Effect of Physical Activity on Alzheimer Risk Factor

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Is the Effect of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function a Risk Factor for Alzheimer in Older Adults?

Abstract

Objective: To examine peer reviewed published literature on the question – Is the Effect of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function a Risk Factor for Alzheimer in Adults? It shall explore the results from the peer reviewed research articles to determine different perspectives of the research question.

Method: The paper used identified and used eight peer reviewed articles on Alzheimer and examined them comprehensively. The peer reviewed articles focus mainly on the risk of suffering from Alzheimer disease.

Results: A careful analysis of the available 8 peer review journals indicates that physical activity and cognitive function relate in some way, which may lead to conditions of Alzheimer among adults.

Conclusion: Physical activity on cognitive function is a risk factor for Alzheimer in Adults. The risk of suffering from Alzheimer disease is evidently higher among adults suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment with lack of frequent physical exercise.

Key Words: Alzheimer Disease in adults; risk factor; cognitive functionality, mild cognitive impairment, physical activity, blood flow.

Introduction

The main purpose of this paper is to examine the published literature from peer articles on Alzheimer disease in Older Adults. Precisely, the paper will explore the question: Is the Effect of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function a Risk Factor for Alzheimer in Adults? The risk factor is anything that affects possibility of a person in getting an illness, in this case Alzheimer in Adults. However, being exposed to a risk factor does not necessarily mean that a person will be affected by a specific disease. A risk factor in this case alludes to the probability of one getting harmed due to the level of exposure. It can also allude to the likelihood that an individual is harmed due to the level of exposure to a hazardous condition. Physical activity has been cited by many health researchers as one way of keeping one healthy; some research in regard to mental functioning have also asserted that the proper functioning of various aspects of the brain can be facilitated with performing physical exercises. With regard to Alzheimer in Adults, various results from researchers have indicated that physical activity on cognitive function a risk Factor for Alzheimer in Adults. Relevant peer articles have been used in support of these results.

Methods

In order to conduct this research a variety of eight peer reviewed journals addressing issues ascribed to the relationship between physical activities, cognitive functioning and Alzheimer disease were explored. They basically provide information regarding the specific research question addressed herein. The content of these articles include past researches that have been undertaken to determine of lack of physical exercise could be a cognitive risk factor to Alzheimer. Important information was extracted from the article in order to facilitate answering this research question.

Results

After comparison was made without involving any exercise, physical activity registered a lower risk of cognitive functions and Alzheimer disease. Precisely great physical activity which in turn increased protection was observed (Wilson et al., 2002; Laurin et al., 2001; Nicola et al., 2008)). It was also observed that high levels of physical activity significantly reduced the risks of cognitive functions where it registered an odd ratio of 0.59 equivalents to 95% for confidence interval. Alzheimer disease recorded an odd ratio of 0.50 also equivalent to 95% confidence interval (Laurin et al., 2001).

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The eight peer reviewed journal indicated various epidemiological studies that show a great sense of relationship between cognitive functions and the occurrence of Alzheimer disease in an individual (Nicola et al., 2008). Some of the article indicated smaller number of interventions that have been directed towards solving issues ascribed to Alzheimer disease; however some of these publications provided results indicating both negative and positive results in regards to the relationship between Alzheimer, physical activity and mental functioning (Arlt et al., 2002).

Approximately 15-25 percent of people experiencing mild cognitive impairment and do not perform any exercise have an increased chances of developing Alzheimer diseases (Wilson et al., 2002). However, this number highly depends on the place of study and the age groups of the persons involved in the study. On the other hand, results from different clinics as indicated in the article indicates that persons attending clinics for mild mental impairment, but do not perform physical activities have a chance of 10-15 percent of developing Alzheimer disease.

