Effect of Homeopathic Remedies on Xenopus laevis Tadpoles

1828 words (7 pages) Essay

21st Sep 2017 Health Reference this

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Michelle Charmaine Bekker

  1. Research Problem Statement

There are various methods for preparing homoeopathic remedies. These methods include the more conventional Hahnemannian, Korsakovian and Skinner preparations, while the more modern methods include super-succussion and radionics, (Kayne, 2006). There are various methods for preparing homoeopathic remedies.

Efficacy can be determined by administering a homoeopathic preparation of Thyroxine, using the various preparation methods, and measuring the growth rate, tail reduction and weight gain of Xenopus leavis tadpoles. These tadpoles are well suited to this method of comparison given that they have a set growth pattern, they spawn readily under the stimulation of gonadotropic hormones and they are easily reared in captivity, (Nieuwkoop & Faber, 1994).

  1. Literature Review
  1. Remedy Preparation Methods

Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), the founding father of homoeopathy, developed the classical process of serial dilution and succussion in effort to increase the therapeutic effect whilst diminishing the toxicology of a crude substance, this is known as potentisation or dynamisation. This method, otherwise known as the multi-vial method, includes two scales of dilution, the centesimal scale, in which 1 part of mother tincture is added to 99 parts of suitable diluent and the decimal, which is a ratio of 1:9. With each dilution, a new glass vial is used and is subjected to vigorous impact against a resilient surface, in Hahnemann’s time, this would have been a large leather-bound book. The number of succussions is debatable, depending on the pharmacopoeia used, ranging from 10-100 impacts, or simply 20 minutes, however, it is accepted that the number of succussions between each dilution remains constant for that specific stock, (Kayne, 2006).

General Simeon Nicolaevich Korsakov (1788-1853), a Russian homoeopath, developed the Korsakovian potentisation method in which 1 part of mother tincture is added to 99 parts of suitable diluent, for centesimal scale, which is then succussed as per the Hahnemannian method. Instead of using a new vial between each dilution, the current vial is emptied by inversion or suction. It is assumed that the droplets remaining behind adhering to the walls of the vial is 1 part and 99 parts are then added to the same vial and succussed, hence the term single-vial method. This process is repeated until the desired potency is reached. Controversy surrounds the Korsakovian preparations based on the reproducibility and accuracy of this method, (Kayne, 2006).

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Thomas Skinner (1825-1906), a Scottish homoeopath, developed the Skinner Centesimal Fluxion Potentiser (Winston). The machine was developed for the production of very high potencies. A single vial is automatically emptied and refilled using a system of highly pressurised water, (Kayne, 2006).

Avogadro’s number is the point of dilution in which there is no longer any of the original substance left, this equates to the homoeopathic potency of 24X or 12C, (Poitevin, 1995). Super-succussion follows the classic Hahnemannian or Korsakovian method up until the 12th potency. The theory behind super-succussion is that since there is no longer any of the original substance left beyond Avogadro’s number, the dilution step can be omitted and succussion can continue until the desired potency is reached.

There are two distinct methods for preparing radionic remedies. Based on the understanding that all physical matter has a unique energy pattern, remedies can be made on what is referred to as a “rates machine”, by setting the rate using a specific code unique to each remedy and the remedy is made purely electronically. Another radionic method is by way of “simulation”, in which an original remedy is placed in one side of the machine and then copied to another unmedicated carrier medium, (Prinsloo, 2014).

  1. Action of Thyroxine on the Morphogenesis of Xenopus laevis

Morphogenesis of Xenopus leavis is dependent on the thyroid system and the production of thyroxine (Searcy et al., 2012). Removal of the thyroid gland or suppression of thyroid hormones will irreversibly prevent metamorphosis, (Tata, 1999). The extraordinary response of specific tissues to thyroxine and the well defined timing of morphogenesis make this species of amphibian an ideal sample to compare the different remedy preparation methods, (Furlow & Neff, 2006).

Previous studies have shown that various decimal potencies administered to Xenopus laevis tadpoles at various time intervals had an effect on the morphogenesis. The potencies that were statistically significant in the morphogenesis of the tadpoles were dependent on the time interval of administration, (Teixeira, 2001). The administration of centesimal potencies was proven to have a suppressive effect on the morphogenesis of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, (le Roux, 2001).

  1. Aim

The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of classical versus modern remedy preparation methods.

  1. Methodology
  1. Remedy Preparations

Classical Hahnemannian and modern radionic remedy preparations will be used, each in potencies of 6D, 200C and 1LM.

