Fosinopril and Hydrochlorothiazide in Treating Hypertension

1780 words (7 pages) Essay

22nd Sep 2017 Health Reference this

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1: hypertension is the abnormal blood pressure that is measured of the force against the walls of the arteries as the heart pups blood through the body. Therefore hypertension (high blood pressure) is a cardiovascular disease that increases with age due to hormonally adrenaline and noradrenalin. The (WHO) world health organization recognizes three levels of hypertension identified as the table below

Level 1

Mild hypertension

Systolic blood pressure 140-159 mmHg and

Diastolic blood pressure 90-00 mmHg

Level 2

Medium –severe hypertension

Systolic blood pressure 160-179 mmHg and

Diastolic blood pressure 100-109 mmHg

Level 3

Severe hypertension

Systolic blood pressure 180 mmHg or higher and

Diastolic blood pressure 110mmhg or higher

2: fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide are drugs that belong to the group drugs called (ACE) Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors. The combinations of these drugs are used to lower the blood pressure and hypertension, congestive heart failure as they relieve the symptoms of fluid retention.

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3: fosinopril works through blocking the formation of angiotensin II (an enzyme in the blood that controls the constriction of arteries and veins) constriction of arteries and veins causes blood pressure. It also relaxes the arteries and veins and lowers blood pressure. By the act of reducing blood pressure, fosinopril reduced the work that the heart does of pumping blood through the arteries and veins. This helps in improving the output of blood from the heart especially when the heart is failing. After a heart attack ACE inhibitors also improve the function of the damaged heart and also reduce symptoms and hospitalization due to congestive heart failure. In heart failure patients it increases the exercise tolerance and lower the frequency of events linked with heart failure

4: a patient who is being treated with hydrochlorothiazide will make the patient to make more urine therefore increases the amount of times that the patient go to urinate. Constant repeated urination helps the patient to get rid of extra salts and water from the body. Reduced extra fluid in the body that are mainly caused by conditions such as heart failure, kidney disease and liver disease can lessen symptoms such as shortness of breath or swelling in the ankles or feet. Weight loss may also be reported due to the fluid that are lost after taking the drugs this helps the patient t remain healthy with the only required fluids in the body.

5: when taking the fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide one should strictly follow the doctors advice the drugs are sequentially administered for I month each with an intervening 2 week washing period between each treatment period

6: two ways are used to control and manage blood pressure this are the lifestyle habits and medication the first way is to have physical activity where one should engage in moderate or vigorous physical activities for about one hour at least three times in every week the activity helps in reducing the blood pressure by 4.9/3.7 points. Weight control, where one should ensure not to build too much weight hence lower the blood pressure by 1.1/0.9 points. Alcohol consumption should be reduced where one should reduce the intake by 3.6 drinks per day hence lowering the blood pressure this lowers the blood pressure estimate with about 3.9/2.4 points. Sodium salt intake reduction should also encourage where the patient should reduce it by 1,800mg this is estimated to cause a reduction in blood pressure by 5.1/2.7 points. lastly the patient should follow the DASH diet hence lower the blood pressure by 11.4/5.5 points this it recognized as the most effective lifestyle change to manage blood pressure.

7: due to intake of fosinopril one may experience some adverse conditions among them include the high potassium that may cause slow hear ate, tingly feeling and muscle weakness other symptoms may include swelling of face, lips or the throat. Secondly, due to low potassium one may experience confusion, leg discomfort, thirst, vomiting, muscle weakness and increased urination. One should get an immediate medical help when any of these symptoms are seen.

8: patient that are receiving treatment on hypertension by the use of hydrochlorothiazide are said to may experience muscle weakness, dizziness and severe skin rash with peeling skin. And loss of vision. When one detect such side effects they should inform their doctor immediately additionally one may avoid alcohol as it adds to dizziness and also inform their doctor on the previous medication they were receiving before hypertension treatment.

