leaded to invasion in Waikato and tahini tribes.

In case of question about the responsibilities of central government ,more than 80% respondent thought it should be the government role to maintain the standard of living and standard of health so in this way ,it was the government responsibility’s to provide jobs and reduce the income inequalities between Maori and non-Maori during the 1990s there was broad agreement between major political parties that settlement of historical claim was appropriate ,in recent years it has become the subject of heightened debate.

According to have Mann (1999) in 1848 -1863 the whole land of South Island by unscrupulously purchasing land from Ngai tahu tribe’s .but consequently this leaded to invasion in Waikato and tahini tribes.

In case of question about the responsibilities of central government, more than 80% respondent thought it should be the government role to maintain the standard of living and standard of health so in this way, it was the government responsibility’s to provide jobs and reduce the income inequalities between Maori and non-Maori.

Housinghttp://www.teara.govt.nz/files/hero-40340.jpg

The structure of housing is different in Maori and non-Maori population. The Maori people lived in rural areas where all facilities in home were not reached properly. so in asthma.

In 2001 air pollution from home heating was associated with almost 1100 premature deaths. so because health status is largely determined by socio economic factors the improvements are mainly influenced by housing quality.

Health care access and opportunities for Maori and non-Maori

The Maori journeyed to New Zealand via pacific approximately 1000 years and the first recorded accrued in 1769 at the time of James cook from Britain.

There is increasing evident that Maori and non-Maori differ in term primary and secondary health care services .in which the Maori less likely to preferred to surgical care and specialist services .other one is the Maori received lower level of health care than expected level of quality hospital. The Maori obtaining necessary care only from local areas as compared to non-Maori.

There is another evident from previous study which reported the barrier to assessing the diabetes among Maori and Maori got unsatisfactory care rather than non-Maori population.

Moreover, the cost involved for a treatment is also a significant barrier to Maori access to health services.

Rights of others and legitimacy of difference

This way the Maori people has not proper ventilation and exhausted fan in house which leaded respiratory problems in Maori population. The Maori houses are cold, damp and polluted which leads many problems.

The all human being in this world has their own rights according to their culture and religion. So it is important to understand the different rights of others. The first which one is absolute rights which must never be limited in any way even a state of war or emergency. Moreover the right is not to be tortured in an inhumane way. Other one is non- absolute which can be limited in certain circumstance. Under this right the all people have right to liberty can be limited include being sent to jail if commit any crime. In which non- absolute the qualified right is that to respect for private and family life, right to freedom of expression, thought, and religion.

LEGITIMACY; is a popular acceptance of an authority. It is a value whereby something or someone is recognised and accepted as right and proper. In which include different people has their different rational values, customs and habits.Morover every person have their own ideas or charisma of leader. Apart from this, government institution establishes and enforces law and order in the public interest. The legitimacy of intergroup status differences has profound effects on attitude, emotions and behaviour.

In 143 hospitals organization noticed the effects in two forms managerial and technical. Results shows that both the managerial and technical forms provided notable improvement in survival chances.

The power relationship in healthcare;

The health care providers and practitioner play a vital role in power relationship .they are the persons which provide the health care in all level of health and all category of people either poor and rich, Maori and non Maori there was a strong evidence of a dose –response relationship between Maori and non Maori and racial discrimination in health care centres. The Maori was 10 times more likely to experience multiple type of discrimination as compared to Europeans and others. These results highlight the need for racism to be considered to eliminate ethic inequalities in health care.

In health care setting the nurses identifying the power relationship between the services provider and the people who use the services. the care provider must an emphasis health gains and positive health outcome because all people has different in age, gender, sexual orientation, occupation and socioeconomic status, ethnic origin or migrant experience, religious or spiritual belief, disability. The nurse accepts and sorts alongside others after undergoing a careful process ofpower relationship .the health care provider concern about quality improvement in service delivery and consumer rights.

Moreover health care provider resolves any tension between the cultures of nursing and the people using the services. Beside this, accepting the legitimacy of difference and diversity in human behaviour and social structure. So at last but not least it must needed to understand that such power imbalances can be examined, negotiated and changed to provide equitable, effective, efficient and acceptable service delivery, which minimises risk to people who might otherwise be alienated from the service.

Conclusion

All above review has been evident for disparities and inequalities in health care between Maori and non-Maori. There is complex factor complex of factors associated with historical, social, economic, housing, and political views for access to The all above review has been evident for disparities and inequalities in health care health care that also underpinned by racism which leads ethics inequalities. Although study has reported how the uses of health care services in Maori and non Maori population at the different level and different way. So it is a combination approaches which meet the different views and cultural safety is one of the indigenous nursing approach which response to inequalities for Maori.

References

The British Institute of Human right.(2013).Human right tool kit. Different right –a balancing act? London ,U.K.Retrived from www.bihr.org.uk/human-right-in-action/chapter-3-different-rights-a balancing act.

Jansen,P.,Bacal,K.,&Crengel,S.(2008).He Ritenga Whakaaro:Maori experience of health services.Retrieved from http://www.nzdoctor.co.nz/media/6399/He-ritenga-Whakaaro.pdf.

Jansen ,P.,& Smith,K.(2006).Maori experience of Primary healthcare:Breaking down the barriers.New Zealand Family Physician,33(5),298-300.Retrieved from http://www.rnzcgp.org.nz/assests/documents/Publications/Archive-NZFP/Oct-2006-NZFP-Vol-33-No-5/JansenOct06.pdf

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