Factors Influencing the Future Subspecialty Choice

4155 words (17 pages) Essay

11th Oct 2017 Health Reference this

Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com.

 

Research Title: Assessment of Factors Influencing the Future Subspecialty Choice for residents of the Saudi Program of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.

Summary:

Several Factors determine residents’ choice for future subspecialties. These include interest, working hours, income, and future job opportunities. Moreover, choice of future subspecialty might be influenced by gender, marital status, financial status, and sponsoring institute. These factors are different in different regions in the world, and determining them carries many benefits to residents, program directors, and recruiting officials in health care institutes.

A Medline search was carried on and apart from a study carried on medical students, no study assessing factors influencing future career/subspecialty choice for Saudi residents was found.

  1. Research Problem:

Subspecialty choice in otolaryngology resident is challenging decision make. This decision is usually influenced by several factors in variable significance. Determining these factors allows modifying them which benefits both residents and institutes.

  1. Research Significance:

Variable factors influence residents’ future subspecialty choice. Determining these factors and their significance allows modifying them in favor of attracting the brightest trainees to specialties in need.

  1. Research Objectives:

What factors influence residents’ choice for a subspecialty after finishing residency?

Of these factors, what are the most important?

.

  1. Research Methodology:

Cross sectional survey-based study carried on residents of the Saudi Program of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Riyadh region.

 

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

KING SAUD UNIVERSITY

College of Medicine

Institutional Review Board (IRB)

المملكة العربية السعودية

جامعة الملك سعود

كلية الطب

مجلس أخلاقيات البحوث الطبية

مقترح مشروع بحثي

Research Project Proposal

فضلاً، تتم الطباعة إما باللغة العربية أو الإنجليزية Please, type either in English or Arabic

التوقيع

Signature

الكلية/القسم

College/Department

الرتبة العلمية

Academic Title

أسماء الباحثين*

Investigators Names*

 

مدينة الأمير سلطان الطبية العسكرية. . قسم الأنف و الأذن و الحنجرة

طبيب مقيم في برنامج البورد السعودي لجراحة الأنف و الأذن و الحنجرة و جراحة الرأس و العنق

1-د. محمد بدر السميري

 

مستشفى الحرس الوطني. قسم الأنف و الأذن و الحنجرة

طبيب نائب اول

2-د.اماني عبيد

 

مستشفى الملك عبدالعزيز الجامعي . قسم الأنف و الأذن و الحنجرة

استشاري و استاذ مساعد

3-د.خالد القحطاني

* الاسم الأول: الباحث الرئيس.

الاسم الثاني: الباحث المشارك الذي يرشحه الباحث الرئيس ليتولى القيام بالبحث في حال تغيب الباحث الرئيس أو تخليه عن البحث.

First name indicates the Principal Investigator (PI). *

Second name is the co-investigator designated by the PI to assume all responsibilities,

in case of the absence of the PI.

NOTE: For principal investigator from other college/hospital (outside KKUH) please provide contact details:

Office Tel. No. 0114777714 ext 40805

Email: [email protected]

Mobile: 0544660000

مشكلة البحث و أهميته

Research Problem and Significance

Subspecialty choose in otolaryngology resident is difficult to decide and have many factor which related to work or not related. Therefore, study the factor and try to improve it will help the resident and the program .

These factor which will change the residents choose by this study we can help them and know the most important factor in our Riyadh otolaryngology resident which can influence the career . because our country have it own factors that can change the career .and there no study have the same significance in otology or any Saudi Arabia program.

أهداف البحث

Research Objectives

Why do resident change there subspecialty during the program ?

And these factor ,we can study it and improve it.

And also help the otolaryngology program for improving the program

directors devise strategies to attract the best and brightest

trainees.

أدبيات البحث

Literature Review

Choose the career is one of the most important question which most of the educated countries try to help the people to

Improve the work and rise the work professional ,which is improve the out come of the countries . our live in saudia Arabia have different factor than the others which play a big roll in choose the career .