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9: (i) fosinopril and diuretics, the common side effect of the said interaction is excessive reduction of blood pressure after the initiation of therapy this condition can be minimized by increasing of the salt intake prior to initiation of treatment with MONOPRIL or discontinuing the diuret treatment. On fosinopril and drugs that increase potassium levels slow hear rate, tingly feeling and muscle weakness other symptoms may include swelling of face, lips or the throat. To decrease the amount of fosinopril absorbed from intestine patients should take antacids.

10: due to interaction between hydrochlorothiazide andnon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, blood pressure may cause increase in causing headache, dizziness or blurred vision connectively kidney failure may result. The patient need to change the dosage of their blood pressure, alternatively, hydrochlorothiazide and lithium (mood-stabilising drug) may result to thyroid and renal problems additionally Mild diarrhoea can be treated by over-the-counter medications such as Kaopectate

11: for a therapy to be successful it requires the participation of knowledgeable patients this means that the patient should inform the doctors on her conditions and the drugs she is taking. Additionally she should follow the doctor’s instruction in taking the medication and report any side effects to the doctors. Good follow up should also be done to ensure that the patient’s conditions monitoring is as per the required situation.

References:

Cerner, M (2014). Fosinopril-hydrochlorothiazide treatment report retrieved from <https://www.patientslikeme.com/treatments/detail/19678-fosinoprilhydrochlorothiazide-side-effects-and-efficacy> on 6th august 2014

Francs, P. Saini, R. (2014). Management of Hypertension: The Role of Combination Therapy retrieved from http://ajh.oxfordjournals.org/content/10/S7/262S.abstract on 6th august 2014

Kresser.C (2012). 6 ways to lower blood pressure by changing you lifestyle http://www.heartandstroke.com/site/c.ikIQLcMWJtE/b.4091465/k.907F/Heart_disease__Lifestyle_changes_to_manage_your_high_blood_pressure.htm 6th august 2014

Tseng, Y.Z Lo H.M, Chiang, F.T (2013). Characteristic abnormal findings of ambulatory blood pressure indicative of hypertensive target organ complications medical articles retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7988594 on 6th August 2014

Saunders E, Cable G.N (2008). Predictors of blood pressure response to angiotensin receptor blocker/diuretic combination therapy: a secondary analysis of the hydrochlorothiazide blood pressure reductions in diverse patient populations retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18174768 on 6th august 2014

Brouwers, F., et al (2011). Long-term effects of fosinopril and pravastatin on cardiovascular events in subjects with microalbuminuria Ten years of follow-up of Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease Intervention Trial . American Heart Journal, 161(6), 1171-1178.

Allan, G., Ivers, N., & Padwal, R. (2012). Best thiazide diuretic for hypertension. Canadian Family Physician, 58(6), 653. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov on 6th august 2014

Tiziani, A. (2010). Havard’s nursing guide to drug (8th ed.). NSW: Elsevier Australia.

Bullock, S., Manias, E., & Galbraith, A. (2007). Fundamentals of Pharmacology (5th ed.). NSW: Pearson Education Australia.

Bryant, B., & Knights, K. (2011). Pharmacology for Health Professionals (3rd ed.). NSW: Elsevier Australian.

Wing, R., et al (2011). Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 34(7), 1481-1486.

Cornelissen, V., Buys, R., & Smart, N. (2013). Endurance exercise beneficially affects ambulatory blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal Of Hypertension, 31(4), 639-648.

