Impairment, disability, and handicap
- Impairment is any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function e.g. hearing or vision impairment, brain injury, impaired movement, impairment of the sense of smell.
- Disability is any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being e.g. unable to perform ADL’s, communication, learning and working.
- Handicap is a disadvantage for a given individual, resulting from an impairment or a disability , that prevents the fulfillment of a role that is considered normal (depending of age, sex and social and cultural factors) for that individual.
Similarities and differences:
Impairment, disability, and handicap all avoid a person to accomplish normal functions in certain areas of body. The difference is that impairment is the irregularity in structure of function of the body , the condition of being unable to perform as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness such as dysomia- impairment of the sense of smell while disability is the restriction of be short of of ability to perform certain utility. Disability is an umbrella term covering impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Handicap refers to condition that leads to impairment of disability and prevent the person from doing things that other people of their age of gender would normally do, the case is any disadvantage that makes success more difficult or place at a disadvantage such as “He was handicapped by his injured ankle”.
Ageing, old age and ageism
- Ageing is progressive and universal starting at birth and ending with death.
Ageing and disease processes are not the same, the life expectancy in developed countries has increased by more than 30 years in the last century. Also in New Zealand the proportion of older people is expected to grow rapidly over the next 20years. The process of change in the properties of a material occurring over a period, either spontaneously or through deliberate action.
- Old age: old people often have limited regenerative abilities and are more tend to disease, syndromes, and sickness than younger adults. The elderly also confront other social issues such as retirement, loneliness, and ageism. The chronological age donated as “old age” varies culturally and historically, so , old age is “a social construct” rather than a definite “biological stage “
- one of the challenges to positive ageing is ageism.
- Ageism refers to the discrimination that older people can experience due to their age.
- Often ageism is reflected in eligibility for access to support and resources
- Also in employment ,(particularly those who experience impairments)are overlooked for employment opportunities.
- Ageism also occurs when there are negative forms of social exclusion and judgments made about older people on the basis of the perceived worth of their contributions.
Similarities and differences:
- Ageing, old age, and ageism all connect grow older with old person. The difference is that ageing is What’s happening as you get elder through life and old age is the result of aging for a long enough time where you are close to death and your life is coming to an end
- Ageing is the heaps of thing are changing in a person over time. Ageing is many angles of process such as physical, social, and psychological aspect . While old age is contained in ages closing or exceeding the average life span of human beings, and the life cycle of the end of human beings.
- Ageism is a combination of three connected components. Among them were prejudicial attitudes towards older people, old age, and the ageing process. Discriminatory approach against elderly, policies that maintain stereotypes about elder people.
Theories of ageing in relation to gender, sexuality, race and class
The social model of disability : Disability is caused by physical, organizational, and attitudinal barriers in society. Looks for full integration of individuals to society. Focus on social acceptance and equality. Identifies systemic barriers, negative and exclusion by society. Sees society as the contributory factor in disabling people.
Psychosocial Theories of Ageing : As people grow older, their behavior changes, their social interactions changes, and the activities in which they engage change.
- Gender Differences
The Social Model of Disability: In osteoarthritis, men and women had significantly difference in pain, pain behavior and physical disability. Women feel pain more seriously than men does. it leads depression to women more than men. It can be barriers in social involving for women.
Biological Theories of Ageing: Women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men. So some study supposed that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. But some study discovered that heart rate did not be dissimilar between age groups or genders. The heart rate power decreased with age in both men and women.
The Social Model of Disability : The body of sexuality is at the heart of contemporary political and theoretical issue. Yet the social model of disability makes it a banishment. Sexuality of disability is caused by attitudinal barriers in society. Nevertheless presently old aged sexuality is understood and increasingly accepted in society.
Biological Theories of Ageing : Human sexuality is the ability to have erotic experiences and responses. Sexuality can have biological interest and attraction for another person. The biological aspect of sexuality in ageing refers to the reduction of reproductive mechanism as well as the basic biological drive lessen that exists in all species.
The Social Model of Disability : Data are from population –based sample of 4,136 African American and Whites aged over 65 living in North Carolina. There is reduced risk for disability when they associate with friends as a social interaction occurs. By instrumental support leads to increased risk for disability risk significantly , with a greater adverse effect among Whites than African Americans.
Expect for instrumental support, there were few racial differences in the association of social relationships with disability.
The Medical Model of Ageing : This study examined surgery for colorectal cancer among medical beneficiaries 65 years of age or older with an initial diagnosis in 1987. White patients were much more likely than Black to undergo surgical resection, even after age, and location and extent of tumor were controlled for.
The Social Model of Disability : If the disability person has no immediate family or carer to support them , a representative will inform him/her for correct managing.
The managing authority at the care home or hospital should work together to ensure this disability person understand the deprivation of liberty process, that he/she knows his/her right, and that they receive the right support when the authorization process starts and a result has been done. Otherwise deprivation of liberty leads them to make barriers in society to them.
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Psychosocial Theories of Ageing : The elderly grow older , their boundary is restricted by someone who care for them. If you feel that elderly is being deprived of their liberty ,speak to the person in charge. They try to agree on changes that can be made so that the person’s freedom is less restricted. For example, person who with dementia you can’t let them go as a normal person . but should ensure that only deprives someone of their liberty in a safe and correct way, also that is the best interests of the person and there is no other way to look after them. Otherwise their social interactions significantly change to the worst way.
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