There was no study in literature which done in our country to study the factors and try to improve it .

منهجية البحث

Research Methodology

Cross section retrospective study

Which is survey that distributed to 50 otolaryngology resident in the weekly ground round and the absent resident we send the survey by e-mail in 2014 .

المراجع

References

  1. Borges NJ, Navarro AM, Grover AC. Women physicians: choosing a career in academic medicine. Acad Med. 2012:87:105-114
  2. Frooq K, Lydall GJ, Malik A, Ndetei DM, ISOSCCIP Group, Bhugra D. Why medical students choose psychiatry – a 20 country cross-sectional survey. BMC Med Educ. 2014:14(1):12
  3. Johnson AL1, Sharma J, Chinchilli VM, Emery SE, McCollister Evarts C, Floyd MW, Kaeding CC, Lavelle WF, Marsh JL, Pellegrini VD Jr, Van Heest AE, Black KP. Why do medical students choose orthopaedics as a career? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012:94(11):e78

4. Al Shanafey S, Alzahrani A, AlBallaa A, Alballaa A. Surgical resident satisfaction with the current surgical training program in the Riyadh area. Ann Saudi Med. 2009:29(5):388-92.

  1. Takeda Y, Morio K, Snell L, Otaki J, Takahashi M, Kai I. Characteristic profiles among students and junior doctors with specific career preferences. BMC Med Educ. 2013:13:125.
  2. Wang X, Xiang X, Hao W, Liu T. Attitudes toward psychiatry as a prospective career among medical students in their pre-clinical year in China- a pilot study. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e73395
  3. Farm Med,2013 Oct.Result of the 2013 Natinal resident matching program;family medicine.Biggs WS,Crosley PW,Kozakowski SM.
  4. Ann Surg. Feb 2005; 241(2): 373–380. PMCID: PMC1356925 Predictors of Surgery Resident Satisfaction With Teaching by Attendings A National SurveyClifford Y. Ko, MD, MSHS,*†‡ José J. Escarce, MD, PhD,*† Laurence Baker, PhD,§ Jennifer Sharp.

9. Pediatric Resident Debt and Career Intentions.OFFICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERIAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS.Mary Pat Frintner, MSPHa, Holly J. Mulvey, MAb, Beth A. Pletcher, MDc, and Lynn M. Olson, PhDa

  1. J Family Community Med. 2012 Sep-Dec; 19(3): 194–197. Knowledge of the residents at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) about palliative care Sultan H. Alamri.
  2. 11.JAMA,2008 Sep10.Factors associated with medical students’career choices regarding internal medicine.Hauer KE,Durning SJ,Kernan WN,Fagan MJ,Mintz M,O’Sullivan PS.Battistone M,DeFer T,Elinicki M,Harrell H,Reddy S,Boscardin CK.Schwatz MD.
  3. PLASTIC RECONSTR SURG,2014Mar,Factors influencing fellowship selection,Career Trajectory,and Academic Productivity among Plastic SURGEONS,Delong MR,Hughes DB,Tandon VJ,Choi BD,Zenn MR.
  4. Plast Reconstr Surg.2008 Mar,12.Applying to plastic surgery residency : factors associated with medical student career choice .Greene AK,May JW
  1. Factors that influence a career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries: a systematic reviewE. Benjamín Puertas,1 Carlos Arósquipa,2 and Daniela Gutiérrez2.
  2. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2013

 

  1. . aFrom the Department of Surgery, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  2. bFrom the Departments of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Scientific Computing, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  3. cFrom the Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  4. dFrom the Department of Surgery, King Khalid Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  5. Correspondence: Saud Al Shanafey, MD Department of Surgery, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC 40, PO Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia T: +966-1-442-7754 F: +966-1-442-7772 ; Email: [email protected] Accepted for publication June 2009
  6. J Family Community Med. 2013 May-Aug; 20