Orazio, L., Isbel, N., Armstrong, K., Tarnarskyj, J., Johnson, D., Hale, R., & .Hickman, I. (2011). Evaluation of dietetic advice for modification of cardiovascular disease risk factors in renal transplant recipients. Journal Of Renal Nutrition, 21(6), 462-471. http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au

Annesi, J. (2013). Association of Multimodal Treatment-Induced Improvements in Stress, Exercise Volume, Nutrition, and Weight with Improved Blood Pressure in Severely Obese Women. International Journal Of Behavioral Medicine, 20(3), 397-402

1: hypertension is the abnormal blood pressure that is measured of the force against the walls of the arteries as the heart pups blood through the body. Therefore hypertension (high blood pressure) is a cardiovascular disease that increases with age due to hormonally adrenaline and noradrenalin. The (WHO) world health organization recognizes three levels of hypertension identified as the table below

Level 1

Mild hypertension

Systolic blood pressure 140-159 mmHg and

Diastolic blood pressure 90-00 mmHg

Level 2

Medium –severe hypertension

Systolic blood pressure 160-179 mmHg and

Diastolic blood pressure 100-109 mmHg

Level 3

Severe hypertension

Systolic blood pressure 180 mmHg or higher and

Diastolic blood pressure 110mmhg or higher

2: fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide are drugs that belong to the group drugs called (ACE) Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors. The combinations of these drugs are used to lower the blood pressure and hypertension, congestive heart failure as they relieve the symptoms of fluid retention.

3: fosinopril works through blocking the formation of angiotensin II (an enzyme in the blood that controls the constriction of arteries and veins) constriction of arteries and veins causes blood pressure. It also relaxes the arteries and veins and lowers blood pressure. By the act of reducing blood pressure, fosinopril reduced the work that the heart does of pumping blood through the arteries and veins. This helps in improving the output of blood from the heart especially when the heart is failing. After a heart attack ACE inhibitors also improve the function of the damaged heart and also reduce symptoms and hospitalization due to congestive heart failure. In heart failure patients it increases the exercise tolerance and lower the frequency of events linked with heart failure

4: a patient who is being treated with hydrochlorothiazide will make the patient to make more urine therefore increases the amount of times that the patient go to urinate. Constant repeated urination helps the patient to get rid of extra salts and water from the body. Reduced extra fluid in the body that are mainly caused by conditions such as heart failure, kidney disease and liver disease can lessen symptoms such as shortness of breath or swelling in the ankles or feet. Weight loss may also be reported due to the fluid that are lost after taking the drugs this helps the patient t remain healthy with the only required fluids in the body.

5: when taking the fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide one should strictly follow the doctors advice the drugs are sequentially administered for I month each with an intervening 2 week washing period between each treatment period

6: two ways are used to control and manage blood pressure this are the lifestyle habits and medication the first way is to have physical activity where one should engage in moderate or vigorous physical activities for about one hour at least three times in every week the activity helps in reducing the blood pressure by 4.9/3.7 points. Weight control, where one should ensure not to build too much weight hence lower the blood pressure by 1.1/0.9 points. Alcohol consumption should be reduced where one should reduce the intake by 3.6 drinks per day hence lowering the blood pressure this lowers the blood pressure estimate with about 3.9/2.4 points. Sodium salt intake reduction should also encourage where the patient should reduce it by 1,800mg this is estimated to cause a reduction in blood pressure by 5.1/2.7 points. lastly the patient should follow the DASH diet hence lower the blood pressure by 11.4/5.5 points this it recognized as the most effective lifestyle change to manage blood pressure.

7: due to intake of fosinopril one may experience some adverse conditions among them include the high potassium that may cause slow hear ate, tingly feeling and muscle weakness other symptoms may include swelling of face, lips or the throat. Secondly, due to low potassium one may experience confusion, leg discomfort, thirst, vomiting, muscle weakness and increased urination. One should get an immediate medical help when any of these symptoms are seen.

8: patient that are receiving treatment on hypertension by the use of hydrochlorothiazide are said to may experience muscle weakness, dizziness and severe skin rash with peeling skin. And loss of vision. When one detect such side effects they should inform their doctor immediately additionally one may avoid alcohol as it adds to dizziness and also inform their doctor on the previous medication they were receiving before hypertension treatment.

