1: hypertension is the abnormal blood pressure that is measured of the force against the walls of the arteries as the heart pups blood through the body. Therefore hypertension (high blood pressure) is a cardiovascular disease that increases with age due to hormonally adrenaline and noradrenalin. The (WHO) world health organization recognizes three levels of hypertension identified as the table below
Systolic blood pressure 140-159 mmHg and
Diastolic blood pressure 90-00 mmHg
Medium –severe hypertension
Systolic blood pressure 160-179 mmHg and
Diastolic blood pressure 100-109 mmHg
Systolic blood pressure 180 mmHg or higher and
Diastolic blood pressure 110mmhg or higher
2: fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide are drugs that belong to the group drugs called (ACE) Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors. The combinations of these drugs are used to lower the blood pressure and hypertension, congestive heart failure as they relieve the symptoms of fluid retention.
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3: fosinopril works through blocking the formation of angiotensin II (an enzyme in the blood that controls the constriction of arteries and veins) constriction of arteries and veins causes blood pressure. It also relaxes the arteries and veins and lowers blood pressure. By the act of reducing blood pressure, fosinopril reduced the work that the heart does of pumping blood through the arteries and veins. This helps in improving the output of blood from the heart especially when the heart is failing. After a heart attack ACE inhibitors also improve the function of the damaged heart and also reduce symptoms and hospitalization due to congestive heart failure. In heart failure patients it increases the exercise tolerance and lower the frequency of events linked with heart failure
4: a patient who is being treated with hydrochlorothiazide will make the patient to make more urine therefore increases the amount of times that the patient go to urinate. Constant repeated urination helps the patient to get rid of extra salts and water from the body. Reduced extra fluid in the body that are mainly caused by conditions such as heart failure, kidney disease and liver disease can lessen symptoms such as shortness of breath or swelling in the ankles or feet. Weight loss may also be reported due to the fluid that are lost after taking the drugs this helps the patient t remain healthy with the only required fluids in the body.
5: when taking the fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide one should strictly follow the doctors advice the drugs are sequentially administered for I month each with an intervening 2 week washing period between each treatment period
6: two ways are used to control and manage blood pressure this are the lifestyle habits and medication the first way is to have physical activity where one should engage in moderate or vigorous physical activities for about one hour at least three times in every week the activity helps in reducing the blood pressure by 4.9/3.7 points. Weight control, where one should ensure not to build too much weight hence lower the blood pressure by 1.1/0.9 points. Alcohol consumption should be reduced where one should reduce the intake by 3.6 drinks per day hence lowering the blood pressure this lowers the blood pressure estimate with about 3.9/2.4 points. Sodium salt intake reduction should also encourage where the patient should reduce it by 1,800mg this is estimated to cause a reduction in blood pressure by 5.1/2.7 points. lastly the patient should follow the DASH diet hence lower the blood pressure by 11.4/5.5 points this it recognized as the most effective lifestyle change to manage blood pressure.
7: due to intake of fosinopril one may experience some adverse conditions among them include the high potassium that may cause slow hear ate, tingly feeling and muscle weakness other symptoms may include swelling of face, lips or the throat. Secondly, due to low potassium one may experience confusion, leg discomfort, thirst, vomiting, muscle weakness and increased urination. One should get an immediate medical help when any of these symptoms are seen.
8: patient that are receiving treatment on hypertension by the use of hydrochlorothiazide are said to may experience muscle weakness, dizziness and severe skin rash with peeling skin. And loss of vision. When one detect such side effects they should inform their doctor immediately additionally one may avoid alcohol as it adds to dizziness and also inform their doctor on the previous medication they were receiving before hypertension treatment.
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9: (i) fosinopril and diuretics, the common side effect of the said interaction is excessive reduction of blood pressure after the initiation of therapy this condition can be minimized by increasing of the salt intake prior to initiation of treatment with MONOPRIL or discontinuing the diuret treatment. On fosinopril and drugs that increase potassium levels slow hear rate, tingly feeling and muscle weakness other symptoms may include swelling of face, lips or the throat. To decrease the amount of fosinopril absorbed from intestine patients should take antacids.
10: due to interaction between hydrochlorothiazide andnon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, blood pressure may cause increase in causing headache, dizziness or blurred vision connectively kidney failure may result. The patient need to change the dosage of their blood pressure, alternatively, hydrochlorothiazide and lithium (mood-stabilising drug) may result to thyroid and renal problems additionally Mild diarrhoea can be treated by over-the-counter medications such as Kaopectate
11: for a therapy to be successful it requires the participation of knowledgeable patients this means that the patient should inform the doctors on her conditions and the drugs she is taking. Additionally she should follow the doctor’s instruction in taking the medication and report any side effects to the doctors. Good follow up should also be done to ensure that the patient’s conditions monitoring is as per the required situation.
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