22. Evaluation of off-service rotations at National Guard Health Affairs: Results from a perception survey of off-service residents.Mustafa M. Alquraini, Lubna Baig,1,2 Mohi Magzoub,2 and Amir Omair2

  1. Journal of Vascular Surgery Volume 40, Issue 5 , Pages 978-984, November 2004, Choice of vascular surgery as a specialty: Survey of vascular surgery residents, general surgery chief residents, and medical students at hospitals with vascular surgery training programs. Keith D.Calligaro,,Matthew J,Dougherty,Anton N,Sidawy,Jack L.Cronenwett.
  2. seminars in vascular surgery volume 19.issue 4,page 180-186,December 2006.Choice of vascular Surgery asa aSpecialty :What is important?.Keith D,Calligaro.Matthew j.Dougherty.
  3. Int Dent J.2013 OCT22.Career choice and future desige of dental students in china and japan.Yan x,zhang X,Jinni Y,Tachibana K,Gao J,Koyano K,Ai H,Shen Y
  4. Toward an objective assessment of technical skills: a national survey of surgical program directors in Saudi Arabia.PUBLISHED IN Dove press journal 9october 2012.
  5. Abdullah Alkhayal,Shahla Aldhukair,Nahar Alselaim,Salah Aldekhayel,Sultan Alhabdan,Waleed Altaweel,Mohi Elden Magzoub,Mohammed Zamakhshary.
  6. Test blueprints for psychiatry residency in-training written examinations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eisha M Gaffas,Reginald P Sequeira,Riyadh A Al Namla,Khalid S Al-Harbi,published in Dove press journal 23 may 2012.

Affiliations

  • Section of Vascular Surgery, Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia
  • Reprint requests: Keith D. Calligaro, MD, 700 Spruce St, Ste 101, Philadelphia, PA 19106
 
ROLE OF INVESTIGATORS

Investigators Names

Brief Description of the Role of Each Investigator

   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

الميزانية التفصيلية

Detailed Budget

المبلغ المطلوب

Funds in SR

Details التفاصيل

مقدار الجهد بالشهر

Effort in months

أسماء الباحثين

Names of Investigators

1200X( شهر)=

   

(1)

1000X( شهر)=

   

(2)

1000X( شهر)=

   

(3)

1000X( شهر)=

   

(4)

1000X( شهر)=

   

(5)

 

Total(1) مجموع البند (1) (لا يزيد عن 40% من الميزانية الإجمالية للبحث)

       

المبلغ المطلوب

Funds in SR

مقدار الجهد بالشهر

Effort in months

العدد

Number

 

(أ) مساعد باحث ( ) a) Research Assistant ( )

 

 

(ب) فني مختبر ( ) b) Lab Technician ( )

 

   

(ج) طالب جامعي ( ) c) University Students ( )

   

(د) إداريون ( ) d) Secretaries ( )

   

(هـ) مهارات أخرى( ) e) Other professionals ( )

 

مجموع البند(2) Total (2)

     

** في حال أن هذا البحث مدعوم يرجى إعطاء التفاصيل التالي:-

1- الداعم.

2- تفاصيل الميزانية.

** If the project is funded, please provide:-

1- Name of Sponsor

2- Details of the budget

 

 

 

 

(أ) الأجهزة والبرمجيات a) Equipments & software)

 

(ب) المواد (b) Materials

 

(ج) التجهيزات (c) Supplies

 

مجموع البند(3) Total (3)

 

الرحلات الداخلية Domestic travel

 

خدمات الحاسب الآلي Computer services

خدمات أخرى Other services

 

المجموع الكلي Grand Total

الخطة الزمنية للبحث

RESEARCH TIME SCHEDULE

تاريخ بداية البحث: 15 / 7 / 1435 هـ starting Date : 15 / 7 / 1435

البند Items

التوالي المخطط للأعمال الرئيسة

Planned sequence of major tasks

السنة الأولى First Year

السنة الثانية Second Year

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

 

Data Collection

×

                                             

Data Analysis and Results

 

×

                                           
 

Final writing and proofing

   

×

                                         
                                                   

1

 

Research Title: Assessment of Factors Influencing the Future Subspecialty Choice for residents of the Saudi Program of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.

