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Causes of and Needs Related to Intellectual Disability

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04/10/17 Health Reference this

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Demonstrate knowledge of causes and associated condition related to intellectual disability

Candidate’s full name: Hangbun Tang

Task 1

  1. Give 2 definitions of intellectual disability in accordance with a recognised source. Follow prescribed APA format when citing sources.

Definition 1: Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in the intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving), or adaptive behaviour, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

  • Source: Frequently Asked Questions on Intellectual Disability, American Association on intellectual and developmental disabilities.

Definition 2: Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills. These limitations will cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than a typical child.

  • Source: National Dissemination Centre for children with Disabilities.
  1. Using a definition of intellectual disability give 2 explanations of how this impact on the person adaptive skill:

Adaptive skills are those daily life skills needed for living, working and playing in the community. It includes communication, social skills, self-care, health and safety, basic reading, numbering, time, money…. Furthermore, adaptive skills are assessed in the person’s typical across all aspects of an individual’s life.

When a person with an intellectual disability and they don’t know about their disability, it might be hard for them to learn about the realistic, and growing up to be a responsible person. If that person always treated as a child, it will be very hard when he/she grow up.

  1. Using a definition of intellectual disability give 2 explanations of how this impact on the person cognitive ability:
  1. Cognitive ability is the ability to think and process information. When a person grows up with an intellectual disability, this person will be hardly to receive the information or misunderstood about the instruction.
  2. Most of intellectual disability people are having a big issues of problem solving, comparing to a typical people.

Task 2

2.1 Give 2 examples of causes of intellectual disability that occur before birth and describe 2 main characteristics of the effects.

Example 1: Prader Willi Syndrome (Genetic factor)

Source: The American Association on intellectual and developmental disabilities.

Main characteristics:

  1. If a person grows up with the prader willi syndrome, his/her genitals not a well developed, has almond shaped eyes, and a small down turned mouth.
  2. And the skeletal abnormalities and has small hands and feet with the delayed motor skill.

Example 2: Foetal alcohol syndrome

Source: The American Association on intellectual and developmental disabilities.

Main characteristics:

  1. The baby will have a low birth weight and has small head and facial abnormalities, comparing to a typical baby.
  2. Failure to thrive, developmental delay, has behaviour problems, hyperactivity and poor social skills.

2.2 Give 2 examples of causes of intellectual disability that occur during or immediately following birth and describe 2 main characteristics of the effects.

Example 1: Hypoxia

Source: FAQ on intellectual disabilities, AAIDD

Main characteristics:

  1. Babies born with hypoxia condition present at birth with pale or blue tinged skin and slow heart rate.
  2. Baby will also find difficulty in breathing, feeding, and has a poor muscle tone (floppy baby).

Example 2: Trauma

Source: FAQ on intellectual disabilities, AAIDD

Main characteristics:

  1. The baby will be unresponsive and inability to regulate or maintain the body temperature.
  2. The baby will have problem with breathing and tissue damaged (obvious bruising, swelling and/or intracranial bleed).
  1. Give 2 examples of causes of intellectual disability that occur during childhood years and describe the impact on the day to day support needs of the person.

 

  • Outcome 3: Describe conditions frequently associated with intellectual disability.

Task 3

Condition 1: Spina Bifida

Cause/s: Birth defect of the spinal column occurs 21 to 28 days after conception. Sometime during the first month of the pregnancy, the two sides of the spine (backbone) join together to cover the spinal cord, spinal nerves and meninges (the tissues covering the spinal cord). Spina Bifida refers to any birth defect involving incomplete closure of the spine.

Main characteristics 1: partial or complete lack of sensation or paralysis of the legs.

Main characteristics 2: fluid buildup inside the skull (hydrocephalus) and dimpling of the sacral area.

Description of the support needs of the person with the condition:

Physical support needs:

  • Medical and surgical interventions
  • Mobility aids
  • Continence needs
  • Adapting environment

Social support:

  • Transport and community access
  • Friendship and activities support
  • Opportunity for education and work

Cognitive support needs:

  • Learning support
  • Aids to support learning

Condition 2: Foetal Alcohol Syndrome

Cause/s: Foetal Alcohol Syndrome is growth, mental and physical problems that may occur in a baby when a mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy.

Main characteristics 1: problem with face narrow, small eyes with large epicanthal folds and small head.

Main characteristics 2: small upper jaw, smooth groove in upper lip, smooth and thin upper lip.

Description of the support needs of the person with the condition:

Physical support needs:

  • Medical supervision.
  • Physiotherapy.
  • Assistance with daily living activities.

Social support needs:

  • Interaction with friends training.
  • Behavior management training.
  • Support activities

Cognitive support needs:

  • Support educational opportunities.
  • Aids to support learning.
  • Assist with communication.

Condition 3: Prader Willi Syndrome

Cause/s: a gene missing on part of chromosome 15. Normally, your parents each pass down a copy of this chromosome.

Main characteristics 1: If a person grows up with the prader willi syndrome, his/her genitals not a well developed, has almond shaped eyes, and a small down turned mouth.

Main characteristics 2: The skeletal abnormalities and has small hands and feet with the delayed motor skill.

Description of the support needs of the person with the condition:

Physical support needs:

  • Specialist weight management.
  • Exercise.
  • Remove food (usually locked away).
  • Medical supervision.

Social needs:

  • Consistency about food issues.
  • Activities which are unrelated to food.
  • Provide distractions so life is not centered on food.

Cognitive needs:

  • Routine about meal times.
  • Educate about managing own diet.
  • Educational support.

Reference List:

American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. http://aaidd.org

Bray, Anne. (2003). Definition of Intellectual Disability. Donald Beasley Institute.

Intellectual Disability Causes and Prevention http://www.inclusionireland.ie/sites/default/files/documents/causesandpreventionbooklet.pdf

National Dissemination Centre for Children with Disabilities. http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/intellectual

Oliver, Michael. (1997). The Politic of Disablement, critical texts in social work and the welfare state. London: Greenwich Macmillan.

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