Public health was established by the Romans as they thought that sanitation would lead to good health.The Romans made associations between causes of ailment and methods of deterrence. as a consequence they developed a large structure of Public Health works around their empire.The Romans thought that Prevention of illness was more imperative than cure of disease. Roman Philosophy was based along the lines of probing for a motive then establishing a preventative measure to reduce the risk involved. As a practical people they used remarks of the environment to determine what was causing ill health. This form of experimental observation led the Romans to understand that death rates were higher in and around marshes and swamps.The remedy would then be based upon judgment. The Romans, being technologically suitable, resolved to offer clean water through aqueducts, to eliminate the bulk of sewage through the building of sewers and to cultivate a system of public toilets throughout their towns and city’s. Personal hygiene was reinvigorated through the building of large public baths.(priory.comhistoryofmedicine/publichealth)
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In some ways, public health is a recent concept, although it has roots in ancient times. From the beginnings of human evolution, it was recognized that unclean water and lack of suitable waste disposal spread vector-borne diseases. Early religions attempted to controlbehaviour that precisely related to health, from types of food eaten, to regulating certain indulgent behaviours, such as drinking alcohol or sexual relations. The creation of governments placed accountability on leaders to cultivate public health policies and agendas in order to gain some indulgent of the causes of disease and thus safeguard social stability opulence, and maintain order.(priory.comhistoryofmedicine/publichealth).
In America, public health worker Dr. Sara Josephine Baker dropped the infant mortality rate using preventative means. She established many agendas to help the poor in New York City keep their infants hale and hearty. Dr. Baker led teams of nurses into the crowded communities of Hell’s Kitchen and taught mothers how to dress, feed, and wash their babies. After WWI many states and countries followed her example in order to lower infant mortality rates.During the 20th century, the intense increase in average life span is widely credited to public health achievements, such as vaccination programs and control of infectious diseases, effective safety policies such as motor-vehicle and occupational safety, improved family planning, fluoridation of drinking water, anti-smoking measures, and programs designed to decrease chronic disease.( American Journal OF Public Health, 2005).
What does the meaning of public health? If community nurses are to be involved in public health work some understanding of its meaning is required. Perhaps the key term is ‘the organised efforts of society’, implying some ‘collective responsibility for health and prevention’ (Beaglehole& Bonita, 1997). This can mean the partnerships and combinedtactics the government is so keen on to stimulate health, like the ‘health action zones’ or ‘health living centres’. Nurses involved in public wellbeing work need to focus on the health of local communities, groups and populations, not on individuals or families. When trying to identify the health needs of local communities’, approaches using both ‘art and science’ come in. Beaglehole and Bonitas (1997) suggest both a qualitative (art) and quantitative (science) approach can be taken in identifying health needs. The foundation stone of the quantitative approach to public
Most of the day-to-day business of the organization, and around three quarters of the funding, is administered by district health boards (DHBs). DHBs plan, accomplish, provide and purchase health services for the population of their district to ensure services are arranged excellently and proficiently for all of New Zealand. This includes funding for primary care, hospital services, public health services, aged care services, and services provided by other non-government health providers including MÄori and Pacific providers. Health targetsare reviewed annually to ensure they align with health priorities. The current targets are listed below.
95 percentof patients will be admitted, discharged, or transferred from an emergency department within six hours.
The volume of elective surgery will be increased by at least 4000 discharges per year.
All patients, ready-for-treatment, wait less than four weeks for radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
90 percentof eight months olds will have their primary course of immunisation (six weeks, three months and five months immunisation events) on time by July 2014 and 95 percent by December 2014.
95 percentof hospitalised patients who smoke and are seen by a health practitioner in public hospitals and 90 percentof enrolled patients who smoke and are seen by a health practitioner in general practice are offered brief advice and support to quit smoking.
Within the target a specialised identified group will include progress towards 90 percentof pregnant women (who identify as smokers at the time of confirmation of pregnancy in general practice or booking with Lead Maternity Carer) are offered advice and support to quit.
90 percentof the eligible population will have had their cardiovascular risk assessed in the last five years. (health.govt.nz)
If you are living in the Netherlands or you are paying income-tax in the Netherlands you are required to procure a health insurance at a Dutch insurance company. In the past there was a difference between public and private healthcare in the Netherlands. This however has been changed and everybody is now required to purchase basic health insurance. The basic packageThe government has put together a basic package that covers about the same as the previous system. Health insurance companies are legally obliged to offer at least this basic package and can not reject anybody who is applying for it. With the basic package you are covered for the following:Medical care, including services by GP’s, hospitals, medical specialists and obstetricians
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Hospital stay, Dental care (up until the age of 18 years, when 18 years or older you are only covered for specialist dental care and false teeth), Various medical appliancesVarious medicines, Prenatal care,Patient transport (e.g. ambulance), Paramedical careYou can decide to purchase additional insurance for circumstances not included in the basic package. However, in this case insurance companies can reject your application and they have the right to determine the price. If you are working for a company in the Netherlands, consider purchasing a collective health insurance policy, this can be a good option as it is often cheaper. However, you are not obliged to buy such a policy when it is offered to you and your employer is not obliged to make you an offer. Ask your employer about the possibilities.Fees of the basic packageThe fees for the basic health insurance package are annually determined by the health insurance companies and are normally approximately €95 per month. Although the Ministry of Health (Ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport)determines a standard premium, the insurance companies determine the additions fee you will have to pay in the end by charging a certain rate and Foreigners are also entitled to this grant if they qualify.Children under the age of 18 years do not have to pay any health insurance and are insured for free for the basic package of health care.(justlanded.com)
Retrieved from health.govt.nz
Retrieved from justlanded.com
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