Results from a longitudinal study conducted in 2007 among 825 adults exposed to frequent physical activity indicated and a follow-up period of seven years indicated that: Exposure to physical exercise among adults not only acted as a significant factor in the reduction of dementia, but also Alzheimer disease (Green, 2007; Kril, 2009). The same study also indicated that strenuous physical activity is imperative among adults as it facilitates the reduction of cognitive performance decline. There is a negative relationship between physical activity, dementia and specifically Alzheimer among healthy adults (Karceski, 2012). It is also established that, positive relationship exists between physical activity and cognitive functions among adults (Wortmann, 2007). This kind of relationship is also evident between physical activity and coronary diseases.

Conclusion

Physical activity on cognitive function is evidently a risk factor for Alzheimer in Adult. Frequent participation in cognitive activities will be associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer in Adult. The risk of developing Alzheimer disease is relatively higher among persons who are undergoing mild mental impairment as compared to persons who are not suffering from such conditions (Qiu, et al., 2011).The risk of suffering from Alzheimer disease has also been identified to be higher among persons who do not engage in regular physical activities; this is generally high among adults or the aged people. This has been attributed to the fact that physical exercise increases the rate at, which blood is pumped with appropriate nutrients in various parts of the body. However, it is important to note that physical activity does not have a direct link with Alzheimer Disease, but rather cognitive impairment.

References

Arlt, S., Leuenberger, B., Wiedemann, K., Lehmbeck, J. T., Eichenlaub, M., Storm, N., et al. (2013). Genetic Risk Factors for Depression in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients. Current Alzheimer Research, 10(1), 72-81.

Green, R. C. (2007). Depression as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer Disease: The MIRAGE Study.

Archives of Neurology, 60(5), 753-759.

Laurin, D., Verreault, R. & Lindsay, J. (2001). Physical Activity and Risk of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Elderly Persons. Archives of Neurology, 58(3):498-504

Kril, J. J. (2009). Alzheimer disease: Alzheimer disease neuropathology in the oldest old. Nature Review Neurology, 5(8), 411-412.

Karceski, S. (2012). Preventing Alzheimer disease with exercise. Neurology, 78(17), e110-e112.

Nicola T. Lautenschlager, MD. (2008). Effect of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function in Older Adults at Risk for Alzheimer Disease. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(9):1027-1037

Wilson, R. Mendes, C. & Schneider, J. (2002). Participation in Cognitively Stimulating Activities and Risk of Incident Alzheimer Disease. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(6):742-748

Wortmann, M. (2007). The End of Alzheimer Disease. Alzheimer Disease & Associated

Disorders, 21(3), 265-266.

Qiu, C., Kivipelto, M., & Fratiglioni, L. (2011). Preventing Alzheimer Disease and Cognitive Decline. Annals of Internal Medicine, 154(3), 211.

Table 1: Summary of included articles

 

Peer-reviewed article

Country

Study year

Study design

Sample Size

Key Finding

1

Wilson, et al. Participation in Cognitively Stimulating Activities and Risk of Incident Alzheimer Disease. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(6):742-748

USA

2002

case-control design

A total of 801 older Catholic nuns, priests, and brothers without Alzheimer at enrollment, recruited from 40 groups across the United States

Baseline scores on the composite measure of cognitive activity ranged from 1.57 to 4.71 (mean, 3.57; SD, 0.55), with higher scores indicating more frequent activity

2

Nicola et al Effect of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function in Older Adults at Risk for Alzheimer Disease. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(9):1027-1037

USA

2008

case-control design

A total of 170 participants were randomized aged 50 years and above and 138 participants completed the 18-month assessment.

A 6-month program of physical activity provided a modest improvement in cognition over an 18-month follow-up period.

3

Laurin et al Physical Activity and Risk of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Elderly Persons. Archives of Neurology, 58(3):498-504

USA

2001

case-control design

sample of 9008 randomly selected men and women 65 years or older

High levels of physical activity were associated with reduced risks of cognitive functions (age-, sex-, and education-adjusted odds ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.83), Alzheimer disease (odds ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.90), and dementia of any type (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.98).