Summary:

Several Factors determine residents’ choice for future subspecialties. These include interest, working hours, income, and future job opportunities. Moreover, choice of future subspecialty might be influenced by gender, marital status, financial status, and sponsoring institute. These factors are different in different regions in the world, and determining them carries many benefits to residents, program directors, and recruiting officials in health care institutes.

A Medline search was carried on and apart from a study carried on medical students, no study assessing factors influencing future career/subspecialty choice for Saudi residents was found.

  1. Research Problem:

Subspecialty choice in otolaryngology resident is challenging decision make. This decision is usually influenced by several factors in variable significance. Determining these factors allows modifying them which benefits both residents and institutes.

  1. Research Significance:

Variable factors influence residents’ future subspecialty choice. Determining these factors and their significance allows modifying them in favor of attracting the brightest trainees to specialties in need.

  1. Research Objectives:

What factors influence residents’ choice for a subspecialty after finishing residency?

Of these factors, what are the most important?

.

  1. Research Methodology:

Cross sectional survey-based study carried on residents of the Saudi Program of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Riyadh region.

 

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

KING SAUD UNIVERSITY

College of Medicine

Institutional Review Board (IRB)

المملكة العربية السعودية

جامعة الملك سعود

كلية الطب

مجلس أخلاقيات البحوث الطبية

مقترح مشروع بحثي

Research Project Proposal

فضلاً، تتم الطباعة إما باللغة العربية أو الإنجليزية Please, type either in English or Arabic

التوقيع

Signature

الكلية/القسم

College/Department

الرتبة العلمية

Academic Title

أسماء الباحثين*

Investigators Names*

 

مدينة الأمير سلطان الطبية العسكرية. . قسم الأنف و الأذن و الحنجرة

طبيب مقيم في برنامج البورد السعودي لجراحة الأنف و الأذن و الحنجرة و جراحة الرأس و العنق

1-د. محمد بدر السميري

 

مستشفى الحرس الوطني. قسم الأنف و الأذن و الحنجرة

طبيب نائب اول

2-د.اماني عبيد

 

مستشفى الملك عبدالعزيز الجامعي . قسم الأنف و الأذن و الحنجرة

استشاري و استاذ مساعد

3-د.خالد القحطاني

* الاسم الأول: الباحث الرئيس.

الاسم الثاني: الباحث المشارك الذي يرشحه الباحث الرئيس ليتولى القيام بالبحث في حال تغيب الباحث الرئيس أو تخليه عن البحث.

First name indicates the Principal Investigator (PI). *

Second name is the co-investigator designated by the PI to assume all responsibilities,

in case of the absence of the PI.

NOTE: For principal investigator from other college/hospital (outside KKUH) please provide contact details:

Office Tel. No. 0114777714 ext 40805

Email: [email protected]

Mobile: 0544660000

مشكلة البحث و أهميته

Research Problem and Significance

Subspecialty choose in otolaryngology resident is difficult to decide and have many factor which related to work or not related. Therefore, study the factor and try to improve it will help the resident and the program .

These factor which will change the residents choose by this study we can help them and know the most important factor in our Riyadh otolaryngology resident which can influence the career . because our country have it own factors that can change the career .and there no study have the same significance in otology or any Saudi Arabia program.

أهداف البحث

Research Objectives

Why do resident change there subspecialty during the program ?

And these factor ,we can study it and improve it.

And also help the otolaryngology program for improving the program

directors devise strategies to attract the best and brightest

trainees.

أدبيات البحث

Literature Review

Choose the career is one of the most important question which most of the educated countries try to help the people to

Improve the work and rise the work professional ,which is improve the out come of the countries . our live in saudia Arabia have different factor than the others which play a big roll in choose the career .

There was no study in literature which done in our country to study the factors and try to improve it .