  1. Sample Group

Human chorionic gonadotropin will be injected into mature female Xenopus laevis frogs to induce mating and spawning. A mature male Xenopus will be sacrificed and the testes will be dissected to fertilise the eggs, (Trudeau, 2010). This will ensure an adequate volume of newly hatched tadpoles in the same developmental stage.

  1. Design and Procedure

A Quantitative, Experimental, Factorial design will be used to conduct the study. This will allow for the simultaneous testing of more than 1 independent variable in the same experiment.

The experiment will be conducted under the supervision of the Zoology department, Faculty of Science at the Auckland Park campus. The experiment will consist of 7 tanks, 1 will serve as the control group, and the remaining 6 will be divided into 2 main groups, A and B, each consisting of 3 tanks. The main groups will then be subdivided and labelled 1 to 3. Group A and B will be assigned a remedy preparation method, and each subgroup will be assigned a specific potency, which will remain constant throughout the experiment.

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The homoeopathic remedies will be administered 3 times daily for the duration of the study which will run for approximately 58 days, at which point the tadpoles will have reached developmental stage 66 and have made the transition from tadpole to juvenile frog, (Nieuwkoop & Faber, 1994). The morphogenesis of the control group will be compared to that of Group A and B, determining their growth rate based on limb bud development, tail reduction and weight at appropriate stages of development. The only inclusion criteria would be the specific species, Xenopus laevis. Exclusion criteria would include the inability to spawn and reproduce, or any diseased sample.

  1. Cost Budget

Six sexually mature female and six sexually mature male Xenopus laevis at approximately R200 each will cost R2400.00. Seven plastic containers will cost R350.00 at R50.00 each. Pregnyl, human chorionic gonadotropin is approximately R500.00 per pack of 3 x 5000IU. Lab equipment consisting of petri dishes, distilled water, scissors, forceps, paper towels, pipette, glass beakers, syringes, thermometers, tadpole feed, aquarium preset heaters and aquarium net all estimated to cost no more than R2500.00. The Radionically prepared remedies will be sponsored. A sponsor for the Hahnemannian prepared remedies is yet to be sourced. Lab and lab assistant fees are yet to be confirmed. Total cost thus far, R5750.00.

  1. References

Furlow, J.D., and Neff, E.S., 2006. A developmental switch induced by thyroid hormone: Xenopus laevis metamorphosis . TRENDS in Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 17 No.2, 38-45.

Kayne, S.B., PhD MBA LLM MSc(Med Sci)DAgVetPharm FRPharmS FCPP FIPharmM FNZCP MPS(NZ) FFHom, 2006. Homeopathic Pharmacy: Theory and Practice, 2e. 2 Edition. Churchill Livingstone.

le Roux, Y., 2001. Effect of Centesimal Potencies of Thyroxine on the Morphogenesis of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles. Master of Technology. Gauteng, South Africa: University of Johannesburg.uteng, South Africa: University of Johannesburg.

Nieuwkoop, P.D., Faber, J., 1994. Normal Table of Xenopus Laevis (Daudin): A Systematical & Chronological Survey of the Development from the Fertilized Egg till the End of … the Fertilized Egg Till the End of Metamorp). 1 Edition. Garland Science.

Poitevin, B., 1995. Mechanism of action of homoeopathic medicinesRecent findings and hypotheses 1: Physicochemical mechanisms. British Homoeopathic journal, Volume 84, 32-39.

Prinsloo, J.P.B., [email protected], 2014. Radionics. [E-mail] Message to M.C. Bekker ([email protected]). Sent Sat 2014/08/23 05:41 PM. [Accessed 28 August 14].

Searcy, B.T., Beckstrom-Sternberg, S.M., Beckstrom-Sternberg, J.S., Stafford, P., Schwendiman, A.L., Soto-Pena, J., Owen, M.C., Ramirez, C., Phillips, J., Veldhoen, N., Helbing, C.C., Propper, C.R., 2012. Thyroid hormone-dependent development in Xenopus laevis: A sensitive screen of thyroid hormone signaling disruption by municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 176, 481–492.

Tata, J.R., 1999. Amphibian metamorphosis as a model for studying the developmental actions of thyroid hormone. Biochimie, 81, 359-366.

Teixeira, N.D., 2001. Effect of Decimal Potencies of Thyroxine on the Morphogenesis of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles. Master of Technology.

Trudeau, V.L., Somoza, G.M., Natale, G.S., Pauli, B., Wignall, J., Jackman, P., Doe, K., and Schueler, F.W., 2010. MHeothordmoloogynal induction of spawning in 4 species of frogs by coinjection with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and a dopamine antagonist. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 8:36, 1-9.

Michelle Charmaine Bekker

  1. Research Problem Statement

There are various methods for preparing homoeopathic remedies. These methods include the more conventional Hahnemannian, Korsakovian and Skinner preparations, while the more modern methods include super-succussion and radionics, (Kayne, 2006). There are various methods for preparing homoeopathic remedies.

Efficacy can be determined by administering a homoeopathic preparation of Thyroxine, using the various preparation methods, and measuring the growth rate, tail reduction and weight gain of Xenopus leavis tadpoles. These tadpoles are well suited to this method of comparison given that they have a set growth pattern, they spawn readily under the stimulation of gonadotropic hormones and they are easily reared in captivity, (Nieuwkoop & Faber, 1994).

  1. Literature Review
  1. Remedy Preparation Methods

Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), the founding father of homoeopathy, developed the classical process of serial dilution and succussion in effort to increase the therapeutic effect whilst diminishing the toxicology of a crude substance, this is known as potentisation or dynamisation. This method, otherwise known as the multi-vial method, includes two scales of dilution, the centesimal scale, in which 1 part of mother tincture is added to 99 parts of suitable diluent and the decimal, which is a ratio of 1:9. With each dilution, a new glass vial is used and is subjected to vigorous impact against a resilient surface, in Hahnemann’s time, this would have been a large leather-bound book. The number of succussions is debatable, depending on the pharmacopoeia used, ranging from 10-100 impacts, or simply 20 minutes, however, it is accepted that the number of succussions between each dilution remains constant for that specific stock, (Kayne, 2006).

General Simeon Nicolaevich Korsakov (1788-1853), a Russian homoeopath, developed the Korsakovian potentisation method in which 1 part of mother tincture is added to 99 parts of suitable diluent, for centesimal scale, which is then succussed as per the Hahnemannian method. Instead of using a new vial between each dilution, the current vial is emptied by inversion or suction. It is assumed that the droplets remaining behind adhering to the walls of the vial is 1 part and 99 parts are then added to the same vial and succussed, hence the term single-vial method. This process is repeated until the desired potency is reached. Controversy surrounds the Korsakovian preparations based on the reproducibility and accuracy of this method, (Kayne, 2006).

Thomas Skinner (1825-1906), a Scottish homoeopath, developed the Skinner Centesimal Fluxion Potentiser (Winston). The machine was developed for the production of very high potencies. A single vial is automatically emptied and refilled using a system of highly pressurised water, (Kayne, 2006).

Avogadro’s number is the point of dilution in which there is no longer any of the original substance left, this equates to the homoeopathic potency of 24X or 12C, (Poitevin, 1995). Super-succussion follows the classic Hahnemannian or Korsakovian method up until the 12th potency. The theory behind super-succussion is that since there is no longer any of the original substance left beyond Avogadro’s number, the dilution step can be omitted and succussion can continue until the desired potency is reached.

There are two distinct methods for preparing radionic remedies. Based on the understanding that all physical matter has a unique energy pattern, remedies can be made on what is referred to as a “rates machine”, by setting the rate using a specific code unique to each remedy and the remedy is made purely electronically. Another radionic method is by way of “simulation”, in which an original remedy is placed in one side of the machine and then copied to another unmedicated carrier medium, (Prinsloo, 2014).

  1. Action of Thyroxine on the Morphogenesis of Xenopus laevis

Morphogenesis of Xenopus leavis is dependent on the thyroid system and the production of thyroxine (Searcy et al., 2012). Removal of the thyroid gland or suppression of thyroid hormones will irreversibly prevent metamorphosis, (Tata, 1999). The extraordinary response of specific tissues to thyroxine and the well defined timing of morphogenesis make this species of amphibian an ideal sample to compare the different remedy preparation methods, (Furlow & Neff, 2006).

Previous studies have shown that various decimal potencies administered to Xenopus laevis tadpoles at various time intervals had an effect on the morphogenesis. The potencies that were statistically significant in the morphogenesis of the tadpoles were dependent on the time interval of administration, (Teixeira, 2001). The administration of centesimal potencies was proven to have a suppressive effect on the morphogenesis of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, (le Roux, 2001).

  1. Aim

The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of classical versus modern remedy preparation methods.

  1. Methodology
  1. Remedy Preparations

Classical Hahnemannian and modern radionic remedy preparations will be used, each in potencies of 6D, 200C and 1LM.