9: (i) fosinopril and diuretics, the common side effect of the said interaction is excessive reduction of blood pressure after the initiation of therapy this condition can be minimized by increasing of the salt intake prior to initiation of treatment with MONOPRIL or discontinuing the diuret treatment. On fosinopril and drugs that increase potassium levels slow hear rate, tingly feeling and muscle weakness other symptoms may include swelling of face, lips or the throat. To decrease the amount of fosinopril absorbed from intestine patients should take antacids.

10: due to interaction between hydrochlorothiazide andnon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, blood pressure may cause increase in causing headache, dizziness or blurred vision connectively kidney failure may result. The patient need to change the dosage of their blood pressure, alternatively, hydrochlorothiazide and lithium (mood-stabilising drug) may result to thyroid and renal problems additionally Mild diarrhoea can be treated by over-the-counter medications such as Kaopectate

11: for a therapy to be successful it requires the participation of knowledgeable patients this means that the patient should inform the doctors on her conditions and the drugs she is taking. Additionally she should follow the doctor’s instruction in taking the medication and report any side effects to the doctors. Good follow up should also be done to ensure that the patient’s conditions monitoring is as per the required situation.

References:

Cerner, M (2014). Fosinopril-hydrochlorothiazide treatment report retrieved from <https://www.patientslikeme.com/treatments/detail/19678-fosinoprilhydrochlorothiazide-side-effects-and-efficacy> on 6th august 2014

Francs, P. Saini, R. (2014). Management of Hypertension: The Role of Combination Therapy retrieved from http://ajh.oxfordjournals.org/content/10/S7/262S.abstract on 6th august 2014

Kresser.C (2012). 6 ways to lower blood pressure by changing you lifestyle http://www.heartandstroke.com/site/c.ikIQLcMWJtE/b.4091465/k.907F/Heart_disease__Lifestyle_changes_to_manage_your_high_blood_pressure.htm 6th august 2014

Tseng, Y.Z Lo H.M, Chiang, F.T (2013). Characteristic abnormal findings of ambulatory blood pressure indicative of hypertensive target organ complications medical articles retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7988594 on 6th August 2014

Saunders E, Cable G.N (2008). Predictors of blood pressure response to angiotensin receptor blocker/diuretic combination therapy: a secondary analysis of the hydrochlorothiazide blood pressure reductions in diverse patient populations retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18174768 on 6th august 2014

Brouwers, F., et al (2011). Long-term effects of fosinopril and pravastatin on cardiovascular events in subjects with microalbuminuria Ten years of follow-up of Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease Intervention Trial . American Heart Journal, 161(6), 1171-1178.

Allan, G., Ivers, N., & Padwal, R. (2012). Best thiazide diuretic for hypertension. Canadian Family Physician, 58(6), 653. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov on 6th august 2014

Tiziani, A. (2010). Havard’s nursing guide to drug (8th ed.). NSW: Elsevier Australia.

Bullock, S., Manias, E., & Galbraith, A. (2007). Fundamentals of Pharmacology (5th ed.). NSW: Pearson Education Australia.

Bryant, B., & Knights, K. (2011). Pharmacology for Health Professionals (3rd ed.). NSW: Elsevier Australian.

Wing, R., et al (2011). Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 34(7), 1481-1486.

Cornelissen, V., Buys, R., & Smart, N. (2013). Endurance exercise beneficially affects ambulatory blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal Of Hypertension, 31(4), 639-648.

Orazio, L., Isbel, N., Armstrong, K., Tarnarskyj, J., Johnson, D., Hale, R., & .Hickman, I. (2011). Evaluation of dietetic advice for modification of cardiovascular disease risk factors in renal transplant recipients. Journal Of Renal Nutrition, 21(6), 462-471. http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au

Annesi, J. (2013). Association of Multimodal Treatment-Induced Improvements in Stress, Exercise Volume, Nutrition, and Weight with Improved Blood Pressure in Severely Obese Women. International Journal Of Behavioral Medicine, 20(3), 397-402

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