منهجية البحث

Research Methodology

Cross section retrospective study

Which is survey that distributed to 50 otolaryngology resident in the weekly ground round and the absent resident we send the survey by e-mail in 2014 .

المراجع

References

  1. Borges NJ, Navarro AM, Grover AC. Women physicians: choosing a career in academic medicine. Acad Med. 2012:87:105-114
  2. Frooq K, Lydall GJ, Malik A, Ndetei DM, ISOSCCIP Group, Bhugra D. Why medical students choose psychiatry – a 20 country cross-sectional survey. BMC Med Educ. 2014:14(1):12
  3. Johnson AL1, Sharma J, Chinchilli VM, Emery SE, McCollister Evarts C, Floyd MW, Kaeding CC, Lavelle WF, Marsh JL, Pellegrini VD Jr, Van Heest AE, Black KP. Why do medical students choose orthopaedics as a career? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012:94(11):e78

4. Al Shanafey S, Alzahrani A, AlBallaa A, Alballaa A. Surgical resident satisfaction with the current surgical training program in the Riyadh area. Ann Saudi Med. 2009:29(5):388-92.

  1. Takeda Y, Morio K, Snell L, Otaki J, Takahashi M, Kai I. Characteristic profiles among students and junior doctors with specific career preferences. BMC Med Educ. 2013:13:125.
  2. Wang X, Xiang X, Hao W, Liu T. Attitudes toward psychiatry as a prospective career among medical students in their pre-clinical year in China- a pilot study. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e73395
  3. Farm Med,2013 Oct.Result of the 2013 Natinal resident matching program;family medicine.Biggs WS,Crosley PW,Kozakowski SM.
  4. Ann Surg. Feb 2005; 241(2): 373–380. PMCID: PMC1356925 Predictors of Surgery Resident Satisfaction With Teaching by Attendings A National SurveyClifford Y. Ko, MD, MSHS,*†‡ José J. Escarce, MD, PhD,*† Laurence Baker, PhD,§ Jennifer Sharp.

9. Pediatric Resident Debt and Career Intentions.OFFICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERIAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS.Mary Pat Frintner, MSPHa, Holly J. Mulvey, MAb, Beth A. Pletcher, MDc, and Lynn M. Olson, PhDa

  1. J Family Community Med. 2012 Sep-Dec; 19(3): 194–197. Knowledge of the residents at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) about palliative care Sultan H. Alamri.
  2. 11.JAMA,2008 Sep10.Factors associated with medical students’career choices regarding internal medicine.Hauer KE,Durning SJ,Kernan WN,Fagan MJ,Mintz M,O’Sullivan PS.Battistone M,DeFer T,Elinicki M,Harrell H,Reddy S,Boscardin CK.Schwatz MD.
  3. PLASTIC RECONSTR SURG,2014Mar,Factors influencing fellowship selection,Career Trajectory,and Academic Productivity among Plastic SURGEONS,Delong MR,Hughes DB,Tandon VJ,Choi BD,Zenn MR.
  4. Plast Reconstr Surg.2008 Mar,12.Applying to plastic surgery residency : factors associated with medical student career choice .Greene AK,May JW
  1. Factors that influence a career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries: a systematic reviewE. Benjamín Puertas,1 Carlos Arósquipa,2 and Daniela Gutiérrez2.
  2. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2013

 

  1. . aFrom the Department of Surgery, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  2. bFrom the Departments of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Scientific Computing, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  3. cFrom the Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  4. dFrom the Department of Surgery, King Khalid Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  5. Correspondence: Saud Al Shanafey, MD Department of Surgery, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC 40, PO Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia T: +966-1-442-7754 F: +966-1-442-7772 ; Email: [email protected] Accepted for publication June 2009
  6. J Family Community Med. 2013 May-Aug; 20

22. Evaluation of off-service rotations at National Guard Health Affairs: Results from a perception survey of off-service residents.Mustafa M. Alquraini, Lubna Baig,1,2 Mohi Magzoub,2 and Amir Omair2