  1. Sample Group

Human chorionic gonadotropin will be injected into mature female Xenopus laevis frogs to induce mating and spawning. A mature male Xenopus will be sacrificed and the testes will be dissected to fertilise the eggs, (Trudeau, 2010). This will ensure an adequate volume of newly hatched tadpoles in the same developmental stage.

  1. Design and Procedure

A Quantitative, Experimental, Factorial design will be used to conduct the study. This will allow for the simultaneous testing of more than 1 independent variable in the same experiment.

The experiment will be conducted under the supervision of the Zoology department, Faculty of Science at the Auckland Park campus. The experiment will consist of 7 tanks, 1 will serve as the control group, and the remaining 6 will be divided into 2 main groups, A and B, each consisting of 3 tanks. The main groups will then be subdivided and labelled 1 to 3. Group A and B will be assigned a remedy preparation method, and each subgroup will be assigned a specific potency, which will remain constant throughout the experiment.

The homoeopathic remedies will be administered 3 times daily for the duration of the study which will run for approximately 58 days, at which point the tadpoles will have reached developmental stage 66 and have made the transition from tadpole to juvenile frog, (Nieuwkoop & Faber, 1994). The morphogenesis of the control group will be compared to that of Group A and B, determining their growth rate based on limb bud development, tail reduction and weight at appropriate stages of development. The only inclusion criteria would be the specific species, Xenopus laevis. Exclusion criteria would include the inability to spawn and reproduce, or any diseased sample.

  1. Cost Budget

Six sexually mature female and six sexually mature male Xenopus laevis at approximately R200 each will cost R2400.00. Seven plastic containers will cost R350.00 at R50.00 each. Pregnyl, human chorionic gonadotropin is approximately R500.00 per pack of 3 x 5000IU. Lab equipment consisting of petri dishes, distilled water, scissors, forceps, paper towels, pipette, glass beakers, syringes, thermometers, tadpole feed, aquarium preset heaters and aquarium net all estimated to cost no more than R2500.00. The Radionically prepared remedies will be sponsored. A sponsor for the Hahnemannian prepared remedies is yet to be sourced. Lab and lab assistant fees are yet to be confirmed. Total cost thus far, R5750.00.

  1. References

Furlow, J.D., and Neff, E.S., 2006. A developmental switch induced by thyroid hormone: Xenopus laevis metamorphosis . TRENDS in Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 17 No.2, 38-45.

Kayne, S.B., PhD MBA LLM MSc(Med Sci)DAgVetPharm FRPharmS FCPP FIPharmM FNZCP MPS(NZ) FFHom, 2006. Homeopathic Pharmacy: Theory and Practice, 2e. 2 Edition. Churchill Livingstone.

le Roux, Y., 2001. Effect of Centesimal Potencies of Thyroxine on the Morphogenesis of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles. Master of Technology. Gauteng, South Africa: University of Johannesburg.uteng, South Africa: University of Johannesburg.

Nieuwkoop, P.D., Faber, J., 1994. Normal Table of Xenopus Laevis (Daudin): A Systematical & Chronological Survey of the Development from the Fertilized Egg till the End of … the Fertilized Egg Till the End of Metamorp). 1 Edition. Garland Science.

Poitevin, B., 1995. Mechanism of action of homoeopathic medicinesRecent findings and hypotheses 1: Physicochemical mechanisms. British Homoeopathic journal, Volume 84, 32-39.

Prinsloo, J.P.B., [email protected], 2014. Radionics. [E-mail] Message to M.C. Bekker ([email protected]). Sent Sat 2014/08/23 05:41 PM. [Accessed 28 August 14].

Searcy, B.T., Beckstrom-Sternberg, S.M., Beckstrom-Sternberg, J.S., Stafford, P., Schwendiman, A.L., Soto-Pena, J., Owen, M.C., Ramirez, C., Phillips, J., Veldhoen, N., Helbing, C.C., Propper, C.R., 2012. Thyroid hormone-dependent development in Xenopus laevis: A sensitive screen of thyroid hormone signaling disruption by municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 176, 481–492.

Tata, J.R., 1999. Amphibian metamorphosis as a model for studying the developmental actions of thyroid hormone. Biochimie, 81, 359-366.

Teixeira, N.D., 2001. Effect of Decimal Potencies of Thyroxine on the Morphogenesis of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles. Master of Technology.

Trudeau, V.L., Somoza, G.M., Natale, G.S., Pauli, B., Wignall, J., Jackman, P., Doe, K., and Schueler, F.W., 2010. MHeothordmoloogynal induction of spawning in 4 species of frogs by coinjection with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and a dopamine antagonist. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 8:36, 1-9.

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