4

Green, R. C. Depression as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer Disease: The MIRAGE Study. Archives of Neurology 60(5), 753-759.

USA

2007

case-control design

2002 men and women aged 55 years and above

strenuous physical activity is imperative among adults as it facilitates the reduction of cognitive performance decline

5

Wortmann, M. The End of Alzheimer Disease. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders,

21(3), 265-266.

USA

2007

Evaluating published journals

1100 old male and female

In a proportional hazards model that controlled for age, sex, and education, a 1-point increase in cognitive activity score was associated with a 33% reduction in risk of AD (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.92)

6

Kril, J. J. Alzheimer disease: Alzheimer disease neuropathology in the oldest old. Nature Review

Neurology, 5(8), 411-412.

USA

2009

case-control study

12,111 Men and women aged 50 years and above

participants in the intervention group improved 0.26 points (95% confidence interval,−0.89 to 0.54) and those in the usual care group deteriorated 1.04 points (95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 1.82)

7

Karceski, S. Preventing Alzheimer disease with exercise. Neurology, 78(17), e110-e112

USA

2012

case-control

3,122 old men and women

physical activity at midlife at least twice a week was associated with a reduced risk of dementia and AD (odds ratio [OR] 0·48 [95% CI 0·25–0·91] and 0·38 [0·17–0·85], respectively)

8

Qiu, C., Kivipelto, M., & Fratiglioni, L. (2011). Preventing Alzheimer Disease and Cognitive Decline.

Annals of Internal Medicine, 154(3), 211.

USA

2011

case-control design

12, 998 men aged 50 years and women aged 55 years

Significant summary effect sizes (ES) were found for strength (ES=.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], .58–.92), physical fitness (ES=.69; 95% CI, .58–.80), functional performance (ES=.59; 95% CI, .43–.76), cognitive performance (ES=.57; 95% CI, 0.43–1.17), and behavior (ES=.54; 95% CI, .36–.72)attained the age of 80 had a cumulative chance of more than 50% of getting the disease.

 

 

1

Is the Effect of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function a Risk Factor for Alzheimer in Older Adults?

Abstract

Objective: To examine peer reviewed published literature on the question – Is the Effect of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function a Risk Factor for Alzheimer in Adults? It shall explore the results from the peer reviewed research articles to determine different perspectives of the research question.

Method: The paper used identified and used eight peer reviewed articles on Alzheimer and examined them comprehensively. The peer reviewed articles focus mainly on the risk of suffering from Alzheimer disease.

Results: A careful analysis of the available 8 peer review journals indicates that physical activity and cognitive function relate in some way, which may lead to conditions of Alzheimer among adults.

Conclusion: Physical activity on cognitive function is a risk factor for Alzheimer in Adults. The risk of suffering from Alzheimer disease is evidently higher among adults suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment with lack of frequent physical exercise.

Key Words: Alzheimer Disease in adults; risk factor; cognitive functionality, mild cognitive impairment, physical activity, blood flow.

Introduction

The main purpose of this paper is to examine the published literature from peer articles on Alzheimer disease in Older Adults. Precisely, the paper will explore the question: Is the Effect of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function a Risk Factor for Alzheimer in Adults? The risk factor is anything that affects possibility of a person in getting an illness, in this case Alzheimer in Adults. However, being exposed to a risk factor does not necessarily mean that a person will be affected by a specific disease. A risk factor in this case alludes to the probability of one getting harmed due to the level of exposure. It can also allude to the likelihood that an individual is harmed due to the level of exposure to a hazardous condition. Physical activity has been cited by many health researchers as one way of keeping one healthy; some research in regard to mental functioning have also asserted that the proper functioning of various aspects of the brain can be facilitated with performing physical exercises. With regard to Alzheimer in Adults, various results from researchers have indicated that physical activity on cognitive function a risk Factor for Alzheimer in Adults. Relevant peer articles have been used in support of these results.

Methods

In order to conduct this research a variety of eight peer reviewed journals addressing issues ascribed to the relationship between physical activities, cognitive functioning and Alzheimer disease were explored. They basically provide information regarding the specific research question addressed herein. The content of these articles include past researches that have been undertaken to determine of lack of physical exercise could be a cognitive risk factor to Alzheimer. Important information was extracted from the article in order to facilitate answering this research question.

Results

After comparison was made without involving any exercise, physical activity registered a lower risk of cognitive functions and Alzheimer disease. Precisely great physical activity which in turn increased protection was observed (Wilson et al., 2002; Laurin et al., 2001; Nicola et al., 2008)). It was also observed that high levels of physical activity significantly reduced the risks of cognitive functions where it registered an odd ratio of 0.59 equivalents to 95% for confidence interval. Alzheimer disease recorded an odd ratio of 0.50 also equivalent to 95% confidence interval (Laurin et al., 2001).

The eight peer reviewed journal indicated various epidemiological studies that show a great sense of relationship between cognitive functions and the occurrence of Alzheimer disease in an individual (Nicola et al., 2008). Some of the article indicated smaller number of interventions that have been directed towards solving issues ascribed to Alzheimer disease; however some of these publications provided results indicating both negative and positive results in regards to the relationship between Alzheimer, physical activity and mental functioning (Arlt et al., 2002).

Approximately 15-25 percent of people experiencing mild cognitive impairment and do not perform any exercise have an increased chances of developing Alzheimer diseases (Wilson et al., 2002). However, this number highly depends on the place of study and the age groups of the persons involved in the study. On the other hand, results from different clinics as indicated in the article indicates that persons attending clinics for mild mental impairment, but do not perform physical activities have a chance of 10-15 percent of developing Alzheimer disease.

Results from a longitudinal study conducted in 2007 among 825 adults exposed to frequent physical activity indicated and a follow-up period of seven years indicated that: Exposure to physical exercise among adults not only acted as a significant factor in the reduction of dementia, but also Alzheimer disease (Green, 2007; Kril, 2009). The same study also indicated that strenuous physical activity is imperative among adults as it facilitates the reduction of cognitive performance decline. There is a negative relationship between physical activity, dementia and specifically Alzheimer among healthy adults (Karceski, 2012). It is also established that, positive relationship exists between physical activity and cognitive functions among adults (Wortmann, 2007). This kind of relationship is also evident between physical activity and coronary diseases.

Conclusion

Physical activity on cognitive function is evidently a risk factor for Alzheimer in Adult. Frequent participation in cognitive activities will be associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer in Adult. The risk of developing Alzheimer disease is relatively higher among persons who are undergoing mild mental impairment as compared to persons who are not suffering from such conditions (Qiu, et al., 2011).The risk of suffering from Alzheimer disease has also been identified to be higher among persons who do not engage in regular physical activities; this is generally high among adults or the aged people. This has been attributed to the fact that physical exercise increases the rate at, which blood is pumped with appropriate nutrients in various parts of the body. However, it is important to note that physical activity does not have a direct link with Alzheimer Disease, but rather cognitive impairment.

References

Arlt, S., Leuenberger, B., Wiedemann, K., Lehmbeck, J. T., Eichenlaub, M., Storm, N., et al. (2013). Genetic Risk Factors for Depression in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients. Current Alzheimer Research, 10(1), 72-81.

Green, R. C. (2007). Depression as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer Disease: The MIRAGE Study.

Archives of Neurology, 60(5), 753-759.

Laurin, D., Verreault, R. & Lindsay, J. (2001). Physical Activity and Risk of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Elderly Persons. Archives of Neurology, 58(3):498-504

Kril, J. J. (2009). Alzheimer disease: Alzheimer disease neuropathology in the oldest old. Nature Review Neurology, 5(8), 411-412.

Karceski, S. (2012). Preventing Alzheimer disease with exercise. Neurology, 78(17), e110-e112.