  1. Journal of Vascular Surgery Volume 40, Issue 5 , Pages 978-984, November 2004, Choice of vascular surgery as a specialty: Survey of vascular surgery residents, general surgery chief residents, and medical students at hospitals with vascular surgery training programs. Keith D.Calligaro,,Matthew J,Dougherty,Anton N,Sidawy,Jack L.Cronenwett.
  2. seminars in vascular surgery volume 19.issue 4,page 180-186,December 2006.Choice of vascular Surgery asa aSpecialty :What is important?.Keith D,Calligaro.Matthew j.Dougherty.
  3. Int Dent J.2013 OCT22.Career choice and future desige of dental students in china and japan.Yan x,zhang X,Jinni Y,Tachibana K,Gao J,Koyano K,Ai H,Shen Y
  4. Toward an objective assessment of technical skills: a national survey of surgical program directors in Saudi Arabia.PUBLISHED IN Dove press journal 9october 2012.
  5. Abdullah Alkhayal,Shahla Aldhukair,Nahar Alselaim,Salah Aldekhayel,Sultan Alhabdan,Waleed Altaweel,Mohi Elden Magzoub,Mohammed Zamakhshary.
  6. Test blueprints for psychiatry residency in-training written examinations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eisha M Gaffas,Reginald P Sequeira,Riyadh A Al Namla,Khalid S Al-Harbi,published in Dove press journal 23 may 2012.

Affiliations

  • Section of Vascular Surgery, Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia
  • Reprint requests: Keith D. Calligaro, MD, 700 Spruce St, Ste 101, Philadelphia, PA 19106
 
ROLE OF INVESTIGATORS

Investigators Names

Brief Description of the Role of Each Investigator

   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

الميزانية التفصيلية

Detailed Budget

المبلغ المطلوب

Funds in SR

Details التفاصيل

مقدار الجهد بالشهر

Effort in months

أسماء الباحثين

Names of Investigators

1200X( شهر)=

   

(1)

1000X( شهر)=

   

(2)

1000X( شهر)=

   

(3)

1000X( شهر)=

   

(4)

1000X( شهر)=

   

(5)

 

Total(1) مجموع البند (1) (لا يزيد عن 40% من الميزانية الإجمالية للبحث)

       

المبلغ المطلوب

Funds in SR

مقدار الجهد بالشهر

Effort in months

العدد

Number

 

(أ) مساعد باحث ( ) a) Research Assistant ( )

 

 

(ب) فني مختبر ( ) b) Lab Technician ( )

 

   

(ج) طالب جامعي ( ) c) University Students ( )

   

(د) إداريون ( ) d) Secretaries ( )

   

(هـ) مهارات أخرى( ) e) Other professionals ( )

 

مجموع البند(2) Total (2)

     

** في حال أن هذا البحث مدعوم يرجى إعطاء التفاصيل التالي:-

1- الداعم.

2- تفاصيل الميزانية.

** If the project is funded, please provide:-

1- Name of Sponsor

2- Details of the budget

 

 

 

 

(أ) الأجهزة والبرمجيات a) Equipments & software)

 

(ب) المواد (b) Materials

 

(ج) التجهيزات (c) Supplies

 

مجموع البند(3) Total (3)

 

الرحلات الداخلية Domestic travel

 

خدمات الحاسب الآلي Computer services

خدمات أخرى Other services

 

المجموع الكلي Grand Total

الخطة الزمنية للبحث

RESEARCH TIME SCHEDULE

تاريخ بداية البحث: 15 / 7 / 1435 هـ starting Date : 15 / 7 / 1435

البند Items

التوالي المخطط للأعمال الرئيسة

Planned sequence of major tasks

السنة الأولى First Year

السنة الثانية Second Year

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

 

Data Collection

×

                                             

Data Analysis and Results

 

×

                                           
 

Final writing and proofing

   

×

                                         
                                                   

1

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: