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Aging and Disability
4.1 (1) International policies on disability from China and American, and comparison between these policies and the policies that operate in New Zealand.
China and the United States of America are among the nations in the world that have established policies and laws governing the conduct of the people and that of the sitting governments about the treatments given to people with disability. China, by the year 2006, had up about 83 million men and women (approximately 6.3 percent of the Chinese population) being categorized as disabled persons (National Bureau of Statistics, 2007). Moreover, Americans have an increase in the number of people being afflicted with different kinds of disabilities. Coupled with fair and humane treatment through democratic ruling that has been persistent in the US, Americans have focused on ensuring the comfort of the US citizens , regardless of their physical and or mental orientations.
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The two nations have put forth various laws to govern the operations of the society. Firstly, the Chinese government through an act of parliament established by the China Disabled Persons’ Confederation (CDPF) in 1988. This is an independent unit in the region with the responsibility of looking into the welfare for the disabled persons in China. Having complete access to every corner of the nation with over 400,000 part time and 90, 000 full time workers by the year 2006, the confederation has been able to provide all the necessary support to the disabled persons in the nation.
For this consideration, the confederation is mandated to carry out the following functions (Whakanui, 2000).
The CDPF performs three functions:
- Represent interests of people with disabilities in China and help disabled people protect their legitimate rights;
- Provide comprehensive and effective services to disabled people;
- Commissioned by the Chinese government to supervise affairs relating to people with disabilities in China. In this regard, the CDPF is committed to promoting the humanitarianism, the human rights of people with disabilities, and the integration of people with disabilities in all aspects (Whakanui, 2000).
Likewise to the Chinese steps in empowering people with disability in their societies, on the other hands, the United States has ratified the regulations and conventions protecting the rights of people with disability in different sections of the community. This has been done through the ADA (the American Disability Act) in1990 (Daly & Burkhauser, 2005). The act aims at protecting people with disability against discrimination in their places of work as well as in the society. Despite that, the act gives these individuals the opportunity to explore employment in various organizations in this country as well as the right to secure employment opportunity in such organizations.
In addition, the Chinese constitution has been amended to include the rights of individuals with various disabilities in various parts of the country. As in America and New Zealand, the Chinese constitution accords all persons with disability the right to attain rehabilitation support from specialists in various fields of expertise such mental therapists, etc. without any form of discrimination of the tasks. Other rights accorded to the people with disability, including the right to attain education at all levels and the right to be employed in the nation. They could be employed if they meet the required academic and ethical qualifications required by such organizations, rights on cultural lifestyles, welfare, access and legal liability.
In regard to this, the three countries have ratified the International Labor Organization Convention No.159 in the constitution in order to help support the lives of those living with disability of various kinds(Autor & Duggan, 2001). The law is advocating for the access to vocational training and employment to disabled people. Moreover, they have ratified the United Nations Convention on the rights of people with disability with the Chinese parliamentary ratifying the same in the year of 2008. This is aimed at enabling people with disability secure, retain and advance their careers in their suitable employments areas (Autor & Duggan, 2001).
New Zealand, through the ministry of disability issues, has made a plan to help disabled people access the rights and privileges accorded to those without the same traits alike. According to this, the ministry has put in place incorporative and collaborative objectives to aid for assisting these people by the complete database on the issues which is affecting the disabled persons at different levels. These policies focus on strengthening the rights of the disabled people about their education and employment opportunities in various organizations within the nation.
In addition, the New Zealand government has advocated for empowerment the disabled people in the society by appointing them and or electing them to leadership positions in various organizations and government bodies. This is aimed at creating the relevant leadership priorities to the people and promoting their social affairs at all levels. However, the way these governments operate about handling disability issues is different. In America, the government has gone a bit further in designing an insurance policy for the disabled people.
Moreover, the New Zealand government is the only government among the three nations where a special ministry is being recognized by the state for addressing issues on disability in the nation. Both China and America governments conduct this through the inaction of laws, conventions and regulations to help empower the disabled. Consequently, all the three nations have a common point for various factors regarding the care for the disabled people in the whole society.
4.1 (2) International policies on aging from China and American, and comparison between these policies and the policies that operate in New Zealand.
The aged people are considered as the disabled in most societies around the world, including the three nations–USA, China and New Zealand. These nations have established certain policies to help sustain people with aging lives at certain age who are unable to take care of themselves properly. The definition of the aged people around the world are various with different connotations in different societies.
This definition of aging differs from one society to another. It is determined by the nations’ life expectation. In America, the definition of aging is considered as those individuals who are 65 year old and over (DeLeire, 2000). Aging is a significant for people in our lives because the elderly is the group of individuals who are weak and frail. The American constitution has made several provisions to provide adequate care assistances to the aged people in the US. For instance, the US government has planed and provided pension to the elderly in the whole nation.
In addition, the aged people are often afflicted by diseases and poverty. Some Americans are even unable to sustain themselves within the society. The American government has drawn a plan to provide them with adequate financial supports for sustaining such individuals’ lives. The US government has helped them access free medical cares as well as social cares in all states.
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Compare this strategy to the Chinese government; the Chinese government has drawn a pension plan for the aged people living in urban areas as well as those in the rural areas. These people could receive monthly payments that might help them cater for most of their needs since most of them have not had any form of employment due to their senior ages.
In New Zealand, the similar provisions have been drawn in the New Zealand through the ministry of senior persons. The ministry advocates for the protection of the rights of the aged population, including the right to be treated respectfully and honor, as well as continue learning and developing their skills and talents (Greg et al., 2010). Furthermore, since the government establish the strategies of increasing the income for the older people from social security funds, free Medicare provisions. Some extremely aged individuals are usually exempted from paying tax on certain commodities and services because these people rely only on their meager income sources.
Consequently, there are some differences in policy administrations between these three nations with regards to the provision of care to the people with aging in the society.
Firstly, while the New Zealand government has formed a complete system to oversee the provision of the adequate cares to the aged in the nation, the other two countries has not had such plans in their nations. Moreover, the exemption of taxes on certain commodities purchased by the aging generation is a reserve to America. The rest of the nations are lacking of this kind of provisions. Furthermore, the New Zealand government through the ministry of senior persons has come up with the regulations on the ways of conducting the operations of the care giving to the aged group of people. Community based groups have been formed at the lower levels. The groups are designed to help the aged at the basic levels. However, China and America are lack of that kind of groups.
4.2 (1) International service delivery policies on disability from China and American, and comparison between these policies and the policies that operate in New Zealand.
The disable people in China, America and New Zealand are entitled to the provision of adequate services. The disabled persons are entitled to employment opportunities in organizations and companies around the three nations as long as they meet the academic and ethical qualifications required by the companies in which they are applying to work. Through the enactment of various policies and conventional Acts or an Act of parliament, the three nations have been able to provide adequate frameworks on service delivery models to the people with disability within the nations. In this situation, the government of New Zealand accords old person in the country the right to access disability services which are deemed responsive, flexible, accessible as well as culturally appropriate. These services must be focused on the inclusion and empowerment of the individuals with impairments and their families (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010).
Additionally, the Chinese government has elaborated the needs to provide the disabled with adequate opportunities to the employment and training services. The services are called upon at any instance depending on the needs arising from the same. The services of the disabled are called upon at every instance including administrative positions, vocational arts and training (Ravallion & Shaohua, 2004).
The United States has embarked on expanding their business and industrial circles in order to create space for the disabled and impaired within the US. This is expected to create employment opportunities to a great deal of people including. The US government has encouraged the disabled people to continue applying and seeking jobs and services in the incorporations of the circle without feeling fear of exclusion or denial. Moreover, the similar policies have been enacted in the Chinese rapidly growing labor force and job market.
However, well structured programs have been facilitated in New Zealand as opposed to the other two nations. The New Zealand government is acting on the basis of their internal fundamentals which are organized from within the nation. Therefore, various laws have been developed from within the country to reach the disabled at the grass root. China and the US, however, operate their disability laws in line with the provisions of the world health organizations or other humanitarian agencies in the world.
In addition, the public forums and affairs is more elaborate in new Zealand as compared to the other two countries since the New Zealand government is directly involved in the management and protection of the affairs of the disabled. A research shows that there is a proper channel here through that the disabled people can complain to the central government for effective address (Wang, D & Zhang, K, 2005). This is different from the cases in China and the US where the affairs of the disabled persons are tackled by the governments through the humanitarian agencies.
4.2 (2) International service delivery policies on aging from China and American, and comparison between these policies and the policies that operate in New Zealand.
It is considered that wide knowledge and experiences on various affairs in aging are given for solving various factors affecting the community and or the nations within the three countries. For example, open consultation is one of the factors considered by the new Zealand constitution through the aged. It is required to engage in open consultative forums with the members of the society and various experts’ idea. This is considered as an important point in exploiting the huge amount of knowledge.
Furthermore, there are various opportunities available for them in China, USA and New Zealand to serve in various areas. In America, the aging services are often called upon on various issues such as wars, peace talks and negotiations. This owes to their amount of knowledge and various aspects of the society as well as the developmental issues within the nation. The US policy frameworks require that the old and experienced military officials are be able to engage on various matters which are affecting the country with the aim of offering skilled knowledge to the young labor force (Daly & Burkhauser, 2003). In addition, the same provisions have been done by the government of New Zealand.
In China, the aging people are encouraged to take part in social matters as well as providing vocational training to the young members of the society through apprentice training. However, this is different from the other two countries. The American policies, similar to those in New Zealand, tend to focus much on the provision of skills and knowledge based on wars and other military actions. The Chinese policies concentrate much on the social sectors through the aged and retired members of the community. They are encouraged to offer apprentice services to the younger generations. Despite that, these groups of Chinese people are more of a social resource storage rather than technical advisers in New Zealand and America.
4.3 Outline accords with recommended texts.
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