Nicola T. Lautenschlager, MD. (2008). Effect of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function in Older Adults at Risk for Alzheimer Disease. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(9):1027-1037

Wilson, R. Mendes, C. & Schneider, J. (2002). Participation in Cognitively Stimulating Activities and Risk of Incident Alzheimer Disease. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(6):742-748

Wortmann, M. (2007). The End of Alzheimer Disease. Alzheimer Disease & Associated

Disorders, 21(3), 265-266.

Qiu, C., Kivipelto, M., & Fratiglioni, L. (2011). Preventing Alzheimer Disease and Cognitive Decline. Annals of Internal Medicine, 154(3), 211.

Table 1: Summary of included articles

 

Peer-reviewed article

Country

Study year

Study design

Sample Size

Key Finding

1

Wilson, et al. Participation in Cognitively Stimulating Activities and Risk of Incident Alzheimer Disease. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(6):742-748

USA

2002

case-control design

A total of 801 older Catholic nuns, priests, and brothers without Alzheimer at enrollment, recruited from 40 groups across the United States

Baseline scores on the composite measure of cognitive activity ranged from 1.57 to 4.71 (mean, 3.57; SD, 0.55), with higher scores indicating more frequent activity

2

Nicola et al Effect of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function in Older Adults at Risk for Alzheimer Disease. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(9):1027-1037

USA

2008

case-control design

A total of 170 participants were randomized aged 50 years and above and 138 participants completed the 18-month assessment.

A 6-month program of physical activity provided a modest improvement in cognition over an 18-month follow-up period.

3

Laurin et al Physical Activity and Risk of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Elderly Persons. Archives of Neurology, 58(3):498-504

USA

2001

case-control design

sample of 9008 randomly selected men and women 65 years or older

High levels of physical activity were associated with reduced risks of cognitive functions (age-, sex-, and education-adjusted odds ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.83), Alzheimer disease (odds ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.90), and dementia of any type (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.98).

4

Green, R. C. Depression as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer Disease: The MIRAGE Study. Archives of Neurology 60(5), 753-759.

USA

2007

case-control design

2002 men and women aged 55 years and above

strenuous physical activity is imperative among adults as it facilitates the reduction of cognitive performance decline

5

Wortmann, M. The End of Alzheimer Disease. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders,

21(3), 265-266.

USA

2007

Evaluating published journals

1100 old male and female

In a proportional hazards model that controlled for age, sex, and education, a 1-point increase in cognitive activity score was associated with a 33% reduction in risk of AD (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.92)

6

Kril, J. J. Alzheimer disease: Alzheimer disease neuropathology in the oldest old. Nature Review

Neurology, 5(8), 411-412.

USA

2009

case-control study

12,111 Men and women aged 50 years and above

participants in the intervention group improved 0.26 points (95% confidence interval,−0.89 to 0.54) and those in the usual care group deteriorated 1.04 points (95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 1.82)

7

Karceski, S. Preventing Alzheimer disease with exercise. Neurology, 78(17), e110-e112

USA

2012

case-control

3,122 old men and women

physical activity at midlife at least twice a week was associated with a reduced risk of dementia and AD (odds ratio [OR] 0·48 [95% CI 0·25–0·91] and 0·38 [0·17–0·85], respectively)

8

Qiu, C., Kivipelto, M., & Fratiglioni, L. (2011). Preventing Alzheimer Disease and Cognitive Decline.

Annals of Internal Medicine, 154(3), 211.

USA

2011

case-control design

12, 998 men aged 50 years and women aged 55 years

Significant summary effect sizes (ES) were found for strength (ES=.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], .58–.92), physical fitness (ES=.69; 95% CI, .58–.80), functional performance (ES=.59; 95% CI, .43–.76), cognitive performance (ES=.57; 95% CI, 0.43–1.17), and behavior (ES=.54; 95% CI, .36–.72)attained the age of 80 had a cumulative chance of more than 50% of getting the disease.

 

 

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